- Carl von Linde
Professor Doctor Carl Paul Gottfried von Linde (
11 June, 1842- 16 November 1934) was a German engineer who developed refrigerationand gas separation technologies. Linde was a member of scientific and engineering associations, including being on the board of trustees of the German National Metrology Institute and the but theory Academy of Sciences and Humanities.
Born in Berndorf, Bavaria, as the son of a
Lutheranminister, Linde was expected to follow in his father's footsteps, but took another direction entirely. In 1861, he started a course in engineering at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, Switzerland, where his teachers included Rudolf Clausius, Gustav Zeunerand Franz Reuleaux.
In early 1864, Linde graduated successfully from the university, and Reuleaux found him a position as an apprentice at the Kottern cotton-spinning plant in Kempten. He started there the same year but stayed only a short time before moving first to Borsig in Berlin and then to the new Krauss locomotive factory in Munich, where he worked as head of the technical department. Von Linde married Helene Grimm in September 1866; their marriage lasted 53 years and they had six children.
In 1868 Linde heard about the opening of a new university in Munich (the "Technische Hochschule") and immediately applied for a job as a lecturer; when he was accepted for the position - he was only 26 years old. He became a full professor of mechanical engineering in 1872, and set up an engineering lab where students such as
Rudolf Dieselstudied the subject.
In 1870 and 1871 Linde published articles in the "Bavarian Industry and Trade Journal" describing his research findings in the area of
refrigeration. Linde's first refrigeration plants were commercially successful, and development began to take up increasing amounts of his time. In 1879 he gave up his professorship and founded the "Gesellschaft für Linde’s Eismaschinen Aktiengesellschaft" ("Linde's Ice Machine Company"), now " Linde AG", in Wiesbaden, Germany. After a slow start in a difficult German economy, business picked up quickly in the 1880s. The efficient new refrigeration technology offered big benefits to the breweries and by 1890 Linde had sold 747 machines. In addition to the breweries, other uses for the new technology were found in slaughterhouses and cold storage facilities all over Europe.
In 1890, Linde moved back to Munich where he took up his professorship once more, but was soon back at work developing new refrigeration cycles. In 1892, an order from the
Guinnessbrewery in Dublinfor a Carbon Dioxideliquefaction plant drove Linde's research into the area of low temperature refrigeration, and in 1894 he started work on a process for the liquefaction of air. In 1895, Linde first achieved success, and filed for patentprotection of his process (not approved in the US until 1903). In 1901, Linde began work on a technique to obtain pure oxygen and nitrogen based on the fractional distillationof liquefied air. By 1910 coworkers including Carl's son Friedrich had developed the "Linde double-column" process, variants of which are still in common use today.
After a decade Linde withdrew from managerial activities to refocus on research, and in 1895 he succeeded in liquefying air by first compressing it and then letting it expand rapidly, thereby cooling it. He then obtained oxygen and nitrogen from the liquid air by slow warming. In the early days of oxygen production the biggest use by far for the gas was the oxyacetylene torch, invented in France in 1904, which revolutionized metal cutting and welding in the construction of ships, skyscrapers, and other iron and steel structures. In addition to Linde's technical and engineering abilities, he was a successful entrepreneur. He formed many successful partnerships in Germany and internationally, working effectively to exploit the value of his patents and knowledge through licensing arrangements. In 1906 Linde negotiated a stake in Brin's Oxygen Company (later
The BOC Group) in exchange for rights to Linde's patents in the UK and other countries, and held a board position until 1914. Linde also formed the Linde Air Products Company in the USA in 1907, a company that passed through US Government control to Union Carbidein the 1940s and on to form today's Praxair.
"Later years and Death"
From around 1910 Linde started transferring responsibility for the company's operation to his sons Friedrich and Richard and to his son-in-law Rudolf Wucherer. He continued with supervisory board and advisory duties until his death.
Carl von Linde died in Munich in November 1934 at the age of 92.
Linde's first refrigeration system used
Dimethyl etheras the refrigerant and was built by "Maschinenfabrik Augsburg" (now MAN AG) for the Spaten Brewery in 1873. He quickly moved on to develop more reliable ammonia-based cycles. These were early examples of vapor-compression refrigerationmachines, and ammonia is still in wide use as a refrigerantin industrial applications.
His apparatus for the liquefaction of air combined the cooling effect achieved by allowing a compressed gas to expand (the
Joule-Thomson effectfirst observed by James Prescott Jouleand Lord Kelvin) with a counter-current heat exchange technique that used the cold air produced by expansion to chill ambient air entering the apparatus. Over a period of time this effect gradually cooled the apparatus and air within it to the point of liquefaction.
Linde followed development of air liquefaction equipment with equipment that also separated air into its constituent parts using
Linde's inventions and developments spurred development in many areas of
cryogenics, physics, chemistryand engineering.
* [http://v3.espacenet.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=CH10704&F=0&QPN=CH10704 CH10704] -- Jan 31, 1896 -- "Gasverflüssigungs-maschine (Machine for the liquefaction of gas)" (in German) -- Switzerland
* [http://v3.espacenet.com/textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=GB189512528&F=0&QPN=GB189512528 GB189512528] -- May 16, 1896 -- "Process and Apparatus for Liquefying Gases or Gaseous Mixtures, and for Producing Cold, more particularly applicable for Separating Oxygen from Atmospheric Air" -- UK
* -- May 12, 1903 -- "Linde oxygen process" -- USA
* -- May 12, 1903 -- "Equipment for Linde oxygen process" -- USA
* -- July 25, 1905 -- "Equipment for Linde oxygen and nitrogen process" --USA
Timeline of low-temperature technology
* Carl von Linde: "Aus meinem Leben und von meiner Arbeit" (Memoirs: "From my life and about my work"), first published 1916, reprinted by Springer 1984.
* " [http://www.linde.com/ Linde AG] " (Homepage)
* Information on [http://www.chemheritage.org/EducationalServices/chemach/tpg/cvl.html Carl von Linde] at the
Chemical Heritage Foundation
* [http://www.deutsches-museum.de/ausstellungen/naturwissenschaft/physik/experimente/luftverfluessigung/ Linde's air liquefaction machine ] at the German Museum in Munich
* [http://www.linde.com/international/web/linde/like35lindecom.nsf/docbyalias/page_ch_chronicle_18911934details_1 The Linde Group chronicle] - Detailed information, and pictures
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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Carl von Linde — Carl Linde (1872) Carl Paul Gottfried Linde, seit 1897 Ritter von Linde (* 11. Juni 1842 in Berndorf; † 16. November 1934 in München) war ein deutscher Ingenieur, Erfinder und Gründer eines heute internationalen Konzerns, der Linde AG … Deutsch Wikipedia
Carl Von Linde — Carl Paul Gottfried von Linde (né le 11 juin 1842 à Berndorf (Franconie), mort le 16 novembre 1934 à Munich) était un ingénieur allemand. Il a développé, indépendamment de Georges Claude, les bases de la technologie moderne de … Wikipédia en Français
Carl von linde — Carl Paul Gottfried von Linde (né le 11 juin 1842 à Berndorf (Franconie), mort le 16 novembre 1934 à Munich) était un ingénieur allemand. Il a développé, indépendamment de Georges Claude, les bases de la technologie moderne de … Wikipédia en Français
Carl von Linde — Carl Paul Gottfried von Linde (né le 11 juin 1842 à Berndorf (Franconie), mort le 16 novembre 1934 à Munich) était un ingénieur allemand. Il a développé, indépendamment de Georges Claude, les bases de la technologie moderne de … Wikipédia en Français
Carl von Linde — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Carl von Linde fue un empresario e inventor alemán, nacido en Berndorf, en la histórica región de Franconia, el 11 de julio de 1842, y fallecido en Múnich (Baviera) el 16 de noviembre de 1934. Destacó especialmente… … Wikipedia Español
Carl von Linde — (1842 ) var en tysk ingeniør, som opfandt den mekaniske køling. Opfindelsen blev afprøvet først på et bryggeri i München, hvorefter øl ikke længere var en sæsonvare … Danske encyklopædi
Linde, Carl von — ▪ German engineer born June 11, 1842, Berndorf, Bavaria [Germany] died Nov. 16, 1934, Munich, Ger. German engineer whose invention of a continuous process of liquefying gases in large quantities formed a basis for the modern technology of… … Universalium
Linde, Carl von — ► (1842 1934) Ingeniero alemán. Descubrió el procedimiento para la licuefacción de los gases, que lleva su nombre … Enciclopedia Universal
Carl Linde — Carl Paul Gottfried von Linde (* 11. Juni 1842 in Berndorf (Oberfranken), heute zu Thurnau; † 16. November 1934 in München) war ein deutscher Ingenieur, Erfinder und Gründer eines heute internationalen Konzerns, der Linde AG. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 … Deutsch Wikipedia
Linde AG — Rechtsform Aktiengesellschaft ISIN DE0006483001 Gründung … Deutsch Wikipedia