- Avon Gorge
:"For the gorge in Scotland with the same name, see
Avon Gorge, Falkirk
The Avon Gorge (gbmapping|ST560743) is a 1.5 mile (2.5 km) long
gorgeon the River Avon in Bristol, England. The gorge runs south to north through a limestoneridge convert|1.5|mi|km west of Bristol city centre, and about 3 miles (5 km) from the mouth of the riverat Avonmouth. The gorge forms the boundary between the unitary authorities of North Somersetand Bristol. In the past, when Bristol was an important port, the gorge formed a defensive gateway to the city.
On the east of the gorge is the Bristol suburb of Clifton, and The Downs, a large public park. To the west of the gorge is
Leigh Woods, the name of both a village and the National Trust forestit is situated in. There are three Iron Age hill forts overlooking the gorge, as well as an observatory. The Clifton Suspension Bridge, an icon of Bristol, crosses the gorge.
caption=Shown within Bristol and the UK
Geology and formation
The gorge cuts through a ridge mainly of
limestone, with some sandstone. This particular ridge runs from Clifton to Clevedon, 10 miles (16 km) away on the Bristol Channelcoast, although limestone is found throughout the Bristol area. The fossilshells and corals indicate that the limestone formed in shallow tropical seas in the Carboniferous, 350 million years ago. [cite web|url=http://www.goodquarry.com/documents/GeoandBiolft.pdf|title=Geology and biodiversitymaking the links|publisher=English Nature|accessdate=2008-09-10] For a long time it was unclear what caused the Avon to cut through the limestone ridge, rather than run south west through the Ashton Valetowards Weston-super-Mare. However, Bristol was at the southern edge of glaciation during the last ice age, and it has been suggested that ice blocked the river's natural route through Ashton Vale to the west.River Avon Trail, ' [http://www.riveravontrail.org.uk/avongorgewildlife.html Avon Gorge] '. Accessed 2006-05-05.] At the Clifton Suspension Bridge the Gorge is more than convert|700|ft|m|0 wide and convert|300|ft|m|0 deep. [cite web|url=http://www.avongorge.org.uk/wildlife.php?ContentID=11|title=Geology|publisher=Avon Gorge and Downs|accessdate=2008-09-11]
In the 18th century the gorge was quarried to produce building stone for the city. Stone was taken by boat into the floating harbour. In the 19th century celestine was discovered in
Leigh Courtestate and the Miles familyauthorised quarrying. Between 1880 and 1920 Bristol was producing 90% of the world's Celestine, but the enterprise did not last long into the 20th century. [C.G. Down, 1968. " [http://www.irsociety.co.uk/Archives/22/Paradise.htm Paradise Bottom] ." "The Industrial Railway Record" No. 22 - p352-354] Quarries on the Bristol side of the gorge are now popular with climbers and are a habitat for Peregrine falcons and other wildlife.
The steep walls of the gorge support some rare fauna and flora, including species unique to the gorge. There are a total of 24 rare plant species and two unique trees: the Bristol and Wilmotts's
whitebeams.BBC Bristol, " [http://www.bbc.co.uk/bristol/content/nature/02.shtml The Avon Gorge - Bristol's Great Glacier?] " Accessed 2006-05-05.] Other notable plants include Bristol rock cress, Bristol onion, Spiked Speedwell,cite web|url=http://www.avongorge.org.uk/documents/adg_leaflet_text_only.doc|title=Discover the wildlife of the Avon Gorge & Downs |last=Leivers|first=Mandy|publisher=Bristol Zoo|accessdate=2008-09-10] Autumn Squilland Honewort. [Myles (2000), page 161] Because of its steep sides, there are many parts of the gorge on which trees cannot grow, making way for smaller plants. The gorge is also home to rare invertebratespecies.Avon Wildlife Trust, " [http://www.avonwildlifetrust.org.uk/level1/level2/avon_habitat.htm The wildlife and habitats of Avon] ." Accessed 2006-05-05.] The gorge has a microclimatearound 1 degree warmer than the surrounding land. The steep south-west facing sides receive the afternoon sunlight, but are partially sheltered from the prevailing winds. When winds come from the Bristol Channel in the north west they may be funnelled into the gorge, creating harsh and wet conditions.
The steep gorge walls make an ideal habitat for
peregrine falcons, with a plentiful supply of food nearby in the form of pigeons and sea gulls. Peregrines have a history of nesting in the gorge, but having become rare in the British Isles they did not breed and were rarely seen in the gorge after the 1930s. In 1990 Peregrines returned to the gorge, and have successfully bred in most of the following years. On warm days a strong uplift forms in the gorge, on which birds of prey soar while hunting. The gorge also houses large populations of Jackdawand horseshoe bats, both of which find homes in the caves and bridge buttresses.
Due to its geology and ecology, an area of convert|155.4|ha|acre|1 of the gorge and surrounding woodland has been protected as a
biological and geological Site of Special Scientific Interest(SSSI), the original notification taking place in 1952. The site may in future be protected as a Special Area of Conservationunder the European CommissionHabitats Directive (92/43/EEC). [cite web|url=http://www.avongorge.org.uk/wildlife.php|title=Woldlife and Geology|publisher=Avon Gorge and Downs|accessdate=2008-09-11] The Leigh Woods side of the gorge is largely owned by the National Trust. The Downs on the city side of the gorge are owned by Bristol City Council and managed as a large public park. The gorge side is protected in partnership with Bristol Zoo, WWF and English Nature. The council's management of the gorge involves balancing the need to protect its ecology with recreational uses such as rock climbing. Green-flowered Helleborineis found on the western side of the gorge, in a wooded area next to the towpath below Leigh Woods. [Myles (2000) page 249] Lady Orchidwas discovered here in 1990, in Nightingale Valley on the west side of the Gorge; there is some doubt as to whether this was a wild plant or an introduction. [Myles (2000) page 251] Fly Orchidand Bee Orchidare found in the gorge, along with their hybrid. [Myles (2000) page 252] A single plant of Lesser Meadow-rueis present in the gorge. [Myles (2000) page 68] Bristol Rock-cressoccurs here, and at nearby Penpole Point; in the gorge, there are about 3,000 plants on the Bristol side, and about 2,000 below Leigh Woods. [Myles (2000), page 101] Hutchinsiais found on both sides of the gorge. [Myles (2000), page 102] Bloody Crane's-billgrows on the Bristol side of the gorge, where it is believed to be native. [Myles (2000), page 155] Little Robinoccurs on both sides of the gorge. [Myles (2000), page 156] Spiked Speedwellgrows on both sides of the gorge: the first British record of this plant was from the gorge, in 1641. [Myles (2000), page 186]
History of human use
The gorge area was inhabited at least as early as the
Iron Age, probably by the Dobunnitribe. In Leigh Woods above Nightingale Valley, a steep dry valley beside the suspension bridge, is Stokeleigh Camp, one of three Iron Age hill fortsin the area.cite web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/bristol/content/nature/04.shtml|title=Avon Gorge|work=BBC Bristol - Nature|publisher=BBC|accessdate=2008-09-10] Stokeleigh was occupied from 3BCE to 1CE, and was also used in the Middle Ages. The camp was protected on two sides by the cliff faces of the gorge and Nightingale Valley, and was also protected by earthworks, and is now a scheduled ancient monument. [cite web|url=http://pastscape.english-heritage.org.uk/hob.aspx?a=0&hob_id=198375&criteria=fort&search=all|title=Stokeleigh Camp|work=Pastscape|publisher=English Nature|accessdate=2008-09-10] A second hill fort was situated across Nightingale Valley, but has since been built on, and bridge road cuts through it. The third hill fort was situated on the opposite side of the gorge, in what is now observatory green. Archaeology, plus the configuration of the three forts, suggest they played a role in defending the gorge.
Middle Agesand industrial revolutionthe area which now forms The Downs was used as common grazing land. It was mined for lead, calamine, ironand limestone, and became home to a windmillwhich produced snuff from the tobacco which had become one of the city's principal imports. [cite web|url=http://www.bristol.gov.uk/ccm/content/Environment-Planning/Parks-and-open-spaces/the-downs.en?page=4|title=The Downs|work=Environment - Parks and Open spaces|publisher=Bristol City Council|accessdate=2008-09-10] In 1777 the windmill bunt out in a storm, and the building was converted into the observatory, which houses a camera obscura.cite web | title=The Observatory | work=Bristol link | url=http://www.bristol-link.co.uk/history/observatory.htm | accessdate=2007-05-03] In the 18th and 19th centuries Bristol's economy boomed and Clifton became a desirable place to live. Mansion houses were built over looking the gorge, but after grazing was stopped, trees grew and obscured the view from these mansions. In the Victorian era, with houses creeping further onto the Downs, an Act of Parliamentwas passed to protect them as a park for the people of Bristol. In 1754 a bridge to span the gorge was proposed, but it was nearly 80 years before work began on Isambard Kingdom Brunel's Clifton Suspension Bridge, and a further 30 years before it was completed.Vaughan, Adrian: "Isambard Kingdom Brunel - Engineering Knight Errant", John Murray, 1991, ISBN 0-7195-5748-8.] Beckett (1980). Chapter 6: "Bridges".] Today the bridge is perhaps the best known landmarkin Bristol.
Throughout Bristol's history the gorge has been an important transport route, carrying the River Avon, major roads and two railways. It is the gateway to
Bristol Harbour, and provided protection against storms or attack. The Bristol Channel and Avon estuary have a very high tidal range of convert|15|m|ft, [cite web | url= http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/commondata/acrobat/severnpositionmay2006_1508223.pd | format= PDF | work= UK Environment Agency | title= Severn Estuary Barrage | date= 31 May 2006| accessdate= 2007-09-03 ] second only to Bay of Fundyin Eastern Canada; [cite book | title= Extreme Depositional Environments: Mega End Members in Geologic Time
first= Marjorie A. last= Chan | coauthors= Archer, Allen William | pages= pp. 151 | location=
Boulder, Colorado| isbn= 0813723701 | publisher= Geological Society of America| year= 2003 | url=http://books.google.com/books?id=b3_1Ry0gDqEC&pg=PA152&lpg=PA152&dq=bristol+channel&source=web&ots=TQTXZ-PIhu&sig=SWfR3iDDyDCkMnAjdxboRxBZI2I#PPA151,M1 ] [cite web | url= http://www.bbc.co.uk/bristol/content/articles/2005/07/04/bristolchannel_feature.shtml | title= Coast: Bristol Channel | work= BBC | accessdate= 2007-08-27 ] and the gorge is relatively narrow and meandering, making it notoriously difficult to navigate. The Phrase ship shape and Bristol fashion arises from when the main harbour in Bristol was tidal, the bottom of which was rocky. If ships were not of stout construction then they would simply break up as the tide receded, hence the phrase. [http://www.phrases.org.uk/meanings/ship-shape%20and%20Bristol%20fashion.html "Ship-shape and Bristol fashion" on www.phrases.org.uk] (retrieved 20 August 2007)]
Today Bristol Harbour is no longer an important port, but the gorge is still a transport route. The
A4 roadruns through the gorge, linking Bristol city centre to the M5 motorway, which bypasses the city near Avonmouth. Two railways run through the gorge, on the east side the Severn Beach Lineto Avonmouth and Severn Beachruns through part of the gorge, and through a tunnel under the Downs; while on the west side is the former Portishead Railway, which was closed by the Beeching Axein the 1960s, but has now been reopened for freight traffic as far as Royal Portbury Dock, 2.5 miles (4 km) downstream. [Portishead Railway Group, 2006. " [http://www.portisheadrailwaygroup.org/index.html History of the Portishead Railway] ." Accessed 2006-04-15] Between 1893 and 1934, the Clifton Rocks Railwaylinked the passenger steamer pier at Hotwellswith Clifton on the rim of the gorge.cite web | title = Clifton Rocks Railway - History | url = http://www.cliftonrocksrailway.org.uk/history_06.htm | publisher = Subterranea Britannica | accessmonthday = June 3 | accessyear = 2007]
A footpath and
National Cycle Networkcycleway run alongside the Portishead Railway and along the old towpath.
The formation of the Avon Gorge is the subject of mediaeval mythology. The myths tell tales of two giant brothers,
Goram and Vincent, who constructed the gorge. One variation holds that Vincent and Goram were constructing the gorge together and Goram fell asleep, to be accidentally killed by Vincent's pickaxe. Another variation tells of the brothers falling for Avona, a girl from Wiltshire, who instructs the giants to drain a lake which stretches from Rownham Hillto Bradford-on-Avon(i.e. the Avon valley). Goram began digging the nearby Hazel Brook Gorge in Blaise Castleestate, but consumed too much beer and fell asleep. Vincent dug the Avon Gorge and drained the lake, winning the affection of Avona. Upon waking Goram stamped his foot, creating "The Giant's Footprint" in the Blaise Castle estate, and threw himself into the Bristol Channel, turning to stone and leaving his head and shoulder above water as the islands of Flat Holmand Steep Holm. [Eugene Byrne & Simon Gurr, 2002. " [http://web.archive.org/web/20050920181839/http://www.bristol2008.com/comic/how/bmal.htm Bristol Myths and Legends] ." "Bristol 2008: St Vincent's Rock".]
* Beckett, Derrick (1980). "Brunel's Britain". Newton Abbot:
David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-7973-9.
* Hussey, David (2000). "Coastal and River Trade in Pre-industrial England: Bristol and its Region 1680-1730". Exeter: University of Exeter Press. ISBN 0-9674826-4-X.
* Myles, Sarah (2000) "The Flora of the Bristol Region" ISBN 1-874357-18-8
* [http://www.cotch.net/Avon_Gorge Photographs of the Avon Gorge]
* [http://www.flickr.com/photos/anthonygrimley/114289674/ Photograph of Peregrine Falcon in the gorge]
* [http://www.wikitopo.com/ Avon Gorge climbing topos]
* [http://www.bristoldownswatch.org.uk/ Bristol Downs and Avon Gorge Preservation Group]
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