- Urdu literature
Urdu literature has a long and colorful history that is inextricably tied to the development of that very language,
Urdu, in which it is written. While it tends to be heavily dominated by poetry, the range of expression achieved in the voluminous library of a few major verse forms, especially the ghazaland nazm, has led to its continued development and expansion into other styles of writing, including that of the short story, or afsana. It is today most popular in the countries of Indiaand Pakistanand is finding interest in foreign countries primarily through South Asians.
Urdu literature may be said to find its provenance some time around the 14th century in
Indiaamongst the sophisticated gentry of Persian courts. The presence of the Muslim gentry in a largely HinduIndia, while clearly acknowledged, did not so nearly dominate the consciousness of the Urdu poet as much as did the continuing traditions of Islamand Persia. The very color of the Urdu language, with a vocabulary almost evenly split between Sanskrit-derived Prakritand Arabo-Persian words, was a reflection of the newness of cultural amalgamation and yet the insistence on retaining what was best and most beautiful about the lands of Afghanistanand Persia.
A man who exercised great influence on the initial growth of not only Urdu literature, but the language itself (which only truly took shape as distinguished from both Persian and proto-
Hindiaround the 14th century) was the famous Amir Khusro. Credited, indeed, with the very systematization of northern Indian classical music, known as Hindustani, he wrote works in both Persian and Hindavi, frequently engaging in ingenious mixes of the two. While the couplets that come down from him in are representative of a latter- PrakritHindi bereft of Arabo-Persian vocabulary, his influence on court viziers and writers must have been mighty, for but a century after his passing Quli Qutub Shahwas seen to take to a language that may be safely said to be Urdu.
Poetry and prose
Urdu literature was generally composed more of poetry than of prose. The prose component of Urdu literature was mainly restricted to the ancient form of long-epic stories called Daastaan (داستان). These long-epic stories would deal with magical and otherwise fantastic creatures and events in a very complicated plot.
Urdu poetry started after the period mentioned earlier in the Deccan (South India). With time the usage of Urdu for poetry spread to Northern India. The most well developed vessel of poetry has turned out to be the
Ghazalwhich has by far exceeded all other forms of Urdu poetry by its quality and quantity within the cosmos of Urdu.
Well known Urdu poets from this era include:
Mir Taqi Mir
Later writers have come to identify this period as one of comparative political instability, economic depression and social devolution. Hence the literature of this period is either generally in keeping with the epicurian attitude of people trying to find solace in the arms of literature; or of those horrified by the inertia of the changes, and their inability to effect change
Wellknown Urdu Short Fiction (AFSANA)writers of the century are:
Primchand Rajander Singh Bedi Saadat Hassan Manto Ahmad Nadeem Qasmi Ashfaq Ahmad Bano Qudsia Bhupendra nath Kaushik"fikr" Ghulam Abbas Mumtaz Mufti Masaud Mufti Mansha Yaad Rashid Amjad Qisar Tamkeen Sajid Rasheed Musharaf Alam Zauqi Khalid Javed Asif Farrukhi Mubeen Mirza A. Khayam Tahira Iqbal Nelofer Iqbal Muhammad Ilyas Khakan Sajid Hamid Saraj
* Muhammad Husain Azad: "Ab-e hayat" (Lahore: Naval Kishor Gais Printing Wrks) 1907 [in Urdu] ; (Delhi: Oxford University Press) 2001 [In English translation]
* Shamsur Rahman Faruqi: "Early Urdu Literary Culture and History" (Delhi: Oxford University Press) 2001
* M.A.R. Habib: "An Anthology of Modern Urdu Poetry" in English translation with Urdu text. Modern Language Association (2003). ISBN 0873527976
*Alamgir Hashmi, "The Worlds of Muslim Imagination" (1986) ISBN 0-00-500407-1.
*Muhammad Sadiq, "A History of Urdu Literature" (1984).
*"The Annual of Urdu Studies", 1981-.
*“Urdu Afsana : Soorat o Ma'na” (Urdu) by M. Hameed Shahid National Book Foundation Islamabad Pakistan 2006-1.
List of Urdu language poets
List of Urdu writers
Progressive Writers' Movement
* [http://www.culturopedia.com/Literature/urdu_literature.html Culturopedia: Indian Literature - Urdu literature]
* [http://www.seasonsindia.com/art_culture/lit_urdu_sea.htm Seasons: Indian Literature - Urdu literature]
* [http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00urduhindilinks/hu_urdu_learning.html Columbia University: Urdu Language Sources]
* [http://www.urdustuff.com Urdu literature Site:] One of the Largest Site of اردو Urdu literature.
* [http://www.awazsayeed.com/Ghazal/Ghazal1.html/ History of Urdu Ghazal- اردو غزل کی عہد بہ عہد ترقی]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Urdu literature — writings in the Urdu language of the Muslims of Pakistan and northern India. It is written in the Perso Arabic script, and, with a few major exceptions, the literature is the work of Muslim writers who take their themes from the life of the … Universalium
Urdu poetry — (Urdu: اردو شاعری Urdu Shayari) is a rich tradition of poetry and has many different types and forms. Borrowing much from the Persian language, it is today an important part of Pakistani and North Indian culture. Like other languages, the history … Wikipedia
Urdu Informatics — (Urdu: اردو اطلاعیات) relates to the cutting edge research and efforts in bringing the utilities and usage of Urdu language to the modern information and communication technologies in education and businesses.National Language Authority has been… … Wikipedia
Urdu — Infobox Language name=ISOtranslit|Urdu|ur nativename= ur. Nastaliq|اُردو familycolor=Indo European pronunciation= [ˈʊrd̪uː] caption=Ordu in Persian Arabic script (Nasta liq style) states= Pakistan, India, Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, UAE, UK, USA,… … Wikipedia
Literature by country — History of Literature Bronze Age literature Sumerian Egyptian Akkadian Classical literatures … Wikipedia
Urdu Wikipedia — Infobox website name = Urdu Wikipedia caption = url = http://ur.wikipedia.org/ commercial = No location = Miami, Florida type = Internet encyclopedia project language = Urdu registration = Optional owner = Wikimedia Foundation author = Urdu… … Wikipedia
Urdu Encyclopaedia of Islam — The Urdu Encyclopaedia of Islam is an encyclopaedia published by the University of the Punjab. The encyclopaedia began in the 1950s as a translation of the Leiden University Encyclopaedia of Islam into Urdu. The editor in chief was Professor Dr.… … Wikipedia
New Zealand literature — Literature Portal Topics Epic • Romance • Novel • Prose • Poetry • Books • Authors • Awards • Basic Topics • Literary Terms • Criticism • Theory Middle Eastern Literature Ancient… … Wikipedia
Hindi-Urdu — हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی Hindustānī … Wikipedia
Indian literature — is generally acknowledged as one of the oldest in the world. India has 22 officially recognized languages, and a huge variety of literature has been produced in these languages over the years. In Indian literature, oral is important, as well as… … Wikipedia