- Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
Infobox Former Country
conventional_long_name = Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
common_name = Anglo-Egyptian Sudan|
continent = Africa
region = Arab World
country = Sudan
status = Shared administration
year_start = 1899
year_end = 1956
life_span = 1899-1956|
event_start = Condominium established
June 19, 1899
event_end = Independence
January 1, 1956
date_pre = |
date_post = |
p1 = Mahdist Sudan
flag_p1 = Egypt flag 1882.svg
s1 = Sudan
flag_s1 = Flag of Sudan (1956-1970).svg
flag_s2 = |
coa_size = 110px
symbol_type = Flag of the United Kingdom
symbol = Flag of the United Kingdom
flag_type = Flag of Egypt|Flag of the Kingdom of Egypt and Sudan
|Flag of the Kingdom of Egypt and Sudan|
Islam, Animism, Christianity
currency = Egyptian pound/gineih
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan referred to the manner by which
Sudanwas administered between 1899and 1956, when it was a condominium of Egyptand the United Kingdom.
Union with Egypt
In 1820, the Egyptian
wāliMuhammad Ali Pasha invaded and conquered northern Sudan. The region had longstanding linguistic, cultural, religious, and economic ties to Egyptand had been partially under the same government at intermittent periods since the times of the pharoahs. Muhammad Ali was aggressively pursuing a policy of expanding his power with a view to possibly supplanting the Ottoman Empire(to which he technically owed fealty) and saw Sudan as a valuable addition to his Egyptian dominions. During his reign and that of his successors, Egypt and Sudan came to be administered as one political entity, with all ruling members of the Muhammad Ali Dynastyseeking to preserve and extend the "unity of the Nile Valley". This policy was expanded and intensified most notably by Muhammad Ali's grandson, Ismail Pasha, under whose reign most of the remainder of modern-day Sudan was conquered.
With the opening of the
Suez Canalin 1869, Egypt and Sudan's economic and strategic importance increased exponentially, attracting the imperial attentions of the Great Powers, particularly the United Kingdom. Ten years later in 1879, the immense foreign debt of Ismail Pasha's government served as the pretext for the Great Powers to force his abdication and replacement by his son Tewfik Pasha. The manner of Tewfik's ascension at the hands of foreign powers greatly angered Egyptian and Sudanese nationalists who resented the ever-increasing influence of European governments and merchants in the affairs of the country. The situation was compounded by Tewfik's perceived corruption and mismanagement and ultimately culminated in the Orabi Revolt. With the survival of his throne in dire jeopardy, Tewfik appealed for British assistance. In 1882, at Tewfik's invitation, the British bombarded Alexandria, Egypt and Sudan's primary seaport, and subsequently invaded the country. British forces overthrew the Orabi government in Cairoand proceeded to occupy the rest of Egypt and Sudan in 1882. Though officially the authority of Tewfik had been restored, in reality, however, the British largely took control of Egyptian and Sudanese affairs.
Tewfik's acquiescence to British occupation as the price for securing the monarchy was deeply detested throughout Egypt and Sudan. With the bulk of British forces stationed in northern Egypt, protecting Cairo, Alexandria, and the Suez Canal, opposition to Tewfik and his European protectors was stymied in Egypt. In contrast, the British military presence in Sudan was comparatively limited and eventually revolt broke out. The rebellion in Sudan, led by the Sudanese religious leader
Muhammad ibn Abdalla, the self-proclaimed Mahdi(Guided One), was both political and religious. Abdalla wished not only to expel the British, but to overthrow the monarchy, viewed as secular and Western-leaning, and replace it with a pure Islamic government. Whilst primarily a Sudanese figure, Abdalla even attracted the support of some Egyptian nationalists and caught Tewfik and the British off-guard. The revolt culminated in the fall of Khartoumand the death of the British General Charles George Gordon (Gordon of Khartoum) in 1885. Tewfik's forces and those of the United Kingdom were forced to withdraw from almost all of Sudan with Abdalla establishing a theocratic state.
Abdalla's religious government imposed traditional Islamic laws upon Sudan and stressed the need to continue the armed struggle until the British had been completely expelled from the country and all of Egypt and Sudan was under his Mahdiya. Though he died six months after the fall of Khartoum, Abdalla's call was fully echoed by his successor,
Abdallahi ibn Muhammadwho invaded Ethiopiain 1887, penetrating as far as Gondar, and the remainder of northern Sudan and Egypt in 1889. This invasion was halted by Tewfik's forces, and was followed four later by withdrawal from Ethiopia.
Anglo-Egyptian Condominium 1899-1956
After a series of Mahdist defeats, Tewfik's son and successor,
Abbas II, and the British decided to re-establish control over Sudan. Leading a joint Egyptian-British force, Lord Kitchener led military campaigns from 1896 to 1898. Kitchener's campaigns culminated in the Battle of Omdurman. Exercising the leverage which their military superiority provided, the British forced Abbas to accept British control in Sudan. Whereas British influence in Egypt was officially "advisory" (though in reality it was far more direct), the British insisted that their role in Sudan be formalized. Thus, an agreement was reached in 1899 establishing Anglo-Egyptian rule, under which Sudan was to be administered by a governor-general appointed by Egyptwith British consent. In reality, much to the revulsion of Egyptian and Sudanese nationalists, Sudan was effectively administered as a British imperial possession. Pursuing a policy of "divide and rule", the British were keen to reverse the process, started under Muhammad Ali, of uniting the Nile Valleyunder Egyptian leadership, and sought to frustrate all efforts aimed at further uniting the two countries.
This policy was internalized within Sudan itself, with the British determined to exacerbate differences and frictions between Sudan's numerous different ethnic groups. From 1924 onwards, the British essentially divided Sudan into two separate territories - a predominantly
MuslimArabic-speaking north, and a predominantly Animistand Christiansouth, where the use of English was encouraged.
The continued British occupation of Sudan fueled an increasingly strident nationalist backlash in Egypt, with Egyptian nationalist leaders determined to force Britain to recognise a single independent union of Egypt and Sudan. With the formal end of Ottoman rule in 1914,
Husayn Kamilwas declared Sultan of Egypt and Sudan, as was his brother Fuad Iwho succeeded him. The insistence of a single Egyptian-Sudanese state persisted when the Sultanate was re-titled the Kingdom of Egypt and Sudan, but the British continued to frustrate these efforts.
The failure of the government in Cairo to end the British occupation led to separate efforts for independence in Sudan itself, the first of which was led by a group of Sudanese military officers known as the
White Flag Leaguein 1924. The group was led by first lieutenant Ali Abdullatif and first lieutenant Abdul Fadil Almaz. The latter led an insurrection of the military training academy, which ended in their defeat and the death of Almaz after the British army blew up the military hospital where he was garrisoned. This defeat was (allegedly) partially the result of the Egyptian garrison in Khartoum North not supporting the insurrection with artillery as was previously promised.
Abrogation of the Condominium and the road to independence
Even when the British ended their occupation of Egypt in 1936 (with the exception of the
Suez Canal Zone), they maintained their forces in Sudan. Successive governments in Cairo, repeatedly declaring their abrogation of the condominium agreement, declared the British presence in Sudan to be illegitimate, and insisted on full British recognition of King Farouk as "King of Egypt and Sudan", a recognition which the British were loath to grant. It was the Egyptian Revolution of 1952which finally set a series of events in motion which would eventually end the British occupation of Sudan. Having abolished the monarchy in 1953, Egypt's new leaders, Muhammad Naguib, whose mother was Sudanese, and Gamal Abdel Nasser, believed the only way to end British domination in Sudan was for Egypt itself to officially abandon its sovereignty over Sudan. Since Britain's own claim to control in Sudan theoretically depended upon Egyptian sovereignty, the revolutionaries calculated that this tactic would leave Britain with no option but to withdraw. Their calculation proved to be correct, and in 1954 the governments of Egypt and Britain signed a treaty guaranteeing Sudanese independence. On January 1 1956, the date agreed between the Egyptian and British governments, Sudan became an independent sovereign state, ending its nearly 136 year union with Egypt and 55 year rule by the British.
Geography of Egypt
Muhammad Ali of Egypt
Muhammad Ali Dynasty
History of Sudan under Muhammad Ali and his successors
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Look at other dictionaries:
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan — [aŋ΄glōē jip′shən] territory jointly administered by Egypt & Great Britain (1899 1956): see SUDAN … English World dictionary
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan — An′glo E•gyp′tian Sudan′ [[t]ˈæŋ gloʊ ɪˈdʒɪp ʃən[/t]] n. geg former name of Sudan … From formal English to slang
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan — geographical name see Sudan 2 … New Collegiate Dictionary
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan — /ang gloh i jip sheuhn/ former name of Sudan. * * * … Universalium
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan — /ˌæŋgloʊ əˌdʒɪpʃən səˈdæn/ (say .anggloh uh.jipshuhn suh dan) noun See Sudan (def. 1) … Australian English dictionary
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan — /ang gloh i jip sheuhn/ former name of Sudan … Useful english dictionary
Anglo-Egyptian Condominium — ▪ British Egyptian history the joint British and Egyptian government that ruled the eastern Sudan from 1899 to 1955. It was established by the Anglo Egyptian Condominium Agreements of Jan. 19 and July 10, 1899, and, with some later… … Universalium
Anglo-Egyptian Bank — The Anglo Egyptian Bank was a British overseas bank established in 1864. The founding banks were Agra and Masterman s Bank and the General Credit and Finance Co., and the bank incorporated Pastré Frères et Compagnie (est. 1821; reorganized 1827)… … Wikipedia
Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 — The Anglo Egyptian Treaty of 1936 was a treaty signed in 1936, between the United Kingdom and Egypt, officially (but seldom) known as The Treaty of Alliance Between His Majesty, in Respect of the United Kingdom, and His Majesty the King of Egypt … Wikipedia
History of the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium — This article discusses the Anglo Egyptian rule during the history of Sudan from 1899 to 1955. In January 1899, an Anglo Egyptian agreement restored Egyptian rule in Sudan but as part of a condominium, or joint authority, exercised by Britain and… … Wikipedia