- Baurchuk Art Tekin
Baurchuk Art Tekin (known also as "Idikut Baurchuk", "Idikut Barchuq") was a ruler, with a title of
Idikut, of the Buddhist Uyghurkingdom in Beshbalik(near present-day Urumqi), Kara-Khoja(near present-day Turpan, known also as "Idikut"-"Shahri") and Kumulbetween 1208 and 1235. As a result of his policies, Uyghuria joined the Mongol Empireas its fifth Ulusin 1211.
In 1209, Baurchuk Art Tekin sparked a rebellion against
Kara-Khitai Gurkhan, who had forced Uyghurs into paying tribute. He killed Gurkhan's envoyShaukam and sent an embassy to Genghis Khan, asking for his help and assistance. The Mongolruler accepted Baurchuk's deputation and pledged his support.
During the following year or two, Baurchuk mounted military expeditions against
naimans and killed four sons of their ruler Dayan Khan. After this show of loyalty to Genghis Khan, he was received by the latter in Mongolia(1211), married his daughter Altun Begi and was declared by Genghis Khan to be his fifth son, after Jochi, Chagatay, Ögedei and Tolui.
At September 1219, Baurchuk Art Tekin' joined Genghis Khan in attack against
Khwarezmian Empire, personally commanding 10,000 "tuman" troops and taking part in siege of Otrarand Nishapurcities (razed to ground by Mongols). At spring, 1226, he took active part in 2 year Mongol expedition against Tangut Kingdom ( known as "Western Xia" in Chinese chronicles ), led by Genghis Khan himself, and completed in almost full annihilating of Tangutpeople, who were declared to be responsible in Genghis Khan's death under the walls of besieged Tangut capital , [ Present Yinchuan- the capital of NingxiaHui Autonomous Region of People's Republic of China.] in September, 1227 ( as well as in death of Uyghur Ganzhou Kingdom two centuries before, during Uyghur-Tangut war of 1028-1036 years, and mass killings of its inhabitants). Population of Tangut Kingdom was reduced from around 3,000 000 people to less than one hundred thousands, which eventually had been assimilated by other ethnic groups, mostly of Mongolic, Turkic and Tibetan origins.Present Tungan (Hui) people of autonomous Ningxia Region can be considered as far descendants of Tangut people. The name of "Ningxia" on Chinese language has a meaning as "Tranquillized or Quelled Xia".
Kutlukov, M. "Mongol Rule in Eastern Turkestan". Moscow, Nauka, 1970.
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