- Economy of Swansea
The City and County of Swansea is an
urban centreof regional importance [ [http://www.swansea.gov.uk/media/pdf/k/r/swansea_2020.pdf Swansea 2020 Swansea's Economic Regeneration Strategy] ] with a largely ruralhinterland in Gower. Swansea's Travel to Work Area, not coterminous with the local authority, also contains the Swansea Valley. Formerly an industrial centre, most employment in the city is now in the service sector.
In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, there were attempts to establish Swansea as a fashionable
seaside resort. [Boorman, D. (1986) "The Brighton of Wales: Swansea as a fashionable seaside resort, c. 1780 - c. 1830". Swansea Little Theatre Company] An engravingof the town in 1818 is described as showing a place which was "distinctly Arcadian, reminiscent of a landscape by Claude sprinkled with civilised Georgian architecture". [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/southwest/sites/swansea/pages/georgian2.shtml BBC - South West Wales Swansea - Exploring the Georgian buildings of Swansea ] ]
However, the growth of the
metallurgicalindustry was to transform the town. The Lower Swansea valleywas a favourable area for industrial development because of the proximity of Swansea's port, easy access to coaldeposits, and a supply of cheap labour. While leadand zincwere also smelted in west Glamorgan, Swansea’s signature industry was copper. The first copperworks was built at Landorein 1717. [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/southwest/sites/swansea/pages/georgian1.shtml BBC - South West Wales Swansea - Exploring Georgian Swansea ] ] Initially copper orewas imported from Cornwall, Cardiganshireand Ireland, but by the 1820s Swansea was receiving shipments from as far afield as South America, Africaand Australia. The copperindustry reached a zenith in the 1880s, when the majority of copper ores imported to Britain were shipped to Swansea and local works employed around 3000 men at any given time.Jenkins, P (1992) A History of Modern Wales 1536-1990. Harlow: Longman.]
From the 1870s,
tinplatealso became a major local industry, pioneered by the Siemensworks at Landore. Tinplate production stimulated the further expansion of Swansea port with the opening of the Prince of Wales dock, to be used mainly for tinplate export, in 1882. The location of new tinplate works confirmed the steel industry’s increasing preference for coastal sites near ports. However, the Welsh tinplate industry was dependent on exporting to the American market, and suffered serious implications from the imposition of the McKinley tariffin 1890. [Miskell, L (2004) Swansea Bay 1904, Old Ordnance Survey Maps. England & Wales Sheet 247]
By the end of the
Second World Warthe traditional local heavy industries were in decline, and although Swansea Bayemerged as a major centre of the petroleum industryin the 1960s, Swansea shared in the general trend towards a post-industrial, service sectoreconomy. Today, the most important economic sectors in the City and County of Swansea are: public administration, education and health (38.3% of local jobs); distribution, hotels and restaurants (24.2%); and banking, finance and insurance (19.9%). The high proportion of public sector employmentis common to Wales as a whole.
Major employers in Swansea include manufacturing facilities operated by
3MUK plc, Alcoa, Alberto-Culver, Bemis, International Rectifier, Morganite Electrical Carbon, and Pure Wafer. Major service sector employers include Admiral Insurance, Electronic Data Systems(EDS), NTL, BT Group, Conduit, Tescoand South West Wales Publications. Large public sector employers include the City and County of Swansea council, Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency, HM Land Registry, Welsh Assembly Government, Department of Work and Pensions, Swansea University, Swansea Metropolitan University, and Swansea NHS Trust. [Sullivan, Gareth, [http://www.burrows.co.uk/swansea/ Forward] , City and County of Swansea's Business Directory for 2007, retrieved 2008-06-22]
In May 2008, 70.7% of Swansea's working-age residents were in employment. The largest single occupational group in Swansea is associate professional & technical occupations (comprising 14.3% of employment), although compared to the Welsh and UK averages the city also has relatively large shares of administrative & secretarial occupations (12.9%) and sales & customer service occupations (11.2%). [http://www.swansea.gov.uk/media/pdf/9/1/Swansea_Economic_Profile_May08.pdf All aged 16 and over] ]
Employment in Swansea grew by 14,800 or 16.2% between 2001 and 2006, greater than equivalent increases in Wales and the UK as a whole. However, manufacturing employment in Swansea fell by 2,100 (-25.2%) between 2001 and 2006, a larger fall than recorded in Wales or the UK as a whole.
The city is a centre of net in-
commuting, with around 16,100 people making a daily journey outside the authority for work (principally to neighbouring Neath Port Talbotand Carmarthenshire) and 28,300 commuting in (again, mainly from Neath Port Talbot and Carmarthenshire).
Surveys show that annual full-time gross median earnings for Swansea residents (£21,577) are lower than the UK average. The annual gross median earnings for those who work in Swansea are even lower, only £18,993. Similarly,
gross value added(GVA) per head is relatively low in Swansea at £14,302. However, lower earnings and GVA per head do not necessarily signify a major gap in living standardsbecause of differences in the cost of livingand transfer payments. [ [http://new.wales.gov.uk/about/strategy/publications/935778/?lang=en Welsh Assembly Government | Wales:A Vibrant Economy] ]
Although some surveys place Swansea as the 18th largest
retailcentre in the UK - a high placement considering the size of its population - in rankings of shoppingattractiveness and competitiveness Swansea is usually placed outside the top 50, largely because of the low quality of the city centreretail offer.
A peculiarity of Swansea is the lack of employment in the city centre, relative to other towns and cities of similar size. Many major employers have moved to the Enterprise Park or other city fringe locations; only 4,510 office jobs are now are located in the city centre, compared to 13,910 in
Cardiff. This reduces spend in the city centre economy and helps to underpin the weakness of the local retail sector. Low demand prevents speculative development of new commercial premises, which has created a vicious circleof city centre decline. [http://www.swanseacitycentre.com/media/pdf/6/o/strategic_framework_final_proofred_may07.pdf Swansea City Center Strategic Framework] , retrieved 2008-06-22]
In January 2008, developers were appointed to lead the regeneration of several major sites in the city centre and the waterfront; proposals include convert|600000|sqft|m2|abbr=on of additional retail space, 1,000 residential units and new leisure, office, hotel and conference facilities [ [http://www.swansea.gov.uk/index.cfm?articleid=21491 City and County of Swansea - Developers appointed for £1 billion Swansea city centre regeneration ] ] . The regeneration programme will take an estimated 15 years. [ [http://www.swanseacitycentre.com/index.cfm?articleid=13106 Swansea City Centre - City Centre Strategic Framework ] ] The
Welsh Development Agency(and now the Welsh Assembly Government) have been promoting the SA1 Swansea Waterfrontdevelopment on the edge of the city centre, intended to become a "lively, attractive waterfront destination... using an imaginative mix of land uses" [ [http://www.swansea.gov.uk/index.cfm?articleid=5979 City and County of Swansea - SA1 Swansea Waterfront ] ] . The WDA's Techniumconcept of incubator space for high technologyfirms (often spin outs from the local university) was launched at SA1, and additional facilities have now been constructed there and on the university campus. The Assembly and IBMare supporting a new Institute of Life Sciencesat the university, which it is hoped will generate more highly-skilled, high value-added jobs. [ [http://www.swan.ac.uk/research/centresandinstitutes/ILS/ Swansea University - ILS] ]
* [http://www.swansea.gov.uk/media/pdf/k/r/swansea_2020.pdf Swansea 2020]
* [http://www.burrows.co.uk/swansea/ Burrows Directory: Swansea (economic statistics for Swansea)]
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