- Bristol Blenheim
name=Blenheim (Types 142M, 149, 160)
caption= Work takes place on a Blenheim Mk IV
Bristol Aeroplane Company
first flight=12 April 1935
retired=1944 (United Kingdom)
Royal Air Force
Royal Canadian Air Force Finnish Air Force Royal Yugoslav Air Force
variants with their own articles=
The Bristol Blenheim was a British
light bomberaircraft designed and built by the Bristol Aeroplane Companythat was used extensively in the early days of the Second World War. It was later adapted into a successful long-range fighter and night fighter. A Canadian-made variant named the Bolingbroke was used as an anti-submarine and training aircraft. It was one of the first British aircraft to have all-metal stressed skin construction, to utilise retractable landing gear, flaps, powered gun turret and variable-pitch propellers.
Design and development
In 1934 Lord Rothermere, owner of the "
Daily Mail" newspaper, issued a challenge to the British aviation industry to build a high-speed aircraft capable of carrying six passengers and two crew members. At the time German firms were producing a variety of high-speed designs that were breaking records, and Rothermere wanted to recapture the title of fastest civilian aircraft in Europe. Bristol had been working on a suitable design as the Type 135 since July 1933, and further adapted it to produce the Type 142 to meet Rothermere's requirements.
When it first flew as "Britain First" at
Filtonon 12 April 1935Barnes 1964] , it proved to be faster than any fighter in service with the Royal Air Forceat the time. The Air Ministrywas obviously interested in such an aircraft and quickly sent out Specification B.28/35 for prototypes of a bomber version; the Type 142M (M for military). The main changes were to move the wing from a low-wing to a mid-wing position, allowing room under the main spar for a bomb bay. The aircraft was all-metal with two Bristol MercuryVIII air-cooled radial engines, each of 860 hp (640 kW). It carried a crew of three – pilot, navigator/bombardier and telegraphist / air gunner. Armament comprised a single forward-firing 0.303 inch (7.7 mm) Browning machine gun outboard of the port engine and a convert|0.303|in|mm|sing=on Lewis gunin a semi-retracting Bristol Type B Mk.I dorsal turret firing to the rear. From 1939 onwards, the Lewis gun was replaced by the more modern Vickers VGO machine gun of the same calibre. A 1,000 lb (454 kg) bomb load could be carried in the internal bay.
To achieve its relatively high speed, the Blenheim had a very small fuselage cross-section. Pilot's quarters on the left side of the nose were so cramped that the control yoke obscured all flight instruments while engine instruments eliminated the forward view on landings. Most secondary instruments were arranged along the left side of the cockpit with essential items like propeller pitch control actually placed behind the pilot where they had to be operated by feel alone. Like most contemporary British aircraft, the bomb bay doors were kept closed with
bungee cords and opened under the weight of the released bombs. Because there was no way to predict how long it would take for the bombs to force the doors open, bombing accuracy was consequently poor. Gunston, Bill. "Classic World War II Aircraft Cutaways". London: Osprey, 1995. ISBN 1-85532-526-8.]
The aircraft was ordered directly from the drawing board with the first production model, known at the time as the
Bolingbroke(pronounced Bolling-"brook"), serving as the first and only prototype Mason 1994 ] . The name then became Blenheim Mk I with subsequent deliveries started in March 1937, with 114 Squadron being the first squadron to receive the Blenheim. The aircraft would prove to be so successful that it was licensed by a number of countries, including Finlandand Yugoslavia. Other countries bought it outright, including Romania, Greeceand Turkey. Total production of the Blenheim Mk I in England amounted to 1,351 aircraft.Fact|date=July 2008
Work on an extended range
reconnaissanceversion started as the Blenheim Mk II, which increased tankage from 278 to 468 gallons, but only one was completed. Another modification resulted in the Blenheim Mk III, which lengthened the nose to provide more room for the bombardier. This required the nose to be "scooped out" in front of the pilot to maintain visibility during takeoff and landing. However both of these modifications were instead combined, along with a newer version of the Mercury engine with 905 hp (675 kW) and the turret acquired a pair of Brownings instead of the Vickers K; creating the Blenheim Mk IV. In total, 3,307 would eventually be produced.
Another modification led to a long range fighter version; the Blenheim Mk.IF. For this role, about 200 Blenheims were fitted with a gun-pack under the fuselage for four 0.303 in Brownings. Later, the Airborne Intercept (AI) Mk III or IV
radarwould be fitted to some aircraft in use as night fighters, becoming the first British fighters equipped with radar. Their performance was marginal as a fighter, but they served as an interim type, pending availability of the Bristol Beaufighter. About 60 Mk IVs were also equipped with the gun pack as the Mk IVF and were used by Coastal Commandto protect convoys from German long-range bombers.
The last bomber variant was conceived as an armoured
ground attack aircraft, with a solid nose containing four more Browning machine guns. Originally known as the Bisley, (after the shooting competitions held at Bisley), the production aircraft were renamed Blenheim Mk V and featured a strengthened structure, pilot armour, interchangeable nose gun pack or bombardier position and, yet another Mercury variant, this time with 950 hp (710 kW). The Mk V was ordered for conventional bombing operations, with the removal of armour and most of the glazed nose section. The Mk V or Type 160, was used primarily in the Middle East and Far East.
The longer range also fulfilled a Canadian requirement for a maritime patrol aircraft. Consequently,
Fairchild Aircraft Ltd. (Canada)of Quebec started production of the Blenheim Mk IV as the Bolingbroke (the originally intended name for the Blenheim IV). This type was nicknamed the "Bolly". After a small run of aircraft constructed to British specifications, as the Bolingbroke Mk I, Fairchild switched production to the Bolingbroke Mk IV with American instruments and equipment. These versions also included anti-icing boots and a dinghy. Some of these aircraft served as bombers during the Aleutians campaign, but most of the 150 served in the intended role as patrol bombers on the Atlantic coast. Another 450 were completed as the Bolingbroke Mk IVT as trainers and saw extensive use in the Commonwealth Air Training Plan. One of the final variants was the Bolingbroke Mk IVW which was powered by two 634 kW (850 hp) Pratt & Whitney SB4G Twin Wasp Junior engines. A total of 676 Bolingbrokes was produced.
The Blenheim was regarded as a pleasant aircraft to fly, although it did have some characteristics which could catch even experienced pilots by surprise. Unfortunately, with the rapid advances in technology which had taken place in the late 1930s by the start of the Second World War the Blenheim was obsolescent. The aircraft had become heavier as extra service equipment was installed; much of this was found to be needed through operational experience. This, coupled with the rapid performance increases of fighters, had eclipsed the Blenheim's speed advantage. [Warner 2005, p. 158.]
Although the rear gunner was housed in a turret, the turret could only traverse a total of 180 degrees, leaving the forward arc open to attack. The light armament of one .303 calibre Vickers VGO in the turret and one .303 Browning machine gun in the port wing was seldom able to deter fighter opposition. Squadrons were forced to use several different improvisations in an attempt to provide better defensive armament, until officially sanctioned modifications were able to be introduced in early 1940. The Blenheim also proved to be vulnerable to flak, especially around the rear fuselage. Flexible, self-sealing liners had been fitted to the fuel tanks but they were still not fully protected against the 20 mm MG/FF cannon carried by the "Luftwaffe's" Bf 109s and Bf 110s. [Warner 2005, pp. 155-158]
Francefell to Germany in June 1940, the Free French Air Forcewas formed at RAF Odihamin the form of "Groupe Mixte de Combat" (GMC) 1, consisting of a mixed bag of Blenheims and Westland Lysanderliaison/observation aircraft, which eventually went to North Africaand saw action against the Italians and Germans.
The Battle of Britain
The Blenheim units operated throughout the battle, often taking heavy casualties, although they were never accorded the publicity of the fighter squadrons.
The Blenheim units raided German occupied airfields throughout July to December 1940, both during daylight hours and at night. Although most of these raids were unproductive there were some successes; on 1 August five out of 12 Blenheims sent to attack
Haamstedand Evere( Brussels) were able to bomb, destroying or heavily damaging three Bf 109s of II./JG 27 and apparently killing a "Staffelkapitan" identified as a HauptmannAlbrecht von Ankum-Frank. Two other 109s were claimed by Blenheim gunners. [Ramsay 1989, p. 552.] ref label|Note6|f|fAnother successful raid on Haamstede was made by a single Blenheim on 7 August which destroyed one 109 of 4./JG 54, heavily damaged another and caused lighter damage to four more. [Ramsay 1989, p. 555.]
There were also some missions which produced an almost 100% casualty rate amongst the Blenheims; one such operation was mounted on 13 August 1940 against a "Luftwaffe" airfield near
Aalborgin north-eastern Denmarkby 12 aircraft of 82 Squadron. One Blenheim returned early (the pilot was later charged and due to appear before a Court Martial but was killed on another operation), the other 11, which reached Denmark, were shot down, five by flak and six by Bf 109s. [Warner 2005, p. 255.] It is a testament to the courage of the men in these units that they continued to operate throughout these months with little respite and with little of the publicity accorded to Fighter Command.
As well as the bombing operations Blenheim equipped units had been formed to carry out long-range strategic reconnaissance missions over Germany and German occupied territories. In this role the Blenheims once again proved to be too slow and vulnerable against Luftwaffe fighters and they took constant casualties. [Warner 2005.]
Cologne power stations raid
The action on 12 August 1941 was described by the "
Daily Telegraph" in 2006 as the "RAF's most audacious and dangerous low-level bombing raid, a large-scale attack against power stations near Cologne."Staff. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/1515268/Wing-Commander-Tom-Baker.html Obituary of Wing Commander Tom Baker] , Daily Telegraph, 10 April 2006.]
The raid was a low-level daylight raid by 54 Bristol Blenheims under the command of Wing Commander Nichol of
No. 114 Squadron RAF. The Blenheims hit their targets (the Fortuna Power Station in Knapsack and the Goldenburg Power Station in Quadrath) but 12 of the Blenheims were lost during the raid, 22 percent of those that took part which was far above the sustainable loss rate of less than five. [ [http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/theartofwar/prop/the_fighting_forces/INF3_0850.htm "Bristol Blenheims" by James Gardner, 1941. Pencil and watercolour on board.] National Archives. Accessed 22 July 2008.] [ [http://www.blenheimsociety.org.uk/BB%20Journal%20-%20contents%20table%20-%2054-55&56.doc “Bristol” Blenheim] . Accessed 22 July 2008. A bibliography of the raid.] [ [http://worldwar2database.com/gallery2/v/wwii0031.jpg.html Photograph: Blenheim "V6391" after bombing Goldenburg Power Station, Cologne] and [http://worldwar2database.com/gallery2/v/wwii0030.jpg.html Photograph: Blenheims Attack Fortuna Power Station in Cologne] , [http://www.mfaproductions.com/ MFA Productions LLC] . Accessed 25 July 2008.]
The Bristol Blenheim was used by both Bomber and
Fighter Commands. Some 200 Mk.I bombers were modified into Mk IF long-range fighters with 600 (Auxiliary Air Force) Squadron based at Hendon, the first squadron to take delivery of these variants in September 1938. By 1939, at least seven squadrons were operating these twin engined fighters and within a few months some 60 squadrons had experience of the type. The Mk.IF proved to be slower and less nimble than expected and by June 1940, daylight Blenheim losses was to cause concern for Fighter Command. It was then decided that the IF would be relegated mainly to night fighterduties where No. 23 Squadron RAFwho had already operated the type under night time conditions had better success.
In the German night bombing raid on London, 18 June 1940, Blenheims accounted for five German bombers thus proving they were better suited in the nocturnal role. In July, No. 600 Squadron, by then based at
RAF Manston, had some of its IFs equipped with AI Mk III radar. With this radar equipment, a Blenheim from the Fighter Interception Unit (FIU) at RAF Fordachieved the first success on the night of 2/3 July 1940, accounting for a Dornier Do 17bomber. More successes came and, before long, the Blenheim was to prove invaluable in the night fighter role. Gradually, with the introduction of the Bristol Beaufighterin 1940-1941, its role was supplanted by its faster, better armed progeny.
Blenheims continued to operate widely in many combat roles until about 1943, equipping RAF squadrons in the UK and in British bases in
Egypt, Iraq, Aden, India, Malaya, Singaporeand Dutch East Indies. Many Blenheims were lost to Japanese fighters during the Malayan campaign and battles for Singapore and Sumatra. By that point, most fighters could carry similar bombloads at much higher speeds and the surviving examples were relegated to training duties. Bristol's intended successor to the Blenheim, the Buckingham, was considered inferior to the Mosquito, and did not see combat.
The final ground attack version - the Mk V - first equipped 139 Squadron in June 1942. Eventually 13 squadrons - mainly in the Middle East and Far East - received this variant but operated them generally only for a few months. [Jefford 2001]
In 1936, the Finnish Air Force ordered 41 Mk Is from Britain and two years later, they obtained a manufacturing license for the aircraft. Fifteen aircraft were constructed in Finland prior to the
Winter Warat the " Valtion lentokonetehdas" (State Airplane Factory) and a further 41 were constructed later on, bringing the total number up to 97 aircraft (75 Mk Is and 22 Mk IVs). The Finns obtained large supplies of ex-Yugoslavian spares from the Germans during the war.
The Finnish Blenheims flew 423 bombing missions during the Winter War, and some further 3,000 bombing missions during the
Continuation War. Blenheim machine gunners also shot down five Soviet fighters. Half of the Blenheims were lost to all causes during the wars.
After the war, Finland was prohibited to fly bomber aircraft. However, some of the Finnish Blenheims continued in service as target tugs until 1958.
There are currently no Blenheim or Bolingbroke aircraft that are airworthy. Two examples of the type are owned by the Aircraft Restoration Company in
Duxford, Cambridgeshire. The first airworthy Blenheim had been rebuilt from a scrapped Bolingbroke over a 12-year period, only to be destroyed within a month of completion. A replacement Bolingbroke Mk IVT was rebuilt to flying status in just five years and painted to represent a Blenheim Mk IV in RAF wartime service. It began appearing at air shows and exhibitions in the UK, flying since May 1993 and was used in the 1995 film version of Shakespeare's "Richard III". This aircraft crashed on landing 18 August 2004, and is presently undergoing an extensive repair.
In Canada, a number of other Bolingbrokes survived the war but were summarily consigned to the scrap heap. Postwar, enterprising farmers often bought surplus aircraft such as these for the scrap metal content, tires for farm implements, and even for the fuel remaining in the tanks. Some surviving examples in Canada of the Bolingbroke can be traced back to this period. The
Canadian Warplane Heritage Museumin Hamilton, Ontariohas been rebuilding a Bolingbroke to what is hoped to be airworthy status. The Commonwealth Air Training Plan Museumin Brandon, Manitobahas restored the exterior of one Bolingbroke, painting it in the Air Training Plan yellow color. This particular aircraft is on display at a location (coord|49|53|14.39|N|99|56|58.55|W) on the Trans-Canada Highwayin Brandon.
In Finland, the sole surviving original Blenheim in the world, a Mk.IV registered as BL-200 of the Finnish Air Force, has been completely restored and is now on show at the Aviation Museum of Central Finland at Tikkakoski
Aviation Museum of Central Finland. [http://www.k-silmailumuseo.fi]
In Greece a Bristol Blenheim Mk IVF was recovered from the sea and moved to the
Hellenic Air Force Museumfor restoration.
pecifications (Bristol Blenheim Mk I & IV)
plane or copter?=plane
jet or prop?=prop
ref=British Warplanes of World War II March 1998, p. 43.]
length main=42 ft 7 in
length alt=12.98 m
span main=56 ft 4 in
span alt=17.17 m
height main=9 ft 10 in
height alt=3.0 m
area main=469 ft²
area alt=43.6 m²
empty weight main=9,790 lb
empty weight alt=4,450 kg
loaded weight main=14,400 lb
loaded weight alt=6,545 kg
max takeoff weight main=
max takeoff weight alt=
type of prop=
number of props=2
power main=920 hp
power alt=690 kW
propeller or rotor?=propeller
max speed main=266 mph
max speed alt=231 knots, 428 km/h
range main=1,460 mi
range alt=1,270 NM, 2,351 km
ceiling main=27,260 ft
ceiling alt=8,310 m
climb rate main=1,500 ft/minFact|date=February 2008
climb rate alt=7.6 m/s
loading main=30.7 lb/ft²
loading alt=150 kg/m²
power/mass main=0.13 hp/lb
power/mass alt=.21 kW/kg
** 1× .303 in (7.7 mm) Browning machine gun in port wing
** 1 or 2× .303 in Browning guns in rear-firing under-nose blister or
Nash & ThomsonFN.54 turret
** 2× .303 in Browning guns in dorsal turret
** 4× 250 lb (110 kg) bombs "or"
** 2× 500 lb (230 kg) bombs internally, "and"
** 8× 40 lb (18 kg) bombs externally|
Dornier Do 17
Heinkel He 111
List of aircraft of the RAF
List of bomber aircraft
* "Air Ministry Pilot's Notes: Blenheim". London: OHMS/Air Data Publications, 1939.
* "Air Ministry Pilot's Notes: Blenheim V". London: OHMS/Air Data Publications, 1942.
* Barnes, C.H. "Bristol Aircraft Since 1910". London: Putnam, 1970. ISBN 0-85177-804-6.
* Boiten, T. "Bristol Blenheim". London: The Crowood Press, 1998. ISBN 1-86126-115-2.
* Bowyer, C. "Bristol Blenheim". London: Ian Allen, 1984. ISBN 0-7110-1351-9.
* Keskinen, Kalevi et al. "Suomen Ilmavoimien Historia 10, Bristol Blenheim" (in Finnish). Loviisa, Finland: Painoyhtymä Oy, 2004. ISBN 952-99432-1-0.
* Jefford, C.G., "RAF Squadrons". Shrewsbury: Airlife Publishing, 2nd edition, 2001. ISBN 1-84037-141-2.
* Lake, Jon. "Blenheim Squadrons of World War II". London: Osprey Publishing, 1998. ISBN 1-85532-723-6.
* Mackay, Ron. "Bristol Blenheim in Action". Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1998. ISBN 0-89747-209-8.
* March, Daniel J., ed. "British Warplanes of World War II". London: Aerospace, 1998. ISBN 1-874023-92-1.
* Marttila, Jukka. "Bristol Blenheim - Taitoa ja tekniikkaa" (in Finnish). Vantaa, Finland: Blenimi-Publishing, 1989. ISBN 952-90017-0-3.
* Mason, Francis K. "The British Bomber Since 1914". London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1994. ISBN 0-85177-861-5.
* Thomas, A. "Bristol Blenheim (Warpaint No. 26)." London: Hall Park Books, 2000. ISBN 1-84176-289-X.
* Warner, G. "The Bristol Blenheim: A Complete History". London: Crécy Publishing, 2nd edition 2005. ISBN 0-85979-101-7.
* [http://www.raf.mod.uk/history/blen1.html RAF Bristol Blenheim history]
* [http://www.211squadron.org/ No. 211 Squadron RAF]
* [http://www.blenheimsociety.org.uk/ Blenheim Society]
* [http://www.ilmasotakoulunkilta.fi/IlmaSK/ilmaskmma.nsf/sp?open&cid=Content7FCEC-2 Finnish Mk IV Blenheim restoration (more than 600 pictures linked)]
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