Yupik languages


Yupik languages

The Yupik languages are the several distinct languages of the several Yupik (Юпик) peoples of western and southcentral Alaska and northeastern Siberia. The Yupik languages differ enough from one another that speakers of different ones cannot understand each other, although they may understand the general idea of a conversation of speakers of another of the languages. One of them, the Sirenik is already a dead language since 1997.

The Yupik languages are in the family of Eskimo-Aleut languages. The Aleut and Eskimo languages diverged about 2000 B.C., and the Yupik languages diverged from each other and from the Inuit language about 1000 A.D.

Geographic distribution of Yupik languages

The Yupik languages are:
# Naukanski (also Naukan): spoken by perhaps 100 people in and around the villages of Laurence (Лаврентия), Lorino (Лорино), and Whalen (Уэлен) on the Chukotka Peninsula of Eastern Siberia.
# Central Siberian Yupik (also Yupigestun, Akuzipik, Siberian Yupik, Siberian Yupik Eskimo, Central Siberian Yupik Eskimo, St. Lawrence Island Yupik, Yuit, Asiatic Eskimo, Jupigyt, Yupihyt, Bering Strait Yupik): spoken by the majority of Yupik in the Russian Far East and by the people on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. Most of the 1,000 Yupiks on St. Lawrence Island still speak the St. Lawrence dialect of this language. About 300 of the 1,000 Siberian Yupiks in Russia still speak the Chaplino dialect of this language.
# Central Alaskan Yup'ik (also Central Yup’ik, Yup’ik, West Alaska Eskimo): spoken on the Alaska mainland from Norton Sound down to the Alaska Peninsula and on some islands such as Nunivak. The name of this language is sometimes spelled "Yup’ik" because the speakers say the name of the language with an elongated 'p'; all the other languages call their language "Yupik". Of the about 21,000 Central Alaskan Yupiks, some 13,000 still speak this language. There are several dialects of Central Alaskan Yupik. The largest dialect, General Central Yupik or "Yugtun", is spoken in the Yukon River, Nelson Island, Kuskokwim River, and Bristol Bay areas. There are three other Central Alaskan Yupik dialects: Norton Sound, Hooper Bay/Chevak, and Nunivak Island (called "Cup’ik" or "Cup’ig"). The dialects differ in pronunciation and in vocabulary. Within the General Central Yupik dialect there are geographic subdialects which differ mostly in word choices.
# Alutiiq (also Pacific Gulf Yupik, Pacific Yupik, Chugach, or Sugpiaq): is spoken from the Alaska Peninsula eastward to Prince William Sound. There are about 3,000 Alutiiqs, but only 500 – 1,000 people still speak this language. The Koniag dialect is spoken on the south side of the Alaska Peninsula and on Kodiak Island. The Chugach dialect is spoken on the Kenai Peninsula and in Prince William Sound.
# Sirenik an extinct language formerly spoken on the Chugot peninsula.

Sounds

Consonants

Central Yup’ik Consonants:

c (ts/ch), g (IPA|ɣ) ("velar fricative"), gg (x) ("unvoiced velar fricative"), k, l (IPA|ɮ) ("alveolar lateral fricative"), ll (IPA|ɬ) ("unvoiced alveolar lateral fricative"), m, IPA|ḿ ("voiceless" m), n ("alveolar"), ń ("voiceless" n), ng (ŋ), ńg ("voiceless" ŋ), p, q ("uvular stop"), r (IPA|ʁ) ("uvular fricative"), rr (χ) ("voiceless uvular fricative"), s (z), ss (s), t ("alveolar"), û (w), v (v/w), vv (f), w (χw), y, ("gemination of preceding consonant")

Vowels

Yupik languages have four vowels: 'a', 'i', 'u' and schwa. They have from 13 to 27 consonants.

Central Yup’ik Vowels:

a, aa, e (ə) ("schoa"), i, ii, u, uu

(In proximity to the uvular consonants 'q', 'r' or 'rr', the vowel 'i' is pronounced as a closed /e/, and 'u' as a closed /o/.)

Syllable

Grammar

The Yupik languages, like other Eskimo-Aleut languages, represent a particular type of agglutinative language called a polysynthetic language: it "synthesizes" a root and various grammatical affixes to create long words with sentence-like meanings.

Writing systems

The Yupik languages were not written until the arrival of Europeans around the beginning of the 19th century. The earliest efforts at writing Yupik were those of missionaries who, with their Yupik-speaking assistants, translated the Bible and other religious texts into Yupik. Such efforts as those of Saint Innocent of Alaska, Reverend John Hinz (see John Henry Kilbuck) and Uyaquk had the limited goals of transmitting religious beliefs in written form.

In addition to the Alaskan Inupiat, the Alaskan and Siberian Yupik adopted the writing system based on roman orthography that was originally developed by Moravian missionaries in Greenland beginning in the 1760s, which the missionaries later transported to Labrador. The Alaskans were the only Northern indigenous peoples to develop hieroglyphics. [ [http://www.collectionscanada.ca/inuit/054303-e.html Project Naming] , the identification of Inuit portrayed in photographic collections at Library and Archives Canada]

After the United States purchased Alaska, Yupik children were taught to write English with Latin letters in the public schools. Some were also taught the Yupik script developed by Rev. Hinz, which used Latin letters and which had become the most widespread method for writing Yupik. In Russia, most Yupik were taught to read and write only Russian, but a few scholars wrote Yupik using Cyrillic letters.

In the 1960s, the University of Alaska assembled a group of scholars and native Yupik speakers who developed a script to replace the Hinz writing system. One of the goals of this script was that it could be input from an English keyboard, without diacriticals or extra letters. Another requirement was that it accurately represent each phoneme in the language with a distinct letter. A few features of the script are that it uses 'q' for the back version of 'k', 'r' for the Yupik sound that resembles the French 'r', and consonant + ’ for a geminated (lengthened) consonant. The rhythmic doubling of vowels (except schwa) in every second consecutive open syllable is not indicated in the orthography unless it comes at the end of a word.

Footnotes

External links

* [http://www.eki.ee/books/redbook/asiatic_eskimos.shtml The Asiatic (Siberian) Eskimos]
* [http://www.asna.ca/alaska Alaskan Orthodox texts (Yup'ik)]
* [http://www.yupik.org/ Ayaprun Elitnaurvik - Yupik Immersion School]
* [http://www.nunivak.org/dictionary/index.html Nunivak Island Cup'ig Language Preliminary Dictionary]

Bibliography

* Campbell, Lyle. (1997). "American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America". New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
* Mithun, Marianne. (1999). "The languages of Native North America". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.
* de Reuse, Willem J. (1994). "Siberian Yupik Eskimo: The language and its contacts with Chukchi". Studies in indigenous languages of the Americas. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press. ISBN 0-87480-397-7.
* [http://www.collectionscanada.ca/inuit/054303-e.html "The Inuktitut Language" in "Project Naming"] , the identification of Inuit portrayed in photographic collections at Library and Archives Canada


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