Infobox UK place
map_type= Greater London
constituency_westminster= Ilford North
constituency_westminster1= Ilford South
Ilford is a district of the
London Borough of Redbridge.Redbridge London Borough Council, [http://www.redbridge.gov.uk/planning/objectives.cfm Ilford objectives] . 12 Feb 2007.] It is a suburban development situated convert|9.1|mi|km|1|lk=on east north-east of Charing Crossand one the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. [ [http://www.london.gov.uk/mayor/planning/srdf/docs/east-srdf.pdf The London Plan] - East London Sub Regional Development Framework (PDF)]
Ilford was historically known as Great Ilford to differentiate it from nearby
Little Ilford, in the London Borough of Newham.Mills, A., "Oxford Dictionary of London Place Names", (2001)] It is bounded in the west by the North Circular Road and the River Rodingand is contiguous with Barkingto the south, Gants Hillto the north and Seven Kingsto the east.
History of Ilford
The name is first recorded in the
Domesday Bookof 1086 as "Ilefort" and means "ford over the Hyle"; an old name for the River Rodingthat means "trickling stream". Little Ilford shares the etymology.
Civic history and administration
Ilford was a village and later ward in the ancient
Barkingparish [http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=42730 'The borough of Ilford', A History of the County of Essex: Volume 5 (1966), pp. 249-66] accessed: 25 May 2007] , in the Becontree hundred of Essex.Vision of Britain - [http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/relationships.jsp?u_id=10244109&c_id=10001043 Ilford parish history] ( [http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/bound_map_page.jsp?first=true&u_id=10244109&c_id=10001043 historic map] )] Ilford formed a civil parish from 1888, with a local board created in 1890, and it became an urban district of Essex from 1894. The council offices were at first in rooms above a shop in Cranbrook Road and, from 1898, council meetings were held in a hired schoolroom in Ilford Hall, High Road, but in 1901 a large town hall, also in the High Road, was completed at a cost of about £30,000. This was designed by B. Woollard in an ornate Renaissance style; it was enlarged in 1927 and 1933. Successive acts provided the council with increased powers and they used these to embark on an expansion of public services, providing sewerage, public baths, an isolation hospital, a fire station, an electricity and tramway undertaking, [Reed, J., "London Tramways", (1997)] and several public parks – including " Valentine's Park", opened as "Central Park" in 1898. In 1904, the council also took over the responsibilities of the school board.
In 1926, Ilford was incorporated as the
Municipal Borough of Ilford. In the succeeding years, Ilford Corporation made several failed attempts to gain county borough status, [Fifth attempt to raise status, " The Times", June 9, 1954] which would have given independence from Essex County Council. In 1965 the municipal borough was abolished [ London Government Act 1963] and its former area was transferred to Greater Londonto form part of the London Borough of Redbridge.Vision of Britain - [http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/relationships.jsp?u_id=10108159&c_id=10001043 Ilford UD/MB] ( [http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/bound_map_page.jsp?first=true&u_id=10108159&c_id=10001043 historic map] )]
In 1914, the parish of Barking was transferred from the
Diocese of St Albansto a new Diocese of Chelmsford, reflecting the increase in population to the east of London.
The only complete skull of a
Mammothdiscovered in the United Kingdom was unearthed in 1860 at the site where Boots the Chemist now stands in the High Road; the skull can now be seen in the Natural History Museum.
Redevelopment has destroyed much of the evidence for early Ilford, but the oldest evidence for human occupation is the 1st and 2nd century BC
Iron Ageearthwork known as "Uphall Camp". This was situated between the Roding and Ilford Lane and is recorded in 18th century plans. Roman finds have also been made in the vicinity [http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=42722 'The ancient parish of Barking: Introduction', A History of the County of Essex: Volume 5 (1966), pp. 184-90] accessed: 26 May 2007] . A nearby mound called "Lavender Mount" existed into the 1960s, when it was removed during building work at "Howards chemical works". Excavation has shown that the latter may have been a 16th century 'beacon-mound'.
Ilford straddled the important road from London to
Colchester, again likely to be of Roman origin, and also (in historic times) was the main crossing point of the marshes, providing the only land access from London to Barkingand Tilbury. Barking was the site of Barking Abbey, an important Christian centre from 666AD, and a major fishing port from the Middle Ages. Tilbury achieved importance in the Tudor eraas a fort, and later as a port. The "Middlesex and Essex Turnpike Trust" controlled and maintained this road from 1721. The River Rodingwas also made navigable for barges as far as Ilford Bridge from 1737.
By 1653, Ilford was a compact village of 50 houses, mostly sited north and south of the current Broadway and the area was distinctly rural.In 1801 the population of Ilford was 1,724 and by 1841 it had grown to 3,742. In 1839, a railway station was opened on the
Great Eastern Main Lineand the following year, Ilford was included in the Metropolitan Police District[ Metropolitan Police Act 1839] . It had a population of 41,244 in 1901 and occupied an area of convert|8496|acre|km2|0.Vision of Britain - Ilford [http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/data_cube_table_page.jsp?data_theme=T_POP&data_cube=N_TPop&u_id=10108159&c_id=10001043&add=N population] and [http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/data_cube_table_page.jsp?data_theme=T_POP&data_cube=N_AREA_A&u_id=10108159&c_id=10001043&add=Y area] ] 2,500 houses of the vast Becontree Estate, built by the London County Councilfrom 1921, were within the boundaries of Ilford; the addition caused a rise in population of 11,600 by 1926. The Central Lineservice of the London Undergroundbegan in 1947 [Rose, D., "The London Underground: A diagrammatic history", (1999)] and the population peaked in 1951 at 184,706. In 1961 the population was 178,024.
Ilford has a large population of Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs numbering some 30,000. The South Asian community in Ilford speak a variety of languages, including Gujarati, Hindi, Punjabi and Urdu. [http://www.southasian.org.uk/research_popreport_groupings.html] [http://www.thinklondon.com/downloads/london_communities/apac_india/D3_communities_indian.pdf]
Kensington Gardens was the location of the 1922 murder of Percy Thompson by
Edith Thompson and Frederick Bywaters.
Ilford was largely rural until its expansion in the 19th century. This expansion brought about brickworks, cement works and coal yards to service the new buildings, largely centred on the River Roding. These businesses gave way to new industries, such as paper making (commemorated in "Mill Lane") and services such as steam laundries and collar making to provide for the new commuting class created by the railway.
A number of major businesses have been founded in the town, including the eponymous
photographic filmand chemicals manufacturer Ilford Photo. [cite web | title=Ilford History and Chronology | url=http://www.photomemorabilia.co.uk/Ilford/Chronology.html | accessdate=2007-07-27] This was founded in 1879 by Alfred H. Harman, a photographer from Peckham, who established the business in a house in Cranbook Road making gelatino-bromide 'dry' plates. The business soon outgrew these premises, and their headquarters moved to a site at Roden Street which was demolished during the early 1980s to make way for a new one way traffic system to help with the town's traffic problem. A supermarket now stands on the former site.
A major employer in Ilford was the radio, electronics and telecommunications company
Plessey. [ [http://web.ukonline.co.uk/freshwater/histples.htm Freshwater] - History of Plessey] Founded in 1917 in Marylebone, it moved to Cottenham Road in Ilford early in 1919 then to Vicarage Lane where it remained, becoming one of the largest manufacturers in this field.
World War II, the factory was heavily damaged by bombing and the company carried out much of its manufacture, with 2000 workers servicing a production line, located in the underground railway tunnel between Wansteadand Gants Hill.
In 1955, the company employed 15,000 workers, in sites throughout Ilford and neighbouring areas, with an extensive research department. Plessey were partners in the development of the
Atlas Computerin 1962, and later applied this expertise in developing the System X for the Post Office. The company merged with GECin 1988, and was acquired by Siemensin 1989, but the site was closed nine years later when the company was reorganised, as part of Marconi plc.
Ilford is represented in the House of Commons by MPs Lee Scott (Conservative, Ilford North) and Mike Gapes (Labour, Ilford South). It is part of the Havering and Redbridge London Assembly constituency.
The local football team is
Ilford F.C., which has existed in two separate guises, and now play at Cricklefield Stadium, a venue that was used for some of the football events during the 1948 Summer Olympics.
Ilford is a hub on the
London Busesnetwork. [Transport for London - [http://www.tfl.gov.uk/tfl/gettingaround/maps/buses/pdf/ilford-2141.pdf Buses from Ilford] ] Its main rail service is from Ilford railway stationand there is also a station at Seven Kings.
* Manor Park
Nina Bawden, author
Raymond Baxter, TV presenter
Nigel Benn, former boxer
Jet Black(Real name Brian Duffy), drummer with The Stranglers
* John Boardman, classical art historian, "Britain's most distinguished historian of ancient Greek art." [ [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0PAL/is_531_163/ai_n16462480 Interview with Diana Scarisbrick, "Apollo Magazine", May 2006] ]
* Ken Campbell, comedian and actor
The Dooleys( 1970spop act) were born and lived in the Seven Kingsarea of Ilford
Noel Edmonds, TV entertainer and presenter
Bill Fraser, TV actor, (especially the Army Game) who ran a sweet shop in Ilford Lane between bookings
Jon Hare, computer game designer and co-founder of Sensible Software
John Carmel Heenan, (Cardinal Heenan)
Nasser Hussain, former England cricket team captain. Although born in India Nasser grew up and went to school in Ilford. His father Joe Hussain still owns and runs Ilford Cricket School for youngsters situated off Beehive Lane.
Ronald Hutton, revered historian of Stuart Englandand witchcraftin the British Isles (attended Ilford County High School)
Paul Ince, footballer, currently managers Blackburn Rovers FC
Kathy Kirby, 1960ssinger
Jane Leeves, actress most known for her role as Daphne Moonin Frasier
Richard Littlejohn, right-wing journalist with " The Sun" and "The Daily Mail"
Denise Levertov, poet
Raymond Lygo, admiral
Victor Maddern, actor
Sean Maguire, singer and actor
Harry John Blagdon Mansfield, owner of Mansfield's Dairies, established in 1868.
Kevin Maher, footballer, currently plays for Southend United
Helen Mirren, actress
Ruth Pitter, poet
Jenny Powell, TV presenter
Kathleen Raine, poet and critic
Ian Ridpath, astronomy writer and broadcaster.
Maggie Smith, actress
Kieran Toms, musician and poet with seminalpunk act Joy-Rides, now radio personality.
Louise Wener, musician and novelist (attended Beal High School near Gants Hill)
Chris Willsher, writer, performer and singer with cabaret punk band Bus Station Loonies
*Ian Dowling "Valentines Park, Ilford: A Century of History" (1999) ISBN 0901616255
*J E Oxley "Barking and Ilford: An Extract from the Victoria History of the County of Essex vol 5" (1987)
*London Borough of Redbridge -
** [http://www.redbridge.gov.uk/planning/objectives.cfm Ilford objectives]
** [http://www.redbridge.gov.uk/files/publications/64.pdf Progressive Ilford] " (PDF)
* [http://www.ilfordphoto.com/home.asp Ilford (photographic)]
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Look at other dictionaries:
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Ilford — (Great I.), Stadt in der engl. Grafschaft Essex, 11 km nordöstlich von London, am Flüßchen Roding, mit einem Hospital aus dem 12. Jahrh. (1572 wiederhergestellt), einer Papierfabrik und (1901) 41,234 Einw. S. Karte »Umgebung von London« … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
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Ilford — es una compañía con base en Gran Bretaña dedicada a la producción de materiales fotográficos (químicos, películas y papel fotográfico) principalmente para la fotografía en blanco y negro. Fue fundada en 1879 por Alfred Hugh Harman … Enciclopedia Universal
Ilford HP — Infobox Photographic film name = HP5 plus maker = Ilford Photo speed = 400/27° push = 3200/36° format = 35mm, 120, sheets, disposable camera type = p process = Gelatin silver bw = yes start = 1989 app = General Infobox Photographic film name =… … Wikipedia
Ilford FP — Infobox Photographic film name = FP4 plus maker = Ilford Photo speed = 125/22° format = 35mm, 120, sheets type = p process = Gelatin silver bw = yes start = 1990 app = General Infobox Photographic film name = FP4 speed = 125 ASA start = 1968 stop … Wikipedia
Ilford — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Ilford est un nom qui désigne: La ville d Ilford une ville anglaise à l est de Londres. Ilford Photo une société anglaise de produits photographiques noir … Wikipédia en Français
ilford — ˈilfə(r)d adjective Usage: usually capitalized Etymology: from Ilford, England : of or from the municipal borough of Ilford, England : of the kind or style prevalent in Ilford * * * /il feuhrd/, n. a former borough in SE England, now part of… … Useful english dictionary