List of Indo-European languages


List of Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. Each subfamily in this list contains many subgroups and individual languages.

Albanian language

*Gheg
*Tosk group
**Arbëreshë
**Arvanitic

Anatolian languages

*Carian language
*Hittite language
*Luwian language
*Lycian language
*Lydian language
*Palaic language

Armenian language

*Modern Armenian

**Eastern Armenian
**Western Armenian
***Homshetsi
**Lomavren
*Proto-Armenian (extinct)
*Classical Armenian (extinct)
*Middle Armenian (extinct)

Baltic languages

*Latvian
*Lithuanian
*Old Prussian

Celtic languages

*Continental Celtic (all extinct; a paraphyletic grouping)
**Gaulish
**Lepontic
**Galatian
**Celtiberian
*Insular Celtic
**Goidelic
*** Irish
*** Scottish Gaelic
*** Manx
*** Shelta (cant)
**Brythonic
*** Welsh
*** Breton
*** Cornish
*** Cumbric
*** Ivernic (hypothetical)
*** Pictish (disputed - possibly a Pre-Indo-European remnant language)


=Germanic languages=

*East Germanic
**Gothic
**Vandalic
**Burgundian
**Crimean Gothic
*North Germanic
**East
***Danish
***Swedish
***Norwegian Bokmål
**West
***Icelandic
***Faroese
***Norn
***Norwegian Nynorsk
*West Germanic
**High German languages
***German language
***Yiddish language
***Luxembourgish language
**Low German
**Low Franconian languages
***Dutch
***Afrikaans
**Anglo-Frisian languages
***Frisian languages
****North Frisian
****Saterland Frisian
****West Frisian
***English
***Scots

Greek languages

*East Greek
**Mycenaean Greek
***Attic-Ionic
****Attic Greek
*****Koine Greek
******Modern Greek
*******Dhimotiki
*******Katharevousa
******Yevanic Greek
******Cypriot Greek
******Griko
******Cappadocian Greek
******Pontic Greek
******Romano-Greek
****Ionic Greek
***Aeolic Greek
***Arcado-Cypriot Greek
*West Greek
**Doric Greek
***Tsakonian Greek
**Northwestern Greek
**Ancient Macedonian language


=Indo-Iranian languages=

*Indo-Aryan languages
**Central Indo-Aryan languages
**East Central Indo-Aryan languages
***Awadhi language
***Bagheli language
***Chhattisgarhi language
***Dhanwar language
***Fijian Hindustani language
**Eastern Indo-Aryan languages
***Bengali-Assamese languages
****Assamese (Ôxômiya)
****Bengali (Bangla)
****Bishnupriya Manipuri (Imar Thar)
****Chakma
****Chittagonian
****Hajong
****Halbi
****Kharia Thar
****Kayort
****Mal Paharia
****Mirgan
****Nahari
****Rajbangsi
****Sylheti (Silôţi)
****Tangchangya
***Bihari languages
****Angika
****Bhojpuri
****Caribbean Hindustani
****Kudmali
****Magadhi
****Maithili
****Majhi
****Musasa
****Oraon Sadri
****Panchpargania
****Sadri
****Surajpuri
***Oriya languages
****Adivasi Oriya
****Bhatri
****Bhunjia
****Bodo Parja
****Kupia
****Oriya (Oŗia)
****Reli language (Reli)
**Northern Indo-Aryan languages
**Northwestern Indo-Aryan languages
***Dardic languages (The relation of this subgroup to other Indo Aryan languages is unclear.)
****Chitral languages
*****Kalasha-mun language
*****Khowar language
****Kashmiri language
****Kohistani languages
*****Bateri language
*****Chilisso language
*****Gowro language
*****Indus Kohistani language
*****Kalami language
*****Kalkoti language
*****Tirahi language
*****Torwali language
*****Wotapuri-Katarqalai language
****Kunar languages
*****Pashayi languages
******Northeast Pashayi language
******Northwest Pashayi language
******Southeast Pashayi language
******Southwest Pashayi language
*****Dameli language
*****Gawar-Bati language
*****Grangali language
*****Shumashti language
****Shina languages
*****Brokstat language
*****Domaaki language
*****Kohistani Shina language
*****Phalura language
*****Savi language
*****Shina language
*****Ushojo language
****Lahnda languages
****Jakati language
****Khetrani language
****Mirpur Panjabi language
****Northern Hindko language
****Saraiki language
****Southern Hindko language
****Western Panjabi language
***Gujarati languages
****Gujarati
****Kachchi language
***Sindhi languages
****Jadgali language
****Lasi language
****Sindhi language
****Sindhi Bhil language
**Nuristani languages
***Askunu language
***Kamkata-viri language
***Vasi-vari language
***Tregami language
***Kalasha-ala language
**Sanskrit language
**Sinhalese-Maldivian languages
***Maldivian language
***Sinhala language
***Veddah language
**Southern Indo-Aryan languages
***Konkani languages
****Goan Konkani language
****Katkari language
****Konkani language (see Konkani (macrolanguage))
****Kukna language
****Phudagi language
****Samvedi language
****Varli language
***Marathi language
**Unclassified
***Are language
***Bhalay language
***Deccan language
***Gowlan language
***Romani language
***Varhadi-Nagpuri language
*Iranian languages
**Eastern Iranian languages
***Northeastern Iranian languages
****Avestan language
****Ossetian language
****Yagnobi language
***Southeastern Iranian languages
**Western Iranian languages
***Northwestern Iranian languages
***Southwestern Iranian languages

Italic languages

* Sabellic
** Oscan
***Volscian
** Umbrian
* Latino-Faliscan
** Faliscan
** Latin
** Vulgar Latin
*** Romance languages
* Venetic language (either Italic or closely related to Italic)

Paleo-Balkan languages

(each may belong to its own subfamily of the Indo-European languages, or be related to other branches - for instance, Ancient Macedonian and Phrygian are sometimes considered to be closely related to Ancient Greek)
*Ancient Macedonian language
*Dacian language
*Thracian language
*Illyrian language
**Messapian language
*Paionian language
*Phrygian language

Slavic languages

*East Slavic languages
**Belarusian
**Russian
**Rusyn
**Ukrainian
*South Slavic languages
**Banat Bulgarian
**Bulgarian
**Bunjevac*
**Croatian*
**Macedonian
**Molise Croatian
**Old Church Slavonic
**Serbian*
**Slovenian
*West Slavic languages
**Czech
**Kashubian (Pomeranian)
**Polish
**Slovak
**Lower Sorbian
**Upper Sorbian
**Polabian

(*Also considered to be standard forms of Serbo-Croatian).

Tocharian languages

*Tocharian A
*Tocharian B

Indo-European languages whose relationship to other languages in the family is unclear

*Ligurian language, possibly related to Italic or Celtic
*Lomavren language
*Cimmerian language, possibly related to Thracian or Iranian

External links

* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=90017 Indo-European language tree]
* [http://www.danshort.com/ie/ Indo-European languages family tree graphic]


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