- Samuel A. Cartwright
Samuel Adolphus Cartwright (
November 3, 1793- May 2, 1863) was a Confederate States of America physicianwho was assigned the responsibility of improving sanitary conditions in the camps about Vicksburg, Mississippi, and Port Hudson, Louisiana. He was honored for his investigations into yellow feverand Asiatic cholera. Cartwright was also considered to have been an antebellumauthority on the health problems of African Americans, but that work has since been discredited. [cite book|first=Randall M.|last=Miller|coauthors=John David Smith|title=Dictionary of Afro-American Slavery|publisher=Praeger|location=Westport|year=1997]
Cartwright was born in
Fairfax County, Virginia, to Mr. and Mrs. John S. Cartwright. Prior to 1812, he began his medical training as an apprenticeto Dr. John Brewer. Thereafter, he was apprenticed to Dr. Benjamin Rushof Philadelphia. He also attended the University of Pennsylvania Medical Schoolwhich Rush helped to establish in 1765 with his friend Benjamin Franklin.Cartwright was at one time a surgeon under General(later U.S. President) Andrew Jackson.
Dr. Cartwright married the former Mary Wren in 1825, and they had at least one child. He died in Jackson, the
Mississippistate capital, two months before the surrender of Vicksburg to the forces of General Ulysses S. Grant.
Even though he had studied under the abolitionist Dr. Rush in Philadelphia, Cartwright contributed ideas and literature to those southerners who defended
slavery. He is now most well-known for describing a condition he called " drapetomania", or the desire to flee from servitude. According to Cartwright, drapetomia is a mental disorder akin to alienation. He said that slaves should be kept in a submissive state and treated like children, with "care, kindness, attention, and humanity to prevent and cure them from running away." If they nonetheless became dissatisfied with their condition, they should be whipped as a prevention against running away.cite journal|first=Samuel|last=Cartwright|year=1851|title=Report on the Diseases and Peculiarities of the Negro Race|journal= DeBow's Review|volume=XI|url=http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4h3106t.html|accessdate=2007-10-04 ] In describing his theory and cure for drapetomania, Cartwright relied on passages of scripture dealing with slavery.
Cartwright also described another disorder, "
Dysaethesia aethiopica", a disease "affecting both mind and body." Cartwright used his theory to explain the apparent lack of work ethic among slaves. [Pilgrim, David. [http://www.ferris.edu/jimcrow/question/nov05.htm "Question of the Month: Drapetomania"] . "Jim Crow Museum". Jim Crow Museum, Ferris State University. November 2005.] Dysaethesia aethiopica, "called by overseers 'rascality'," was characterized by partial insensitivity of the skin and "so great a of the intellectual faculties, as to be like a person half asleep." Other symptoms included "lesions of the body discoverable to the medical observer, which are always present and sufficient to account for the symptoms." [citebook|title=Slavery & the Law |author= Paul Finkelman|year=1997|publisher=Rowman & Littlefield| pages=305|id=ISBN 0742521192|url= http://books.google.com/books?id=1YI0DvuukxkC&pg=PA305&sig=U1-5etwEyyiR5t4-HcLsM2gGWIE] [citebook|title=Slavery and Emancipation |author= Rick Halpern, Enrico Dal Lago|year=2002|publisher=Blackwell Publishing| pages=273|id=ISBN 0631217355 |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=svaQthjrcf0C&pg=RA1-PA273&sig=BuyUaEXNumrkqdvdpvtSh0P4CyU]
According to Cartwright, dysaethesia aethiopica was "much more prevalent among free negroes living in clusters by themselves, than among slaves on our plantations, and attacks only such slaves as live like free negroes in regard to diet, drinks, exercise, etc." — indeed, according to Cartwright, "nearly all [free negroes] are more or less afflicted with it, that have not got some white person to direct and to take care of them."
In the antebellum period, southerners largely considered blacks to be racially inferior to whites. They sought "scientific proof" for their argument to counter the "human rights" claims of the
abolitionists. Cartwright’s explanation concentrated on psychological issues of African America. In his "Diseases and Peculiarities of the Negro Race", Cartwright viewed blacks as people largely incapable of performing certain duties. His arguments were in line with those of such pro-slavery defenders as Thomas Roderick Dewof the College of William and Maryin Williamsburg, Virginia, and James D.B. DeBow, a southern magazinepublisher. Cartwright contributed some fourteen articles to "DeBow's Review" between 1851 and 1862, primarily on sanitary conditions.
* "Samuel Adolphus Cartwright", "A Dictionary of Louisiana Biography", Vol. 1 (1988), p. 157
*"Dictionary of American Medical Biography", Vol. 1 (1984)
* Mary Louise Marshall, "Samuel A. Cartwright and States' Rights Medicine", "New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journa"l, XC (1940-1941)
" [http://www.google.com/books?id=mjkCAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA2-PA707& Drapetomania] ," the original article as printed in "The New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal". (
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