- Military art
- "Military art" can mean the study of combat in a professional sense; see military science for that connotation.
Military art is a term describing works of art on military themes. The genre of military art is characterized by its subject matter rather than by any specific style or material used. The battle scene is one of the oldest types of art in developed civilizations, as rulers have always been keen to celebrate their victories and intimidate potential opponents. The depiction of other aspects of warfare, especially the suffering of casualties and civilians, has taken much longer to develop. As well as portraits of military figures, depictions of anonymous soldiers away from the battlefield have been very common; since the introduction of military uniforms such works often concentrate on showing the variety of these. Naval scenes are very common, and battle scenes and "ship portraits" are mostly considered as a branch of marine art; the development of other large types of military equipment such as warplanes and tanks has led to new types of work portraying these, either in action or at rest. In 20th century wars official war artists were retained to depict the military in action; despite artists now being very close to the action the battle scene is mostly left to popular graphic media and the cinema. The term war art is sometimes used, mostly in relation to 20th century military art made during wartime.
Art depicting military themes has existed throughout history. The Battlefield Palette, a cosmetic palette from the Protodynastic Period of Egypt (circa ~3500 to 3000 BCE) is incomplete, but shows prisoners being led away, and wild animals feasting on the dead. The Stele of the Vultures, about 2,500 BCE, is one of a number of Mesopotamian "victory stelae". Although the Battle of Kadesh in 1274 BC appears to have been inconclusive, reliefs erected by Ramesses II show him scattering his Hittite opponents with his chariot. Surviving Assyrian art mainly consists of large stone reliefs showing detailed scenes of either military campaigns or hunting. The ancient Greek Parthenon Marbles show lengthy parades of the city's volunteer cavalry force, and many Greek vases show scenes of combat. In Han dynasty China, a famous stone relief of c. 150-170 CE from the Wu family shrines shows a battle between cavalry forces in the Campaign against Dong Zhuo. In Ancient Roman art the most elaborate Roman triumphal columns showed very long reliefs of military campaigns winding round the body of huge columns; among the most impressive are those of Trajan and Marcus Aurelius in Rome. The Alexander Mosaic is a large and dramatic battle scene showing Alexander the Great defeating Darius III of Persia; it is a floor mosaic excavated from Pompeii, probably copying a lost painting. Many Hellenistic and Roman sarcophagi showed crowded scenes of combat, sometimes mythological (an amazonomachy is a term for a scene of battle between Amazons and Greeks), and usually not relating to a particular battle; these were not necessarily used to bury people with military experience. Such scenes had a great influence on Renaissance battle scenes. By the Late Roman Empire the reverse of coins very often showed soldiers and carried an inscription praising 'our boys', no doubt in hope of delaying the next military revolt.
Christian art produced for the church generally avoided battle scenes, although a rare Late Antique motif shows Christ dressed as a victorious emperor in general's dress, having conquered the devil, in Christ treading on the beasts and other iconographies. The violent tastes of the Anglo-Saxon elite managed to add the Harrowing of Hell, conceived as a raid on Satan's stronghold, led by Christ, to the standard group of scenes for a cycle on the Life of Christ. Soldier saints, shown in military dress, were extremely popular, as were images of the Archangel Michael stabbing Satan as a dragon with a cross with a spear-point at its base. Some illuminated manuscripts illustrated the many battles in the Old Testament.
Secular works produced for secular patrons often show military themes, for example in illuminated manuscript copies of histories like the 15th century Froissart of Louis of Gruuthuse (BnF Fr 2643-6), where most of the 112 miniatures show military scenes. The Siege of the Castle of Love, often found on Gothic ivory mirror-cases, showed knights attacking a castle defended by ladies, a metaphor from the literature of courtly love. The 11th century Bayeux Tapestry is a linear panoramic narrative of the events surrounding the Norman Conquest and the Battle of Hastings in 1066, the only surviving example of a type of embroidered hanging with which rich Anglo-Saxons used to decorate their homes. In Islamic art the battle scene, often from a fictional work of epic poetry, was a frequent subject in Persian miniatures, and the high viewpoint they adopted made the scenes more easily comprehensible than many Western images.
Renaissance to Napoleonic Wars
Italian Renaissance painting saw a great increase in military art by the leading artists, battle paintings often featuring near-contemporary scenes such as the huge set of three canvases of The Battle of San Romano (c. 1445) by Paolo Uccello, and the abortive Battle of Cascina (1504–06) by Michelangelo and Battle of Anghiari by Leonardo da Vinci (1503–06), which were intended to be placed opposite each other in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, but neither of which were completed. For Renaissance artists with their new skills in depicting the human figure, battle scenes allowed them to demonstrate all their skills in depicting complicated poses; Michelangelo choose a moment when a group of soldiers was surprised bathing, and almost all the figures are nude. Leonardo's battle was a cavalry one, the central section of which was very widely seen before being destroyed, and hugely influential: it "exerted a fundamental change on the whole idea of battle painting, an influence that lasted through the Late Renaissance and the Baroque up until the heroic machines of the Napoleonic painters and even the battle compositions of Delacroix", according to the art historian Frederick Hartt.
All of these depicted frankly minor actions where Florence had defeated neighbouring cities, but important battles from distant history were equally popular. Andrea Mantegna's Triumphs of Caesar shows the Roman triumphal parade of Julius Caesar, though concentrating on the booty rather than the army following it; the print series Triumphs of Maximilian shows both, leading up to Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor riding on a huge carriage. The Battle of the Milvian Bridge by Giulio Romano brought a huge and "seminal" battle scene into the Raphael Rooms in the Vatican Palace. The unusual The Battle of Alexander at Issus (1528–9) by Albrecht Altdorfer managed to make one of the most highly regarded Renaissance battle scenes, despite, or perhaps because of, having a vertical format, which was dictated by the planned setting; it was commissioned as one of a set of eight battle paintings by various artists. "It was the most detailed and panoramic battle picture of its day", and its aerial viewpoint was to be very widely followed over the next centuries, though rarely to such dramatic effect.
Especially in Northern Europe, small groups of soldiers became a popular subject for paintings and especially prints by many artists, including Urs Graf, who is unusual in that he was a professional Swiss mercenary for many years. These works began to present a less heroic view of soldiers, who often represented a considerable threat to civilian populations even in peacetime, though the extravagant costumes of the Landsknecht are often treated as glamorous. For Peter Paret, from the Renaissance "the glorification of the temporal leader and of his political system - which had of course also been present in medieval art - replaces the Christian faith as a determining interpretive force" in military art.
Naval painting became conventionalized in 17th century Dutch Golden Age painting, and from then on artists tended to specialize in it or not attempt it; apart from anything else "Marine artists have always dealt with a particularly demanding class of patron", as JMW Turner found when the "Sailor King" William IV of England rejected his version of The Battle of Trafalgar because of inaccuracy. Hendrick Vroom was the earliest real specialist, followed by the father and son team of Willem van de Velde, who emigrated to London in 1673, and effectively founded the English tradition of naval painting, "producing a stunning visual record of the Anglo-Dutch naval wars, which set the conventions of maritime battle painting for the next 150 years". Vroom had also worked for English patrons, designing a large set of tapestries of the defeat of the Spanish Armada which was destroyed when the Houses of Parliament burnt down in 1834.
The 17th and 18th centuries saw depictions of battles mostly adopting a bird's eye view, as though from a hill nearby; this made them less interesting to paint, and the major artists now tended to avoid them. A very different view of warfare is seen in Les Grandes Misères de la guerre ("The Misfortunes of War"), a set of twelve etchings produced by Jacques Callot during the Thirty Years War which follows a group of soldiers ravaging the countryside before eventually being rounded up by their own side and executed. Also in the first half of the 17th century, a branch of genre painting in Dutch Golden Age painting specialized in scenes of rather disorderly soldiers, not often in battle, but ransacking farmhouses or sitting around in a camp guardroom. The paintings of Salvator Rosa, essentially landscapes, often showed groups variously described as bandits or soldiers lurking in the countryside of Southern Italy. The Surrender of Breda by Velázquez (1634–35) shows a crowded scene as the two sides meet peacefully to surrender the town; a theme more often copied in naval painting than land-based military art.
During the 17th century sets of tapestries became the main medium for "official military art". A set produced for the Duke of Marlborough showing his victories was varied for different clients, and even sold to one of his opponents, Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria, after reworking the general's faces and other details. In the mid-18th century, a number of artists, especially in Britain, sought to revive military art with large works centred on a heroic incident that would once again bring the genre to the fore in history painting, as it had been in the Renaissance. The standard contemporary battle scene tended to be grouped in the lowly category of topographical painting, covering maps and views of country houses. The Death of General Wolfe (1771) by Benjamin West, The Death of Captain James Cook (1779) by Johann Zoffany, The Defeat of the Floating Batteries at Gibraltar, September 1782 and The Death of Major Pierson (1784) by John Singleton Copley are leading examples of the new type, which ignored complaints about the unsuitability of modern dress for heroic subjects. However such works had more immediate influence in France than in Britain.
In the Napoleonic era, France added Romanticism to its style and began to portray individual soldiers with more character. Battle paintings were increasingly produced for large public buildings, and grew larger than ever before. Baron Gros painted mostly glorifications of Napoleon and his victories, but his 1808 painting of the Battle of Eylau does not neglect the suffering of the dead and wounded on the frozen battlefield. In contrast, Goya's large paintings The Second of May 1808 and The Third of May 1808, perhaps consciously conceived as a riposte to Gros, and his related series of 82 etchings, The Disasters of War (Spanish: Los Desastres de la Guerra), emphasized the brutality of the French forces during the Peninsular War in Spain. British depictions of the Napoleonic Wars continued the late 18th century patterns, often on a larger scale, with the death of Admiral Horatio Nelson quickly producing large works by Arthur William Devis (The Death of Nelson, 21 October 1805) and West (The Death of Nelson). J. M. W. Turner was among the artists who produced scenes of Nelson's victories, with The Battle of Trafalgar. The British Institution ran competitions for sketches of art commemorating British victories, the winning enties being then commissioned.
In this period the uniform print, concentrating on a detailed depiction of the uniform of one or more standing figures, typically hand-coloured, also became very popular across Europe. Like other prints these were typically published in book form, but also sold individually. In Britain the 87 prints of The Loyal Volunteers of London (1797–98) by Thomas Rowlandson, published by Rudolph Ackermann, mark the start of the classic period. Though Rowlandson usually satirized his subjects to some degree, here the soldiers were "represented as they, and particularly their colonels who paid for their uniforms, preferred to see themselves", which remained the usual depiction in such prints. A set of prints by Carle Vernet of the splendid uniforms of La Grande Armée de 1812 showed most foot-soldiers in pairs in camp, in a variety of relaxed poses that showed one from the front and the other from behind. A rare oil painting by a leading artist that treats soldiers in the spirit of the uniform print is Soldiers of the 10th Light Dragoons (the "Prince of Wales Own") painted in 1793 by George Stubbs for their Colonel in Chief, the future George IV of England. Other paintings of single soldiers were more dramatic, like Théodore Géricault's The Charging Chasseur (c. 1812).
Eugène Delacroix, who also painted many smaller combat scenes, finished his The Massacre at Chios in 1824, showing a then notorious attack on Greek civilians by Ottoman forces during the Greek War of Independence, who are shown in an entirely negative light. It had a more immediate impact on European art than Goya's Tres de Mayo (The Third of May 1808) of a few years earlier, which was apparently not even on display in the Prado Museum until some years later. In contrast, Delacroix's Liberty Leading the People of 1830 showed fighting in a positive light, but not the "military" as it shows armed civilian revolutionaries of the July Revolution, advancing against the unseen uniformed forces of the government. Turkish atrocities were to remain a recurrent theme in 19th century painting, especially in former Ottoman territories escaped from the declining empire (often pre-rape scenes treated rather salaciously), and general anti-military sentiments, previously mostly found in prints, were also to emerge regularly in large oil paintings.
Military art remained popular during the remainder of the 19th century in most of Europe. French artists such as Ernest Meissonier, Edouard Detaille, and Alphonse de Neuville established military genre painting in the Paris Salon. New forms of military art which developed in the 1850s met considerable opposition from the Royal Academy in the United Kingdom.
European artists in a generally academic style who were well known as painters of battle scenes, still often of subjects from the Napoleonic Wars or older conflicts, included Albrecht Adam, Nicaise de Keyser, Piotr Michałowski Antoine Charles Horace Vernet, Emile Jean Horace Vernet, and Wilhelm Camphausen. The rise of nationalism promoted battle painting in countries such as Hungary (great attention paid to uniforms), Poland (huge forces) and the Czech Lands. Jan Matejko's enormous Battle of Grunwald (1878) reflects Pan-Slav sentiment, showing various Slav forces joining together to smash the power of the Teutonic Knights.
The usage of the term "military art" has evolved since the middle of the 19th century. In France, Charles Baudelaire discussed military art, and the impact on it of photography, in the Paris Salon of 1859. A British critic of the Royal Academy exhibition of 1861 observed that
“ British painters have never fully grappled with military art, they have only hovered around the edges, touching and trimming. -- William Michael Rossetti ”
In contrast, the British artist Elizabeth Thompson (Lady Butler) explained that she "never painted for the glory of war, but to portray its pathos and heroism." The aftermath of battle was depicted in paintings like Calling the Roll After An Engagement, Crimea, which displayed at the Royal Academy in 1874. This perspective is also seen in The Remnants of an Army which showed William Brydon struggling into Jalalabad on a dying horse. Dr. Brydon was the sole survivor of the 1842 retreat from Kabul, in which 16,000 were massacred by Afghan tribesmen.
The British market began to develop in the middle of the 19th century. The relations between the state and its military, and the ideologies which are implied in that relationship affected the artwork, the artists and the public perceptions of both artwork and artists.
By the time of the American Civil War and the Crimean War photograpers began to compete strongly with artists in coverage of scenes in camp, and the aftermath of battle, but exposure times were generally too long to enable them to take pictures of battles very effectively. War photography is not covered in this article. Illustrations for newspapers and magazines continued a heroic style with perhaps more confidence than painters, and Melton Prior followed British forces around Imperial troublespots for decades, working for the Illustrated London News; his scenes "helped to establish a style of action draughtsmanship which has left an indelible stamp on the art of the comic strip." Prior and other "special correspondants" such as Frederic Villiers were known as "specials". Richard Caton Woodville and Charles Edwin Fripp were "specials" and also painters who exhibited at the Royal Academy and elsewhere.
World War I very largely confirmed the end of the glorification of war in art, which had been in decline since the end of the previous century. In general, and despite the establishment of large schemes employing official war artists, the most striking art depicting the war is that emphasizing its horror. Official war artists were appointed by governments for information or propaganda purposes and to record events on the battlefield; but many artists fought as normal soldiers and recorded their experiences at the time and later, including the Germans George Grosz and Otto Dix, who had both fought on the Western Front, and continued to depict the subject for the rest of their careers. Dix's The Trench (1923), showing the dismembered bodies of the dead after an assault, caused a scandal, and was first displayed behind a curtain, before causing the dismissal of the museum director who had planned to buy it. Later, after exhibiting it in their 1937 travelling exhibition of "Degenerate art", the Nazi government burnt it. He produced a set of fifty prints in 1924 on Der Krieg ("The War"). The English artist Paul Nash began to make drawings of the war while fighting on the Western Front in the Artists Rifles. After recovering from a wound he was recruited as an official war artist and produced many of the most memorable images from the British side of both World Wars. After the war, the huge demand for war memorials caused a boom for sculptors, covered below, and makers of stained-glass.
Posters had become universal by 1914 and were addressed at both the military and the "home front" for various purposes, including recruitment, where the British Lord Kitchener Wants You (not actually the slogan) was repeated in the United States with Uncle Sam, and elsewhere with similar totemic figures. The Soviet Union began with very Modernist posters such as Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge by Lazar Markovich Lissitzky but soon turned to socialist realism, used for most World War II posters from the Soviet Union, which sometimes are similar to their Nazi equivalents. In World War II they were even more widely used.
The impact of the Spanish Civil War on a non-combatant populace was depicted in Picasso's masterpiece, Guernica, showing the bombing of Guernica in 1937; a very different treatment of a similar subject is seen in Henry Moore's drawings of sleeping civilians sheltering from The Blitz bombing on the station platforms of the London Underground. Among official World War II war artists, Paul Nash's Totes Meer is a powerful image of a scrapyard of shot-down German aircraft, and the landscapist Eric Ravilious produced some very fine paintings before being shot down and killed in 1942. Edward Ardizzone's pictures concentrated entirely on soldiers relaxing or performing routine duties, and were praised by many soldiers: "He is the only person who has caught the atmosphere of this war" felt Douglas Cooper, the art critic and historian, friend of Picasso, and then in a military medical unit. Photography and film were now able to capture fast-moving action, and can fairly be said to have produced most of memorable images recording combat in the war, and certainly subsequent conflicts like the Vietnam War, which was more notable for specifically anti-war protest art, in posters and the work of artists like Nancy Spero.
Rulers have been shown in specifically military dress since ancient times; the difference is especially easy to see in Ancient Roman sculpture, where generals and increasingly often emperors are depicted with armour and the short military tunic. Medieval tomb effigies more often than not depict knights, nobles and kings in armour, whether or not they saw active service. In the Early Modern period, when senior commanders tended to wear their normal riding dress even on the battlefield, the distinction between a military portrait and a normal one is mostly conveyed by the background, or by a breastplate or the buff leather jerkin worn underneath armour, but once even generals began to wear military uniform, in the mid-18th century, it becomes clear again, although initially officer's uniforms were close to smart civilian costume.
Full-length and equestrian portraits of rulers and generals often showed them on the battlefield, but with the action in the distant background; a feature probably dating back to Titian's magisterial Equestrian Portrait of Charles V, which shows the emperor after his victory at the Battle of Mühlberg but with no other soldiers present. Monarchs were not often painted in military uniform until the Napoleonic period, but in the 19th century this became typical for formal portraits, perhaps because uniform was more visually appealing. A distinctively Dutch type of painting are huge group portraits commissioned by the wealthy part-time officers of city militia companies, of which Rembrandt's Night Watch is much the most famous, although its narrative setting is atypical of the genre. Most examples just show the officers lined up as though about to eat dinner, and some show them actually eating it. Otherwise group portraits of officers are rather surprisingly rare until the 19th century.
Most surviving sculpture of battle scenes from antiquity is in stone reliefs, covered above. Renaissance artists and patrons were keen to revive this form, which they mostly did in much smaller scenes in stone or bronze. The tomb in Milan of the brilliant French general Gaston of Foix, Duke of Nemours included numerous marble reliefs round the base of the sarcophagus (which was never completed). Statues and tomb monuments of commanders continued to be the most common site until the more general war memorial commemorating all the dead began to emerge in the period of the Napoleonic Wars. Nelson's Column in London still commemorates a single commander; it has very large reliefs around the base by different artists, although these are generally regarded as less memorable than other aspects of the monument. Wellington's Column in Liverpool is also known as the "Waterloo Memorial", shifting to the more modern concept when "the dead were remembered essentially as soldiers who fought in the name of national collectives".
The huge losses of the American Civil War saw the first really large group of sculptural war memorials, as well as many monuments for individuals. Among the most artistically outstanding is the Memorial to Robert Gould Shaw and the all-black 54th Regiment by Augustus Saint-Gaudens in Boston, with a second cast in the National Gallery of Art, Washington. The even larger losses of World War I led even small communities in most nations involved to raise some form of memorial, introducing the widespread use of the form to Australia, Canada and New Zealand, the sudden increase in demand leading to a boom for sculptors of public art. Even more than in painting, the war brought a crisis in style, as much public opinion felt the traditional heroic styles inappropriate. One of the most successful British memorials is the starkly realist Royal Artillery Memorial in London, the masterpiece of Charles Sargeant Jagger, who had been wounded three times in the war and spent most of the next decade commemorating it. In the defeated nations of Germany and Austria controversy, which had a political aspect, was especially fierce, and a number of memorials considered excessively modern were removed by the Nazis, whose own memorials, such as the Tannenberg Memorial were removed after World War II. Other solutions were to make memorials more neutral, as in the repurposed Neue Wache in Berlin, since rededicated to different groups several times, and the dignified architectural forms of the Cenotaph in London (widely imitated) and the German Laboe Naval Memorial; tombs of the Unknown Warrior and eternal flames were other ways of avoiding controversy. Some, like the Canadian National War Memorial, and most French memorials, were content to update traditional styles.
A great number of World War I memorials were simply expanded in scope to cover the dead of World War II, and often subsequent conflicts. The now dominant role of photography in depicting war is reflected in the National Iwo Jima Memorial, which recreates the iconic photograph Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima. The National D-Day Memorial, a project of the 1990s, includes strongly realist sculpture, in contrast to the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington. More innovative memorials have often been erected for the civilian victims of war, above all those of the Holocaust.
Military art encompasses actions of military forces in times of peace. For example, USMC Sgt. Kristopher Battles, the only remaining official American war artist in 2010, deployed with American forces in Haiti to provide humanitarian relief as part of Operation Unified Response after the disastrous earthquake in 2010.
Art creates a visual account of military conflict by showing its impact as men and women are shown waiting, preparing, fighting, suffering, celebrating, Among military themes is war art, which depicts some aspect of war through art; and this might be a pictorial record or it might commemorate "how war shapes lives." Military art in war is shaped by war. The subjects of military art encompass many aspects of war, and the individual's experience of war, whether allied or enemy, service or civilian, military or political, social or cultural. The thematic range embraces the causes, course and consequences of conflict.
For example, Japanese official war artists were commissioned to create artwork in the context of a specific war. The artists were creating sensō sakusen kirokuga ("war campaign documentary painting") for the government of Japan.
Between 1937 and 1945, approximately 200 pictures depicting Japan's military campaigns were created. These pictures were presented at large-scale exhibitions during the war years; and the Americans took possession of the artwork at war's end.
A point of view in military culture is captured in caricature which offers contemporary insights.
Recurrent themes attract the attention of artists:
- Equestrian warrior
Knight, Death and the Devil by Albrecht Dürer, 16th century
Portrait of a mounted Sowar of the 6th Madras Light Cavalry, circa 1845
- Offering a drink of water to a fallen soldier
Relief after the battle by Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier , 19th century
- War photography
- War artists
- American official war artists
- Australian official war artists
- British official war artists
- Canadian official war artists
- German official war artists
- Japanese official war artists
- New Zealander official war artists
- ^ "War art" in the Oxford Companion to Military History, on Answers.com, and the article by Richard Woodward on "Military artists" in the same work (penultimate paragraph); note that the term does not appear at all in Grove Art Online, or other large art reference works. As formal "wars" have largely vanished, "combat artist" seems to be replacing "war artist" in official use.
- ^ Pepper, Introduction
- ^ Rawson, 103
- ^ a b c "Military Artists" in the Oxford Companion to Military History, on Answers.com
- ^ a b Pepper, 1 (i)
- ^ Schapiro, 153
- ^ UNESCO, Bayeaux tapestry, Nomination Form, p. 4; excerpt,"... it is an established fact that it recounts a military triumph: the conquest of England by William the Conqueror"; Nomination Form, pp. 5-6; excerpt, "This large-scale textile work of the 11th century is, to our knowledge, the only one of its kind to have survived to the present day. The Tapestry is an almost contemporary visual record of the event it depicts, one of the most significant events of Medieval times. It tells of the beginnings of the Norman Conquest; the landing of Norman and French troops in England and the Battle of Hastings"
- ^ Hartt, 457 on Leonardo (quoted), 470-471 on Michelangelo, 246-248 on Uccello.
- ^ Pepper, 1 (iii), Kettering, 104
- ^ Paret, 13
- ^ Pepper, 3 (i) quoted on patrons; 2 (ii) quoted on van de Veldes; Slive, Chapter 9.
- ^ Becker, 155-156; "Military Artists" in the Oxford Companion to Military History, on Answers.com
- ^ Pepper, 2 (i); Kettering, 104-109
- ^ Pepper, 2 (i)
- ^ 1704 Battle of Blenheim depicted in tapestry at Blenheim Palace
- ^ Hichberger, 10-11
- ^ Norman, Geraldine. (1977). "Gros, Baron Antoine Jean", Nineteenth-century Painters and Painting: A Dictionary, p. 100. at Google Books
- ^ Pepper, 3 (ii); Honour & Fleming, 483
- ^ Norman, "Goya y Lucientes, Franciso José de", p. 99. at Google Books
- ^ Pepper, 3 (i)
- ^ Hichberger, 14-28
- ^ Russell, 73-74, quoting Ford's history of the Ackermann firm.
- ^ Honour and Fleming, 487-488
- ^ Norman, "Messonier, Jean Louis Ernest", p. 145. at Google Books
- ^ Norman, "Detaille, Jean Baptiste Edouard", p. 73. at Google Books
- ^ Norman, "Neuville, Alphonse Marie de", p. 159. at Google Books
- ^ Sullivan, A.E. (1958). "Military Art and Artists", Army Quarterly and Defence Journal, Vol. 76-77, pp. 235-236; excerpt, "A collaborator of Detaille, and like him a specialist in military art, was Alphonse de Neuville (1836–1885), who made his debut at the Salon in 1859 with a scene showing a French battery at Sebastapol."
- ^ Hichberger, pp. 58. at Google Books
- ^ Norman, "Albrecht, Adam", p. 28. at Google Books
- ^ Norman, "Keyser, Nicaise de", p. 120. at Google Books
- ^ Norman, "Michalowski, Piotr", p. 120. at Google Books
- ^ Norman, "Vernet, Antoine Charles Horace", p. 211. at Google Books
- ^ Norman, "Vernet, Emile Jean Horace", p. 212. at Google Books
- ^ Paret, Peter (1997). Imagined Battles. Reflections of War in European Art, p. 85. at Google Books, citing Charles Baudelaire. (1992). "The Salon of 1859", Selected Writings on Art and Literature, trans. P. E. Charvet, pp. 295, 297; excerpt, "In a section preceding the discussion of military art in his articles on the Salon of 1859, Baudelaire discussed the advent of photography and its impact on art."
- ^ Hichberger, pp. 68-69. at Google Books; the term military art is not a neologism
- ^ Mcintyre, Ben. September 10, 2009 "Pictures of war can carry more moral meaning than thousands of words," The Times (London). September 10, 2009.
- ^ McIntyre, "Pictures," September 10, 2009; "The Disasters in Afghanistan," The Times. April 7, 1842.
- ^ Hichberger, p. 71. at Google Books
- ^ Hichberger, p. 2-3. at Google Books
- ^ a b Pepper, 3, (ii)
- ^ Pepper, Introduction and 3, ii
- ^ National Archives (UK), "'The Art of War,' Learn About the Art."
- ^ James covers all major combatant nations of World War I; for British World War II posters, and a wider bibliography, see Weapons on the Wall in external links
- ^ Walker, William. The Lessons of Guernica," Toronto Star. February 9, 2003.
- ^ Brandon, 66
- ^ Foss, 123
- ^ Brandon, 77-83
- ^ Kettering, 100
- ^ Slive, 250-251
- ^ Carrier, 18
- ^ Mosse, 97–98
- ^ Mosse, 103–106 on conservatism, and generally throughout Chapter 5 on war memorials.
- ^ Carrier, throughout. His Chapter 1 gives an overview of the study of 19th and 20th century memorials
- ^ Kino, Carol. "With Sketchpads and Guns, Semper Fi"; "Marine Art," New York Times. July 13, 2010; Sketchpad Warrior blog, "It's All in the Wrist", May 25, 2010.
- ^ Canadian War Museum (CWM), "Australia, Britain and Canada in the Second World War," 2005.
- ^ Answers.com citing The Oxford Companion to Military History: War art is that which has been developed and executed (1) by artists officially commissioned either to spend varying periods of wartime under fire or to be present at nearly every kind of military activity, in order to record them; or (2) by servicemen-artists responding to powerful inner urges to depict direct war experience; or (3) by sensitive onlookers; or (4) by a combination of all of these.
- ^ Hichberger, J.W.M. (1991). Images of the Army: The Military in British Art, 1815–1914, pp. 12-13. at Google Books; Brandon, Laura. (2008). Art and War, pp. 4-9. at Google Books
- ^ a b Imperial War Museum (IWM), About the Imperial War Museum
- ^ Brandon, p. 3. at Google Books
- ^ McCloskey, Barbara. (2005). Artists of World War II, pp. 111-126.
- ^ a b Tsuruya, Mayu. "Cultural Significance of an Invisible Emperor in Sensô Sakusen Kirokuga ('War Campaign Documentary Painting')." Association for Asian Studies (AAS), Annual Meeting (Boston, Massachusetts), March 22–25, 2007.
- ^ Nara, Hiroshi. (2007). Inexorable Modernity: Japan's Grappling with Modernity in the Arts, p. 97 n47. at Google Books
- ^ ASKB, Caricature
- DP Becker in KL Spangeberg (ed), Six Centuries of Master Prints, Cincinnati Art Museum, 1993. ISBN 0931537150
- Brandon, Laura. (2008). Art and War. New York: I.B. Tauris. 10-ISBN 1-84511-237-7/13-ISBN 978-1-84511-237-0; OCLC 225345535
- Carrier, Peter. Holocaust monuments and national memory cultures in France and Germany since 1989: the origins and political function of the Vél' d'Hiv' in Paris and the Holocaust Monument in Berlin, Berghahn Books, 2006, ISBN 1-84545-295-X, 9781845452957
- Hartt, Frederick, History of Italian Renaissance Art, (2nd edn.)1987, Thames & Hudson (US Harry N Abrams), ISBN 0500235104
- Hichberger, J.W.M. (1991). Images of the Army: The Military in British Art, 1815–1914. Manchester: Manchester University Press. 10-ISBN 0-7190-2675-X/13-ISBN 978-0-7190-2675-1; OCLC 232947212
- Hugh Honour and John Fleming, A World History of Art, 1st edn. 1982 & many later editions, Macmillan, London, page refs to 1984 Macmillan 1st edn. paperback. ISBN 0333371852
- James, Pearl. Picture this: World War I posters and visual culture, 2010, University of Nebraska Press, ISBN 0803226101, 9780803226104, 
- Kettering, Alison McNeal. Gerard ter Borch's Military Men; Masculinity Transformed, in The public and private in Dutch culture of the Golden Age, Arthur K. Wheelock, Adele F. Seeff (eds), 2000, University of Delaware Press, ISBN 0874136407, 9780874136401
- McCloskey, Barbara. (2005). Artists of World War II. Westport: Greenwood Press. 10-ISBN 0313321531/13-ISBN 978-0-313-32153-5; OCLC 475496457
- Mosse, Fallen Soldiers: Reshaping the Memory of the World Wars. Oxford University Press US, 1991. ISBN 0-19-507139-5, 9780195071399
- Nara, Hiroshi. (2007). Inexorable Modernity: Japan's Grappling with Modernity in the Arts.Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books. 13-ISBN 978-0-7391-1841-2/10-ISBN 0-7391-1841-2; 10-ISBN 0-7391-1842-0/13-ISBN 978-0-7391-1842-9; OCLC 238825589
- Norman, Geraldine. (1977). Nineteenth-Century Painters and Painting: a Dictionary. Berkeley: University of California Press. 10-ISBN 0-520-03328-0/13-ISBN 978-0-520-03328-3; OCLC 300187133
- Pepper, Simon. "Battle pictures and military scenes", in Grove Art Online (restricted access, refs to sections), accessed March 22, 2011
- Rawson, Jessica (ed). The British Museum Book of Chinese Art, 2007 (2nd edn), British Museum Press, ISBN 9780714124469
- Paret, Peter (1997). Imagined Battles. Reflections of War in European Art. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina. 10-ISBN 0-8078-2356-2/13-ISBN 978-0-8078-2356-9; OCLC 260076007
- Russell, Ronald, Discovering Antique Prints, Osprey Publishing, 2001, ISBN 0747804990, 9780747804994, 
- Schapiro, Meyer, The Religious Meaning of the Ruthwell Cross (orig. 1944), in Selected Papers, volume 3, Late Antique, Early Christian and Mediaeval Art, 1980, Chatto & Windus, London, ISBN 0701125144
- Slive, Seymour Slive. Dutch Painting, 1600–1800, Yale UP, 1995,ISBN 0300074514
- Tsuruya, Mayu. (2005). Sensô Sakusen Kirokuga ("War Campaign Documentary Painting"): Japan's National Imagery of the 'Holy War', 1937-1945. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pittsburgh.
- Binek, Lynn K. and Walter A Van Horn. (1989). Drawing the Lines of Battle : Military Art of World War II Alaska. Anchorage, Alaska: Anchorage Museum of History and Art. OCLC 20830388
- Carman, W. Y. (2003). The Ackermann military prints: uniforms of the British and Indian armies, 1840–1855. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Pub. ISBN 0-7643-1671-0
- Cork, Richard. 1994. A Bitter Truth: Avant-garde Art and the Great War. New Haven: Yale University Press. 10-ISBN 0-300-05704-0/13-ISBN 978-0-300-05704-1; OCLC 185692286
- Foot, Michael Richard Daniel. (1990). Art and war: twentieth century warfare as depicted by war artists. London: Headline. 10-ISBN 0-7472-0286-9/13-ISBN 978-0-7472-0286-8; OCLC 21407670
- Gallatin, Albert Eugene. (1919). Art and the Great War. New York: E.P. Dutton. OCLC 422817
- Hale, John (1990). Artists and Warfare in the Renaissance. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-04840-8.
- Hodgson, Pat (1977). The War Illustrators. London: Osprey. OCLC 462210052
- Johnson, Peter (1978). Front-Line Artists. London: Cassell. 10-ISBN 0-304-30011-X/13-ISBN 978-0-304-30011-2; OCLC 4412441
- Jones, James (1975). WW II: a Chronicle of Soldiering. New York: Grosset & Dunlap. 1617592
- Lanker, Brian and Nicole Newnham. (2000). They Drew Fire: combat artists of World War II. New York: TV Books. 10-ISBN 1-57500-085-7/13-ISBN 978-1-57500-085-5; OCLC 43245885
- Nevill, Ralph and William Gladstone Menzies. (1909). British Military Prints. London: The Connoisseur Publishing. OCLC 3509075
- Prendergast, Christopher (1997). Napoleon and history painting: Antoine-Jean Gros's La Bataille d'Eylau. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10-ISBN 0-19-817402-0/13-ISBN 978-0-19-817402-8; 10-ISBN 0-19-817422-5/13-ISBN 978-0-19-817422-6; OCLC 35777393
- Reid, John B. (1977). Australian Artists at War: Compiled from the Australian War Memorial Collection. Volume 1. 1885–1925; Vol. 2 1940–1970. South Melbourne, Victoria: Sun Books. 10-ISBN 0-7251-0254-3/13-ISBN 978-0-7251-0254-8; OCLC 4035199
- Oliver, Dean Frederick, and Laura Brandon (2000). Canvas of War: Painting the Canadian Experience, 1914 to 1945. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre. 10-ISBN1550547720/13-ISBN 978-1-55054-772-6; OCLC 43283109
- Tippett, Maria. (1984). Art at the Service of War: Canada, Art, and the Great War. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 10-ISBN 0-8020-2541-2/13-ISBN 978-0-8020-2541-8; OCLC 13858984
- Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 10-ISBN 0-674-01753-6; 13-ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 48943301
- Okamoto, Shumpei and Donald Keene. (1983). Impressions of the Front: Woodcuts of the Sino Japanese War, 1894-95. Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art. OCLC 179964815
- Gilkey, Gordon. War Art of the Third Reich. Bennington, Vermont: International Graphics Corporation, 1982. 10-ISBN 0-86556-018-8/13-ISBN 978-0-86556-018-5; OCLC 223704492
- Weber, John Paul. (1979). The German War Artists. Columbia, South Carolina: Cerberus. 10-ISBN 0-933590-00-8/13-ISBN 978-0-933590-00-7; OCLC 5727293
- New Zealand
- Haworth, Jennifer. (2007). The Art of War: New Zealand War Artists in the Field 1939-1945. Christchurch, New Zealand: Hazard Press. 13-ISBN 978-1-877393-24-2/10-ISBN 1-877393-24-X; OCLC 174078159
- South Africa
- Carter, Albert Charles Robinson. (1900). The Work of War Artists in South Africa. London: "The Art Journal" Office. OCLC 25938498
- Huntingford, N. P. C. (1986). A Selection of South African Military art, 1939–1945, 1975–1985. Pretoria : Military Art Advisory Board, Defence Headquarters. OCLC 79317946
- United Kingdom
- Gough, Paul. (2010). A Terrible Beauty: British Artists in the First World War. Bristol: Sansom and Company. 13-ISBN 978-1-906593-00-1/10-ISBN 1-906593-00-0; OCLC 559763485
- Harries, Meirion and Suzie Harries. (1983). The War Artists: British Official War Art of the Twentieth Century. London: Michael Joseph. 10-ISBN 0-7181-2314-X/13-ISBN 978-0-7181-2314-7; OCLC 9888782
- Harrington, Peter. (1983). British Artists and War: The Face of Battle in Paintings and Prints, 1700–1914. London: Greenhill. 10-ISBN 1-85367-157-6/13-ISBN 978-1-85367-157-9; OCLC 28708501
- Haycock, David Boyd. (2009). A Crisis of Brilliance: Five Young British Artists and the Great War. London: Old Street Publishing. 13-ISBN 978-1-905847-84-6/10-ISBN 1-905847-84-X; OCLC 318876179
- Sillars, Stuart (1987). Art and Survival in First World War Britain. New York: St. Martins Press. 10-ISBN 0-312-00544-X/13-ISBN 978-0-312-00544-3; OCLC 14932245
- Holme, Charles. (1918). The war depicted by distinguished British artists. London: The Studio. OCLC 5081170
- United States
- Cornebise, Alfred. (1991). Art from the trenches: America's Uniformed Artists in World War I. College Station: Texas A & M University Press. 10-ISBN 0-89096-349-5/13-ISBN 978-0-89096-349-4; OCLC 22892632
- Harrington, Peter, and Frederic A. Sharf. (1988). A Splendid Little War; The Spanish-American War, 1898; The Artists' Perspective. London: Greenhill. 10-ISBN 1-85367-316-1/13-ISBN 978-1-85367-316-0; OCLC 260112479
- Army art of World War I. United States Army Center of Military History : Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of American History. 1993. Prints available online through the Washington State Library's Classics in Washington History collection
- War Art, 1500 New Zealand art works online
- Mémorial de Caen, 1914-1918 war, Artists of the First World War
- Ministry of Defence (MoD), MoD art collection, war artists
- National Archives (UK), The Art of War
- Aviation and Military art at the Open Directory Project
- Anne S. K. Brown Military Collection, Brown University Library
- Weapons on the Wall, British World War II posters
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