- Carlsbad Caverns National Park
Infobox_protected_area | name = Carlsbad Caverns National Park
iucn_category = II
locator_x = 96
locator_y = 127
Eddy County, New Mexico, U.S.
nearest_city = Carlsbad
lat_degrees = 32
lat_minutes = 10
lat_seconds = 31
lat_direction = N
long_degrees = 104
long_minutes = 26
long_seconds = 38
long_direction = W
area = 46,766.45 acres
May 14, 1930
visitation_num = 407,367
visitation_year = 2006
National Park ServiceInfobox World Heritage Site
WHS = Carlsbad Caverns National Park
State Party =
Type = Natural
Criteria = vii, viii
ID = 721
Region = Europe and North America
Year = 1995
Session = 19th
Link = http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/721
Carlsbad Caverns National Park is a
United States National Parklocated in the Guadalupe Mountainsin southeastern New Mexico. The primary attraction of the park for most visitors is the show cave, "Carlsbad Caverns". Visitors to the cave can hike in on their own via the natural entrance, or take the elevator (the exit for everyone) directly down to the Underground Lunchroom some convert|750|ft|sp=us below.
The park has two entries on the
National Register of Historic Places: The Caverns Historic Districtand the Rattlesnake Springs Historic District[cite web|url=http://www.nps.gov/cave/historyculture/index.htm|title=History & Culture|publisher= National Park Service|accessdate=2007-05-31] . Approximately two thirds of the park has also been set aside as a wilderness area, helping to ensure no future changes will be made to the habitat.
Peak visitation typically occurs on the weekends following
Memorial Dayand the 4th of July. The park entrance is located on US Highway 62/180 approximately 18 miles (29 km) southwest of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The park participates in the Junior Ranger Program. [cite web|url=http://www.nps.gov/cave/forkids/parkfun.htm|title=Carlsbad Caverns National Park - Park Fun|publisher= National Park Service|accessdate=2007-05-31]
For detail on the area's geology, see
Jim White explored many of the rooms and gave them their names, including the Big Room, New Mexico Room, King's Palace, Queen's Chamber, Papoose Room, and Green Lake Room. He also named many of the cave's more prominent formations, such as the Totem Pole, Witch's Finger, Giant Dome, Bottomless Pit, Fairyland, Iceberg Rock, Temple of the Sun, and Rock of Ages.
October 25, 1923, President Calvin Coolidgesigned a proclamation (1679-Oct. 25, 1923-43 Stat. 1929) establishing "Carlsbad Cave National Monument".
April 2, 1924, President Calvin Coolidge issued an executive order (3984) for a possible national park or monument at the site. [cite web|url=http://www.nps.gov/cave/historyculture/leg_carlsbad_cave_nm_eo.htm|title=Carlsbad Cave National Monument -- Executive Order|publisher= National Park Service|accessdate=2008-07-18]
*A supplemental executive order (4870) was issued on
May 3, 1928reserving additional land for the possible monument or park. [cite web|url=http://www.nps.gov/cave/historyculture/leg_carlsbad_cave_nm_seo.htm|title=Carlsbad Cave National Monument -- Supplemental Executive Order|publisher= National Park Service|accessdate=2008-07-18]
May 14, 1930, an act of the United States Congress(46 Stat. 279) established "Carlsbad Caverns National Park" to be directed by the Secretary of the Interior and administered by the National Park Service. [cite web|url=http://www.nps.gov/cave/historyculture/leg_carlsbad_cavern_np.htm|title=Creation of Carlsbad Cavern National Park|publisher= National Park Service|accessdate=2008-07-18]
Herbert Hooversigned "Executive Order 5370" on June 17, 1930, reserving additional land for classification. [cite web|url=http://www.nps.gov/cave/historyculture/leg_carlsbad_caverns_np_eo.htm|title=Carlsbad Caverns National Park -- Executive Order|publisher= National Park Service|accessdate=2008-07-18]
*"Carlsbad Caverns Wilderness" was established with the "National Parks and Recreation Act" of 1978 (95-625) signed by President
Jimmy Carter. [cite web|url=http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=30143|title=Jimmy Carter -- National Parks and Recreation Act of 1978 Statement on Signing S. 791 Into Law.
University of California, Santa Barbara|accessdate=2008-07-19]
Located in the ceiling above the main entrance corridor, this small room was first accessed by tying a rope to a bunch of balloons and floating them up into the passage.
A large, unadorned rocky passage connected to the main entrance corridor that was mined for bat guano in the early 20th century. The majority of the cave's bat population lives in this portion of the cave.
Bell Cord Room
Named for a long, narrow
stalactitecoming through a hole in the ceiling, resembling the rope coming through a church steeple to ring the bell. This room is located at the end of the Left Hand Tunnel.
Discovered in 1982, it is located in the ceiling above Lake of the Clouds. Its name refers to a Norse myth about a world in the sky that was accessed from Earth by a rainbow. The room was given this name because of its location above the Lake of the Clouds and its colorful oxide-stained formations.
Big Room or The Hall of the Giants
The largest chamber in Carlsbad Caverns, with a floor space of convert|33210|m2|sqft|0|abbr=on. [cite web|url=http://www.nps.gov/archive/cave/tour-br.htm|title=Big Room Self-Guided Route|publisher=
National Park Service|date= 2005-08-15|accessdate=2007-05-29]
A maze of small passages totalling nearly a mile in combined length, discovered in 1993 above a mud-filled pit in the New Mexico Room known as Chocolate Drop.
Green Lake Room
The uppermost of the "Scenic Rooms", it is named for a deep,
malachite-colored pool in the corner of the room. In the 1940s, when the military was testing the feasibility of Carlsbad Cavern as an emergency fallout shelter, the Green Lake was used to look for ripples caused by a nuclear bomb test many miles away. None appeared.
Discovered by a park ranger in 1966, this is the second largest room in Carlsbad Caverns. It is known for its dense collection of "soda straw"
Hall of the White Giant
A large chamber containing a large, white stalagmite. Rangers regularly lead special wild cave tours to this location.
The first of four chambers in a wing known as the "scenic rooms", it is named for a large castle-like formation in the center of the room.
Lake of the Clouds
The lowest known point in the cave. It is located in a side passage off the Left Hand Tunnel. It is named for its large lake containing globular, cloud-like rock formations that formed under water when the lake level was much higher.
Left Hand Tunnel
A long, straight passage marked by deep fissures in the floor. These fissures are not known to lead anywhere. The Left Hand Tunnel leads to the Lake of the Clouds and the Bell Cord Room.
A small room located in the lower part of the cave
New Mexico Room
Located adjacent to the Queen's Chamber and accessed by means of a short slope.
A section of fissures east of the White Giant formation and paralleling the Bat Cave. New discoveries are still being made in this section.
Located between the King's Palace and Queen's Chamber.
Widely regarded as the most beautiful and scenic area of the cave. Jim White's lantern went out in this chamber while exploring and was in the dark for over a half hour.
Located in the ceiling of the Big Room, this area is filled with white stalagmites that resembled angels to the room's discoverers.
A room located in Lower Cave where the floor is coated with
One of the larger rooms in Lower Cave. A large number of
cave pearlsare found in this area.
Located in the Big Room at the head of the Left Hand Tunnel. It contains a cafeteria that was built in the 1950s, and is where the elevators from the visitor center exit into the cave.
In 1985 a very distinctive method of exploration was invented. In a dome area convert|255|ft|m|1|abbr=on above the Big Room floor not far from the Bottomless Pit a stalagmite leaned out. Using a
balsa woodloop with helium-filled balloons attached, the explorers--after several tries over several years--floated a light weight cord that snagged the target stalagmite. Once the light weight cord was in position up, over, and back to the ground, a climbing rope was pulled into position, and the explorers ascended into what they named The Spirit World.cite web|url = http://www.nps.gov/cave/planyourvisit/upload/CHU_20031215.pdf|title = Cave History Update #8, December 15, 2003: 18th Anniversary of Spirit World Exploration at Caverns|accessdate = 2007-05-31|publisher=National Park Service] A similar, smaller room was found in the main entrance corridor, and was named Balloon Ballroom in honor of this technique.
In 1993, a series of small passages totaling nearly a mile in combined length was found in the ceiling of the New Mexico Room. Named "Chocolate High", it was the largest discovery in the cave since the Guadalupe Room was found in 1966.
Lechuguilla Cave, another cave in the park discovered in 1986, is the focus of much current cave exploration at the park. It has been mapped to a depth of 489 m, making it the deepest limestone cave in the U.S. The entrance is located in an old mining pit called Misery Hole in an obscure corner of the park. It is not accessible to the general public, and the exact location of Misery Hole is kept relatively hidden in an attempt to preserve the cave in its most undisturbed state.
The Bottomless Pit was originally said to have no bottom. Stones were tossed into it, but no sound of the stones striking the bottom was heard. Later exploration revealed that the bottom was about 140 feet (40m) deep and covered with soft dirt. The stones made no sound when they struck the bottom because they were lodged in the soft soil.
Sixteen species of
bats live in the park, including a large number of Mexican Free-tailed Bats. It is estimated that the population of Mexican Free-tailed Bats once numbered in the millions but has declined drastically in modern times. The cause of this decline is unknown but the pesticide DDTis often listed as a primary cause. Populations appear to be on the increase in recent years but are nowhere near the levels that were once historically present.
Many techniques have been used to estimate the bat population in the cave. The various techniques used point to a current population peak of several hundred thousand when the young pups are flying in the fall.cite web|url = http://www.nps.gov/archive/cave/bat-count.htm|title = Carlsbad Caverns National Park: Counting the Bats|accessdate = 2007-05-07|publisher=National Park Service]
* U.S. Forest Service Blanchard Springs Caverns
Mammoth Cave National Park
Guadalupe Mountains National Park
List of areas in the National Park System of the United States
* "The National Parks: Index 2001–2003". Washington: U.S. Department of the Interior.
* Official site: [http://www.nps.gov/cave/ Carlsbad Caverns National Park]
* [http://www.usatoday.com/weather/climate/usa/parks/wcarlsba.htm Climate data for Carlsbad Caverns National Park]
* [http://3dparks.wr.usgs.gov/carlsbad USGS 3D Photographic Geology Tour for Carlsbad Caverns National Park]
* [http://carlsbadcaverns.areaparks.com/parkinformation.html?content=history "Historical Dates in the history of Carlsbad Caverns National Park and SouthEast New Mexico"]
* [http://www2.nature.nps.gov/geology/parks/cave/ NPS geology fieldnotes website for Carlsbad Caverns National Park]
* [http://amazingplanet.info/index.php/Natural-Wonders/Carlsbad-Caverns.html Carlsbad Caverns at AmazingPlanet.info]
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См. также в других словарях:
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Carlsbad Caverns National Park — national park containing a series of underground limestone caverns and a fossil reef from the Permian period (located in New Mexico, USA) … English contemporary dictionary
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