- Stolypin reform
The Stolypin agrarian reforms were a series of changes to
Imperial Russia's agricultural sector instituted during the tenure of Pyotr Stolypin, Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister). Most if not all of these reforms were based on recommendations from a committee known as the "Needs of Agricultural Industry Special Conference," which was held in Russia between 1901-1903 during the tenure of Minister of Finance Sergei Witte.
Background to reforms
The goal of the reform was to transform the traditional "
obshchina" form of Russian agriculture, which bore some similarities to the open field systemof Britain. Serfs who had been liberated by the emancipation reform of 1861 lacked the financial ability to leave their new lands, as they were indebted to the state for periods of up to 49 years. [cite book|title=A History of Russia (sixth edition)|author=Riasanovsky, Nicholas V.|date=2000|page=p. 373] Among the supposed drawbacks of the "obshchina" system were collective ownership, scattered land allotments based on family size, and a significant level of control by the family elder. Stolypin, being a staunch conservative, also sought to eliminate the commune system - known as the "mir" - and to reduce radicalism among the peasants, preventing further political unrest, such as that which occurred during the Revolution of 1905. Stolypin believed that tying the peasants to their own private land holdings would produce profit-minded and politically conservative farmers like those found in parts of western Europe. [cite book|author=Thompson, John M.|title=A Vision Unfulfilled: Russia and the Soviet Union in the Twentieth Century|publisher= Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company|date=1996|page=p.83-85] Stolypin referred to his own programs as a "wager on the strong and sober." [cite book|title=A History of Russia (sixth edition)|author=Riasanovsky, Nicholas V.|date=2000|page=p. 414]
The reforms began with and introduced the unconditional right of individual landownership (
Ukaseof November 9, 1906). Stolypin's reforms abolished the "obshchina" system and replaced it with a capitalist-oriented form highlighting private ownership and consolidated modern farmsteads.
The reforms were multifaceted and introduced the following:
*Development of large-scale individual farming ("
*Development of agricultural education
*Dissemination of new methods of
*Affordable lines of credit for peasants
*Creation of an Agrarian Party, to represent the interests of farmers
The Stolypin agrarian reforms were implemented by the state in a comprehensive campaign from 1906 through 1914. This system was not a
command economylike that found in the Soviet Union in the 1920s, but rather a continuation of the modified state capitalismprogram begun under Sergei Witte. It was different from Witte's reforms not by the rapid push - which was a characteristic also found in the Witte reforms - but by the fact that Stolypin's reforms were to the agricultural sector, included improvements to the rights of individuals on a broad level and had the backing of the police. These reforms laid the groundwork for a market-based agricultural system for Russian peasants.
The principal ministers involved in the implementation of the Stolypin agrarian reforms were Stolypin as Interior Minster and Prime Minister,
Alexander Krivosheinas Agriculture and State Domains Minister, and Vladimir Kokovtsovas Finance Minister and Stolypin's successor as Prime Minister.
The Stolypin reforms and the majority of their benefits were reversed by the Soviet agrarian program in the 1920s.
Effects of reforms on Siberian resettlement
As a result of the expansion of the
Trans-Siberian Railroadand other railroads east of the Ural Mountainsand the Caspian Sea, migration to Siberiaincreased. Thompson estimated that between 1890 and 1914 that over 10 million persons migrated freely from western Russia to areas east of the Urals. [cite book|author=Thompson, John M.|title=A Vision Unfulfilled: Russia and the Soviet Union in the Twentieth Century|publisher= Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company|date=1996|page=p.83-85] This was encouraged by the Trans-Siberian Railroad Committee, which was personally headed by Tsar Nicholas II. The Stolypin agrarian reforms included resettlement benefits for peasants who moved to Siberia. Migrants received a small state subsidy, exemption from some taxes, and received advice from state agencies specifically developed to help with peasant resettlement. [cite book|title=A History of Russia (sixth edition)|author=Riasanovsky, Nicholas V.|date=2000|page=p. 432]
In part due to these initiatives, approximately 2.8 of the 10 million migrants to Siberia relocated between 1908 and 1913. This increased the population of the regions east of the Urals by a factor of 2.5 before the outbreak of
World War I.
A number of new types of cooperative assistance were developed as part of the Stolypin agrarian reforms, including financial-credit cooperation, production cooperation, and consumer cooperation. Many elements of Stolypin's cooperation-assistance programs were later incorporated into the early agrarian programs of the
Soviet Union, reflecting the lasting influence of Stolypin.
* Bartlett, Roger (ed.). "Land Comune and Peasant Community in Russia: Communal Forms in Imperial and Early Soviet Society". New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990.
* Pallot, Judith. "Land Reform in Russia, 1906-1917: Peasant Responses to Stolypin's Project of Rural Transformation." Oxford and New York: Clarendon Press, 1999. ISBN 0-19-820656-9
* Riasanovsky, Nicholas V. "A History of Russia (sixth edition)". Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-19-512179-1
* Thompson, John M. "A Vision Unfulfilled: Russia and the Soviet Union in the Twentieth Century." Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company, 1996. ISBN 0-669-28291-X
* [http://cla.calpoly.edu/~mriedlsp/History315/stolypin.html Translation of the "Ukase" of 9 November 1906 delineating reforms]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Stolypin car — (Russian: Столыпинский вагон) was a type of railroad carriage in the Russian Empire and Soviet Union.During the Stolypin reform in Russia, which, in part have led to massive resettlement of peasants in Siberia, a special type of carriage was… … Wikipedia
Stolypin — Pjotr Stolypin Pjotr Arkadjewitsch Stolypin (russisch Пётр Аркадьевич Столыпин, wiss. Transliteration Pёtr Arkad evič Stolypin; * 2. Apriljul./ 14. April 1862greg. in … Deutsch Wikipedia
Stolypin, Pyotr Arkadyevich — ▪ Russian statesman born April 14 [April 2, old style], 1862, Dresden, Saxony died Sept. 18 [Sept. 5, O.S.], 1911, Kiev conservative statesman who, after the Russian Revolution of 1905, initiated far reaching agrarian reforms to improve the… … Universalium
Stolypin, Peter Arkadievich — (1862–1911) Stolypin was the most successful reformer of the last years of tsardom, and an effective and brutal security boss. After serving as governor of Saratov oblast, Stolypin was brought to the capital as minister of internal affairs in… … Historical dictionary of Russian and Soviet Intelligence
Stolypin land reform — ▪ Russian agricultural history (1906–17), measures undertaken by the Russian government to allow peasants to own land individually. Its aim was to encourage industrious peasants to acquire their own land, and ultimately to create a class of … Universalium
Land reform — Land reforms (also agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning) is an often controversial alteration in the societal arrangements whereby government administers possession and use of land. Land reform may consist of a government… … Wikipedia
Emancipation reform of 1861 — The Emancipation Reform of 1861 in Russia was the first and most important of liberal reforms affected during the reign of Alexander II of Russia. The reform amounted to the liquidation of serf dependence previously suffered by Russian peasants.… … Wikipedia
Pyotr Stolypin — Infobox Prime Minister | name=Pyotr Stolypin nationality=Russian order =3rd Prime Minister of Imperial Russia monarch = Nicholas II term start=July 21, 1906 term end=September 18, 1911 predecessor=Ivan Goremykin successor=Vladimir Kokovtsov birth … Wikipedia
Petr Stolypin — Pjotr Stolypin Pjotr Arkadjewitsch Stolypin (russisch Пётр Аркадьевич Столыпин, wiss. Transliteration Pёtr Arkad evič Stolypin; * 2. Apriljul./ 14. April 1862greg. in … Deutsch Wikipedia
Pjotr Arkadjewitsch Stolypin — Pjotr Stolypin Pjotr Arkadjewitsch Stolypin (russisch Пётр Аркадьевич Столыпин, wiss. Transliteration Pёtr Arkad evič Stolypin; * 2. Apriljul./ 14. April … Deutsch Wikipedia