Hammer toe


Hammer toe
Hammer toe
Classification and external resources

A mallet toe is evident on the 3rd digit
ICD-10 M20.4, Q66.8
ICD-9 735.4, 755.66
MeSH D037801

A hammer toe or contracted toe is a deformity of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the second, third, or fourth toe causing it to be permanently bent, resembling a hammer. Mallet toe is a similar condition affecting the distal interphalangeal joint.[1][2]

Claw toe is another similar condition, with dorsiflexion of the proximal phalanx on the lesser metatarsophalangeal joint, combined with flexion of both the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints. Claw toe can affect the second, third, fourth, or fifth toes.

Contents

Causes

Hammer toe most frequently results from wearing poorly fitting shoes that can force the toe into a bent position, such as excessively high heels or shoes that are too short or narrow for the foot. Having the toes bent for long periods of time can cause the muscles in them to shorten, resulting in the hammer toe deformity. This is often found in conjunction with bunions or other foot problems. It can also be caused by muscle, nerve, or joint damage resulting from conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, stroke, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease or diabetes.[3] Hammer toe can also be found in Friedrich's ataxia (GAA trinucleotide repeat).

Corrective surgery for hammer toe

Treatment

In many cases, conservative treatment consisting of physical therapy and new shoes with soft, spacious toe boxes is enough to resolve the condition, while in more severe or longstanding cases orthopedic surgery may be necessary to correct the deformity. The patient's doctor may also prescribe some toe exercises that can be done at home to stretch and strengthen the muscles. For example, the individual can gently stretch the toes manually, or use the toes to pick things up off the floor. While watching television or reading, one can put a towel flat under the feet and use the toes to crumple it. The doctor can also prescribe a brace that pushes down on the toes to force them to stretch out their muscles.

References

  1. ^ American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
  2. ^ Mayo Clinic, "Hammertoe and mallet toe"
  3. ^ "Hammer toe and mallet toe – causes". Mayo Clinic. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hammertoe-and-mallet-toe/DS00480/DSECTION=causes. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • hammer toe — ► NOUN ▪ a toe that is bent permanently downwards, typically as a result of pressure from footwear …   English terms dictionary

  • hammer toe — noun A deformity of the second, third, or fourth toe causing it to be permanently bent at the first joint, resembling a hammer. See Also: mallet toe …   Wiktionary

  • hammer-toe — hammˈer toe noun A condition in which a toe is permanently bent upwards at the base and doubled down upon itself • • • Main Entry: ↑hammer …   Useful english dictionary

  • hammer toe — a deformity of a toe, most often the second, caused by fixed flexion of the proximal interphalangeal joint, which produces extension of distal interphalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints. A corn often forms over the deformity, which may be… …   Medical dictionary

  • hammer toe — noun a toe that is bent permanently downwards, typically as a result of pressure from footwear …   English new terms dictionary

  • hammer toe — a deformity of a toe, most often the second, caused by fixed flexion of the proximal interphalangeal joint, which produces extension of distal interphalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints. A corn often forms over the deformity, which may be… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • Палец Стопы Молоткообразный (Hammer Toe) — деформация пальца стопы (чаще всего второго), вызванная фиксацией его сгибания в плюсне фаланговом суставе. В результате такой деформации палец часто сгибается в суставе, образуя угол; это может доставлять человеку сильную боль. Если боль не… …   Медицинские термины

  • Toe — This article is about the body part. For other uses, see Toe (disambiguation). Ring toe redirects here. For the ring designed to be worn on a toe, see Toe ring. Toes Toes on the foot. The innermost toe (bottom left in image), which is normally… …   Wikipedia

  • hammer — n. & v. n. 1 a a tool with a heavy metal head at right angles to the handle, used for breaking, driving nails, etc. b a machine with a metal block serving the same purpose. c a similar contrivance, as for exploding the charge in a gun, striking… …   Useful english dictionary

  • toe — One of the digits of the feet. SYN: digitus pedis [TA], digits of foot. [A.S. ta] fourth t. [IV] [TA] fourth digit of foot. SYN: digitus (pedis) quartus [IV] [TA]. great t. I [TA] the first digit of the foot. SYN: hallux [TA], digitus pedis… …   Medical dictionary