- Haplogroup T (Y-DNA)
origin-date =30,000 years BP
mutations =M70, M184, M193, M272
Haplogroup T (M70, M184, M193, M272) is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. From 2002 to 2008, it was known as Haplogroup K2.
"K2-M70 is believed to have originated in Asia after the emergence of the K-M9 polymorphism (45–30 ky) (Underhill et al. 2001"a"). As deduced from the collective data (Underhill et al. 2000; Cruciani et al. 2002; Semino et al. 2002; present study), K2-M70 individuals, at some later point, proceeded south to Africa. While these chromosomes are seen in relatively high frequencies in Egypt, Oman, Tanzania, Ethiopia, and Morocco, they are especially prominent in the Fulbe (18% [Scozzari et al. 1997, 1999] ), presenting the highest concentration of this haplogroup found so far." (J. R. Luis "et al.": [http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publications/AJHG_2004_v74_p000-0130.pdf The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: Evidence for Bidirectional Corridors of Human Migrations] ( [http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publications/AJHG_2004_v74_errata.pdf Errata] ), "
American Journal of Human Genetics", 74: 532-544.)
Haplogroup T is present at low levels throughout
Africa, Southwest Asia, South Asia, Southern Europe, and, at an even lower level, throughout Europe. Haplogroup T-M70 has been detected in 10.4% (21/201) of Somali, 8.3% (10/121) of Omani Arab, 8.2% (12/147) of Egyptian, and 7.2% (10/139) of Iraqi males. [J. R. Luis "et al.": [http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publications/AJHG_2004_v74_p000-0130.pdf The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: Evidence for Bidirectional Corridors of Human Migrations] ( [http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publications/AJHG_2004_v74_errata.pdf Errata] ), " American Journal of Human Genetics", 74: 532-544.] [Juan J Sanchez, Charlotte Hallenberg, Claus Børsting, Alexis Hernandez and Niels Morling, "High frequencies of Y chromosome lineages characterized by E3b1, DYS19-11, DYS392-12 in Somali males," "European Journal of Human Genetics" (2005) 13, 856–866] [N. Al-Zahery, O. Semino, G. Benuzzi, C. Magri, G. Passarino, A. Torroni, and A.S. Santachiara-Benerecetti, "Y-chromosome and mtDNA polymorphisms in Iraq, a crossroadof the early human dispersal and of post-Neolithic migrations," "Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution" (2003)]
Other regions that have been found to contain a significant proportion of haplogroup T individuals include
South India(18/305 or 5.9%), United Arab Emirates(8/164 or 4.9%), Ethiopia(6/126 or 4.8%), Lebanon(43/914 or 4.7%), the Iraqw[Called "Wairak" and misidentified as Bantu in the studies.] in Tanzania(2/43 or 4.7%), East India(14/367 or 3.8%), South Iran(4/117 or 3.4%), Turkey(13/523 or 2.5%), and the Iberian Peninsula(16/629 or 2.5%). [Alicia M Cadenas, Lev A Zhivotovsky, Luca L Cavalli-Sforza, Peter A Underhill and Rene J Herrera, "Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman," "European Journal of Human Genetics" (2007), 1 - 13] [M. Regueiro "et al.": "Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration," "Human Heredity", 2006, vol. 61, pp. 132–43.] [Cinnioglu, Cengiz, et al., "Excavating Y-Chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia," "Human Genetics", 2004, vol. 114, pp. 127–48.] [Carlos Flores, Nicole Maca-Meyer, Ana M González, Peter J Oefner, Peidong Shen, Jose A Pérez, Antonio Rojas, Jose M Larruga and Peter A Underhill, "Reduced genetic structure of the Iberian peninsula revealed by Y-chromosome analysis: implications for population demography," "European Journal of Human Genetics" (2004) 12, 855–863 & 2004 Nature Publishing Group] [Sanghamitra Sahoo, Anamika Singh, G. Himabindu, Jheelam Banerjee, T. Sitalaximi, Sonali Gaikwad, R. Trivedi, Phillip Endicott, Toomas Kivisild, Mait Metspalu, Richard Villems, and V. K. Kashyap, "A prehistory of Indian Y chromosomes: Evaluating demic diffusion scenarios," "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America". Published online on January 13, 2006, 10.1073/pnas.0507714103. [http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/0507714103v1] (cf. Supporting Figure 3 in online data supplement)] Pierre A. Zalloua, Yali Xue, Jade Khalife, Nadine Makhoul, Labib Debiane, Daniel E. Platt, Ajay K. Royyuru, Rene J. Herrera, David F. Soria Hernanz, Jason Blue-Smith, R. Spencer Wells, David Comas, Jaume Bertranpetit, Chris Tyler-Smith, and The Genographic Consortium, "Y-Chromosomal Diversity in LebanonIs Structured by Recent Historical Events," "The American Journal of Human Genetics" 82, 873–882, April 2008.] According to data from commercial testing, Italymay have the highest frequency of haplogroup T in Europe, with as many as 3.9% of Italian males belonging to this haplogroup. [ [http://italydna.blogspot.com/ Italy DNA Project blog] , "What a difference a year makes" (posted Tuesday, September 04, 2007), based on data from the Italy DNA Project at Family Tree DNA] In Africa, however, the major cluster remains among the Fulbe at 18% (Scozzari et al. 1997, 1999). Approximately 3% of Sephardi Jewsand 2% of Ashkenazi Jewsbelong to haplogroup T. [Nicholas Wade, " [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/28/us/28jefferson.html Study Raises Possibility of Jewish Tie for Jefferson] ," "The New York Times" (February 28, 2007)]
The distribution of haplogroup T in most parts of Europe is spotty or regionalized; for example, haplogroup T was found in 1.7% (10/591) of a pool of six samples of males from southwestern
Russia, including Russiansfrom Roslavl, Livny, Pristen, Repievka, Belgorodand Kuban Cossacksfrom Adygea, but this haplogroup was completely absent from a pool of eight samples totalling 637 individuals from the northern half of European Russia. [Oleg Balanovsky, Siiri Rootsi, Andrey Pshenichnov, Toomas Kivisild, Michail Churnosov, Irina Evseeva, Elvira Pocheshkhova, Margarita Boldyreva, Nikolay Yankovsky, Elena Balanovska, and Richard Villems, "Two Sources of the Russian Patrilineal Heritagein Their Eurasian Context," "The American Journal of Human Genetics" 82, 236–250, January 2008 [http://www.ajhg.org/AJHG/abstract/S0002-9297(07)00025-0] ]
Among populations of India, haplogroup T has been found to be particularly common among the
Bauri, a Dalitcaste of fishermen in East India, and the Kurru(also known as Yerukula), a Dravidian tribe of South India. [R. Trivedi, Sanghamitra Sahoo, Anamika Singh, G. Hima Bindu, Jheelam Banerjee,Manuj Tandon, Sonali Gaikwad, Revathi Rajkumar, T Sitalaximi, Richa Ashma,G. B. N. Chainy and V. K. Kashyap, "High Resolution Phylogeographic Map of Y-ChromosomesReveal the Genetic Signatures of Pleistocene Origin ofIndian Populations"]
A famous member of the T haplogroup is
Thomas Jefferson; his Y-chromosomal complement received prominence through the Sally Hemingscontroversy.
* [http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Y%2DHaplogroup%2DK2/ The Y-DNA Haplogroup K2 Project]
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