- Baja, Hungary
image_caption = Town hall
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = HUN
pushpin_map_caption =Location of Baja, Hungary
website= [http://www.bajavaros.hu www.bajavaros.hu]
Baja (IPA2|'bɒjɒ) is a city in southern
Hungary. It is the second largest city in Bács-Kiskuncounty after the county seat Kecskemét. The mayoris Dr. Zoltán Révfy, while the parliamentary delegate is Róbert Zsigó.
Baja is the seat of the
The city's Hungarian name is derived from a Turkic language. The name means "bull".
The Latin name of the town is Francillo. Baja used to have also a German name: "Frankenstadt".
The South Slavs, notably Croats from
Bunjevcigroup, and Serbs, that live in the city call Baja by the same name as Hungarians do, butwith a slightly different pronunciation ( [IPA|baja] instead of [IPA|bɒjɒ] ). Its spelling in Serbian Cyrillicwriting is "Баја".
The city is first mentioned in 1308. During the Turkish Conquest in the 16th and 17th centuries it was the official center for the region and it possessed a fortification. This era saw the immigration of
Croats(from group of Bunjevci) and Serbsinto the town. There was also an active Franciscanmission with monks from Bosnia.
When Hungary was a part of the
Habsburg Empire, the city was also settled by Germansand Hungarians alongside some Jews. Due to its location on the Danube, it became a transportation and commercial hub for the region. This was where grain and wine was loaded onto boats to be transported upriver to Austriaand Germany. Until 1765, the inhabitants belonged to three nations; Croats(under name of " Dalmatians"), the Germansand the Serbs. The Magyars— who escaped from the Ottoman Empire to the reduced Kingdom of Hungary — returned to the Great Plain after Hungary regained her lost territories. Following this, according to a government decree the "Natio Dalmatica" was changed into the "Natio Hungarica", but even in 1768, the elected mayor swore the oath in the Croatian languagein the FranciscanChurch.
In 1699, Baja was
Bács-Bodrogcounty's most 'industrialized' city. In the 19th century Baja became a minor railwayhub, but its importance declined as the railway to Fiume (Rijeka) was built in order to get Hungarian grain seaborne. The city was still a commercial and service center for the region.
In 1918, after
World War I, the ceasefire line placed a city under administration of the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. By the Treaty of Trianonfrom 1920, the city was assigned to Hungary, and became the capital of the reduced county of Bács-Bodrog. (See Treaty of Trianon.)
World War II, the city became known for its textile mill and the bridge over the Danube. Its importance is still evident as people from the Bácska (Bačka) region of Hungary come for higher education, government and business services.
According to 1715 data, the population of Baja numbered 237 houses, of which 216 were South Slavic (Serb and Bunjevac), 16 Hungarian, and 5 German.Fact|date=January 2008
The city's population was growing rapidly in the 20th century, but in the last decade, it slightly declined.
The city has 37,690 residents:
* 93.5% Hungarians;
* 1.5% other.
There are 15,613 houses.
Baja is located about convert|150|km|mi|0|abbr=on south of
Budapestand convert|108|km|mi|0|abbr=on southwest of Kecskemét, at the crossing of Road 55 and Road 51, on the river Danube. Baja's main river is Sugovica(also called "Kamarás-Duna").
Baja is at the meeting point of two large regions: the Great Hungarian Plain (Alföld) and the
Transdanubia(Dunántúl). The river Danube separates the two regions. West of the city, the Gemencforest spreads. Gemenc is a national park. It can be discovered by the narrow-gauge (760 mm) railway.
Baja is located on the left bank of the river; on the Great Hungarian Plain. However, Baja is more similar to the cities of
Transdanubia. We can find the large maize, wheatand barleyfields of the Great Hungarian Plain east from the city.
Baja is at the meeting of the continental and mediterrenean region of Hungary. The summers are hot (the temperature sometimes goes up to 35–36 °C) and dry, while the winters are cold and snowy. It often rains in the spring.
The city plays an important role in Hungary's water transport, with the international harbour. Baja gives home to two extensive corporations: to AXIÁL Co. and DÉLHÚS Co. Axiál sells agricultural machines all over Hungary, while Délhús produces meat products. Gemenc Forest and Game Co. Ltd. is managing the nearby nature reserve,
Gemenc. There are numerous commercial structures in the city. This is important for people living in and around Baja. A few years ago, a TESCO supermarketopened.
Culture, education, and life
The city has some museums and art galleries, most of them with permanent exhibitions. These include the "
István TürrMuseum" (exhibits objects of former local life), the "István Nagy Gallery" (a collection of Nagy's paintings), and the "Bunjevci House" (about Bunjevcitraditions). The annual "Fisherman's Soup Boiling Festival" is a famous event in Europe, which comprises a great fish soup boiling contest, and other cultural occurrences.
There are 15 churches in the city, representing the religion of each ethnicity. These religions include (with the number of believers)
Roman Catholic(25 203), Protestant(1 623), Evangelist (268), Unitarian, Orthodox(90), Lutheranand Judaism(27). Located relatively close to the Great Hungarian Plain, to Gemencand Transdanubia, the city is also feasible as a base for regional tourists.
There are three notable educational institutes in the city: Béla III High school, famous for high teaching skills; Eötvös József College, the only top-level educational institution of Northern Bácska, and the German center. A smaller observatory also exists.
The MNÁMK (Magyarországi Németek Általános Művelődési Központja; English: "General Culture Center of Germans Living in Hungary") is internationally respected for providing German education for the German minority living in Bácska, and in Hungary. Students get up-to-date education with modern tools using their mother tongue.
The Endre Ady Library
Baja's library got its name from the famous Hungarian poet,
Endre Ady. The library's building used to be Baja's synagogue. The building was offered by the city's Jewishcommunity. The Holocaustmemorial stands in the synagogue's garden.
The library has a very large collection of pre-18th century books. The "Ancient book" collection includes 4,352 volumes, and a lot more writings, because many of the volumes are collectives (for example, one of them contains 17 writings). The library has three
Famous people from Baja
Lázár Mészáros, Hungary's first Minister of War
Kálmán Tóth, famous 19th century poet
Radovan Jelašić, Governor of the National Bank of Serbia
István Türr, Garibaldi's general
József Bayer, member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Jenő Ernst, doctor, biologist, member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Dénes Jánossy, corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
András Jelky, a man who travelled around the world in a strange way (1730–1783)
Dezső Miskolczy, respected explorer of the mental disease, member of Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Emma Sándor, composer, wife of Zoltán Kodály
Ede Telcs, sculptor
Ibolya Dávid, present-day democrat politician of the Hungarian Democratic Forum
Târgu Mureş"(Marosvásárhely)", Romania
Sângeorgiu de Pădure"(Erdőszentgyörgy)", Romania
* Baja, river of Sugovica (username: sugo ; password: baja) – http://188.8.131.52:82/view/view.shtml
* Baja, Holy Trinity Square (username: beke ; password: baja) - http://184.108.40.206:15628/view/view.shtml
* Baja, Danube bridge (username: duna ; password: baja) – http://mail.adukovizig.hu:15628/view/view.shtml
* "Nemzeti és etnikai kisebségek Magyarországon", Budapest 1998
* [http://www.ksh.hu Központi Statisztikai Hivatal]
* "Baja története." Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 1989
* [http://www.baja.hu Baja's public homepage]
* [http://www.c3.hu/~aevk/english.htm Ady Endre Library's home page (English; German available)]
* [http://www.bacskaisport.hu/ Baja & Bacska sportnews]
* [http://story.bacskaisport.hu/ Baja Story magazine]
* [http://hotelduna.hu/index.php?aktualNyelv=english Home page of Hotel Duna*** (English; German available)]
* [http://www.bajaobs.hu Observatory Home Page; English as well.]
* [http://terkepcentrum.hu/index.asp?go=map&mid=3&tid=3522 City map] – "(Magnifiable; grey zones are urban/industrial/commercial zones; dark green zones: forests; light-green zones: new urban and farm-styled zones; yellow zones: agricultural zones)"
* [http://www.civertan.hu/legifoto/legifoto.php?page_level=38 Aerialphotographs from Baja]
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