Canard (aeronautics)


Canard (aeronautics)

In aeronautics, canard (French for duck) is an airframe configuration of fixed-wing aircraft in which the tailplane is ahead of the main wing, rather than behind them as in conventional aircraft.Crane, Dale: "Dictionary of Aeronautical Terms, third edition", page 86. Aviation Supplies & Academics, 1997. ISBN 1-56027-287-2] Aviation Publishers Co. Limited, "From the Ground Up", page 10 (27th revised edition) ISBN 09690054-9-0] cite web|url = http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid=49436e70336dc8d8f1ab7b3d789254af&rgn=div8&view=text&node=14:1.0.1.1.1.0.1.1&idno=14|title = Title 14: Aeronautics and Space - PART 1—DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS|accessdate = 2008-08-05|last = Federal Aviation Administration|authorlink = |year = 2008|month = August]

The earliest airplanes, such as the Wright Flyer and the Santos-Dumont 14-bis, due to their tail-first configuration were seen by observers to resemble a flying duck — hence the name. cite web|url = http://www.velocitybuilder.com/about_canard_aircrafts.htm|title = What the heck is a 'Canard'?|accessdate = 2008-09-13|last = www.velocitybuilder.com|authorlink = |year = undated]

Classes of canards

The canard wing exists in two classes: the control-canard and the lifting-canard.Daniel P. Raymer, "Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach", Section 4.5 - Tail geometry and arrangement]

Control-canard

In the control-canard, most of the weight of the aircraft is carried by the main wing and the canard wing is used primarily for longitudinal control during maneuvering. A control-canard mostly operates at zero angle of attack. Combat aircraft that have the canard configuration typically have a control-canard. In combat aircraft, the canard is usually driven by a computerized flight control system.

One benefit obtainable from a control-canard is avoidance of pitchup. An all-moving canard capable of a significant nose-down deflection will protect against pitchup. As a result, the aspect ratio and wing-sweep of the main wing can be optimized without having to guard against pitchup.

Lifting-canard

In the lifting-canard, the weight of the aircraft is always shared between the main wing and the canard wing. A lifting-canard generates an upload, in contrast to a conventional aft-tail which mostly generates a download that must be counteracted by extra lift on the main wing. The lifting-canard configuration is therefore more efficient than a conventional aft-tail from the perspective of induced drag. The lift generated by the canard wing is significant, so in order to minimise induced drag on the canard, it is usually of higher aspect ratio and greater airfoil camber than a control-canard.

With a lifting-canard, the main wing must be located further aft of the center of gravity range than with a conventional aft tail, and this increases the pitching moment caused by trailing-edge flaps. Aircraft with lifting canards cannot readily be designed with sophisticated trailing-edge flaps.

Examples of canard aircraft

Aircraft that have employed this configuration include:


*AEA Silver Dart
*Atlas Cheetah
*B-1 Lancer (small canards help negotiate low-level flying)
*Beech Starship
*Berkut 360
*Chengdu J-9
*Chengdu J-10
*Cozy MK IV
*Curtiss-Wright [http://www.airwar.ru/image/idop/fww2/ss4/ss4-2.jpgCW-24B]
*Curtiss-Wright XP-55 Ascender
*Dassault Rafale
*Eurofighter Typhoon
*Freedom Aviation Phoenix
*Grumman X-29A
*IAI Kfir
*IAI Lavi
*Kyūshū J7W1 "Shinden"
*McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) F-15 S/MTD
*MiG-8 "Utka"
*Miles Libellula
*North American SM-64 Navaho
*North American X-10
*Peterson 260SE (a Cessna 182 with an added canard for STOL operations)
*Piaggio P180 Avanti (3 surfaces aircraft with flapped canard for pitch trim)
*Pterodactyl Ascender
*Rockwell-MBB X-31
*Rutan Defiant
*Rutan Long-EZ
*Rutan Quickie (more a tandem than a canard)
*Rutan VariEze
*Rutan VariViggen
*Rutan Voyager
*Santos-Dumont 14-bis
*Saab Viggen
*Saab Gripen
*Steve Wright Stagger-Ez
*Sukhoi Su-30 MKI
*Sukhoi Su-33
*Sukhoi Su-34
*Sukhoi Su-35
*Sukhoi Su-37
*Sukhoi Su-47
*Sukhoi T-4
*Tupolev Tu-144
*Velocity SE
*Velocity XL
*Wright Flyer
*XB-70 Valkyrie

Gallery

References

*
*

Notes

ee also

* Tandem wing
* Stabilator
* Tailplane

External links

* [http://www.desktopaero.com/appliedaero/configuration/canardprocon.html Desktop Aero - A Summary of Canard Advantages and Disadvantages]


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