- Genuine Progress Indicator
The Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) is a concept in green economics and
welfare economicsthat has been suggested to replace gross domestic product(GDP) as a metric of economic growth.
GPI is an attempt to measure whether a country's growth, increased production of goods, and expanding services have actually resulted in the improvement of the welfare (or well-being) of the people in the country. GPI advocates claim that it can more reliably measure economic progress, as it distinguishes between worthwhile growth and
The GDP vs the GPI is analogous to the difference between the Gross Profit of a company and the Net Profit; the Net Profit is the Gross Profit minus the costs incurred. Accordingly, the GPI will be zero if the financial costs of crime and pollution equal the financial gains in production of goods and services, all other factors being constant.
Most economists assess the progress in welfare of the people by comparing the gross domestic product over time, that is, by adding up the annual dollar value of all goods and services produced within a country over successive years. However, GDP was never intended to be used for such purpose. It is prone to
productivismor consumerism, over-valuing production and consumption of goods, and not reflecting improvement in human well-being. Simon Kuznets, the inventor of the GDP, notes in his very first report to the US Congress in 1934:
...the welfare of a nation [can] scarcely be inferred from a measure of national income...
An adequate measure must also take into account
ecological yieldand the ability of nature to provide services. These things are part of a more inclusive ideal of progress, which transcends the traditional focus on raw industrial production.
The need for a GPI to supplement biased indicators such as GDP was highlighted by analyses of
uneconomic growthin the 1980s notably that of Marilyn Waringwho studied biases in the UN System of National Accounts.
By the early 1990s there was a consensus in
human development theoryand ecological economicsthat growth in money supplywas actually reflective of a loss of well-being: that lacks of essential natural and social services were being paid for in cash and that this was expanding the economy but degrading life.
The matter remains controversial and is a main issue between advocates of
green economicsand neo-classical economics. Neoclassical economists understand the limitations of GDP for measuring human wellbeing but nevertheless regard GDP as an important, though imperfect measure of economic output and would be wary of too close an identification of GDP growth with aggregate human welfare. However GDP tends to be reported as synonymous with economic progress by journalists and politicians and the GPI seeks to correct this shorthand by providing a more encompassing measure.
Some economists, notably
Herman Daly, John Cobb[http://www.scottlondon.com/reviews/daly.html Daly and Cobb book reviewed] ] and Philip Lawn[http://www.iisd.org/measure/compendium/DisplayInitiative.aspx?id=1367 P. Lawn at iisd.org] ] have asserted that a country's growth, increased goods production, and expanding services have both "costs" and "benefits"--not just the "benefits" that contribute to GDP. They assert that, in some situations, expanded production facilities damage the health, culture, and welfare of people. Growth that was in excess of sustainable norms (e.g. of ecological yield) had to be considered to be uneconomic. According to the "threshold hypothesis", developed by Manfred Max-Neef, the notion that "when macroeconomic systems expand beyond a certain size, the additional benefits of growth are exceeded by the attendant costs." (Max-Neef 1995.)
According to Lawn's model, the "costs" of economic activity include the following potential harmful effects: [cite journal |last=Lawn |first=Philip A. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=2003 |month= |title=A theoretical foundation to support the Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare (ISEW), Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI), and other related indexes |journal= |volume=44 |issue=1 |pages=108 |id= |url= |accessdate= 2008-03-29 |quote= ]
*Cost of resource depletion
*Cost of crime
*Cost of ozone depletion
*Cost of family breakdown
*Cost of air, water, and noise pollution
*Loss of farmland
*Loss of wetlands
Robert Costanzaalso around 1995 of nature's servicesand their value showed that a great deal of degradation of nature's ability to clear waste, prevent erosion, pollinate crops, etc., was being done in the name of monetary profit opportunity: this was adding to GDP but causing a great deal of long term risk in the form of mudslides, reduced yields, lost species, water pollution, etc.. Such effects have been very marked in areas that suffered serious deforestation, notably Haiti, Indonesia, and some coastal mangroveregions of Indiaand South America. Some of the worst land abuses for instance have been shrimp farming operations that destroyed mangroves, evicted families, left coastal lands salted and useless for agriculture, but generated a significant cash profit for those who were able to control the export market in shrimp: this has become a signal example to those who contest the idea that GDP growth is necessarily desirable.
GPI takes account of these problems by incorporating
sustainability: whether a country's economic activity over a year has left the country with a better or worse future possibility of repeating at least the same level of economic activity in the long run. For example, agricultural activity that uses replenishing water resources, such as river runoff, will score a higher GPI than the same level of agricultural activity that drastically lowers the water table by pumping irrigation water from wells.
"Income" vs. "capital depletion"
Hicks (1946) pointed out that the practical purpose of calculating income is to indicate the maximum amount people can produce and consume without undermining their capacity to produce and consume the same amount in the future. From a national income perspective, it is necessary to answer the following question: ‘‘Can a nation’s entire GDP be consumed without undermining its ability to produce and consume the same GDP in the future?’’
"Enjoyment of life" vs. "production of goods"
Fisher (1906) contended that "economic welfare depends on the psychic enjoyment of life," not just the production of goods.
At least 11 countries (including Austria, England, Sweden and Germany) have recalculated their gross domestic product using the GPI. The data for European countries and the United States show a steady decline over the last 30 years [ [http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-54623303.html "REAL WEALTH"] Linda Baker, Earth Action Network
Applying the Genuine Progress Indicator to legislative decisions
The best known attempt to apply a GPI to legislative decisions is probably the [http://gpiatlantic.org GPI Atlantic] indicator pioneered by Ronald Colman for
Nova Scotia, the [http://www.fiscallygreen.ca/gpi/index.php Alberta GPI] pioneered by economist Mark Anielskito measure the long-term economic, social and environmental sustainability of the province of Albertaand the environmental and sustainable development indicators used by the Government of Canadato measure its own progress to achieving well-being goals: its [http://www.nrtee-trnee.ca/eng/programs/Past-Programs/indicators/indicators-eng.html Environment and Sustainable Development Indicators Initiative (Canada)] is a substantial effort to justify state servicesin GPI terms. It assigns the [http://www.oag-bvg.gc.ca/domino/cesd_cedd.nsf/html/menu8_e.html Commissioner for the Environment and Sustainable Development (Canada)] , an officer in the Auditor-General of Canada's office, to perform the analysis and report to the House of Commons.
This has not satisfied the stricter advocates of GPI, however: Canada continues to state its overall budgetary targets in terms of reducing its
debt to GDP ratio, which implies that GDP increase and debt reduction in some combination are its main priorities.
In the EU the
Metropoleefforts and the London Health Observatorymethods are equivalents focused mostly on urban lifestyle.
The EU and Canadian efforts are among the most advanced in any of the
G8or OECDnations, but there are parallel efforts to measure quality of lifeor standard of livingin health(not strictly wealth) terms in all developed nations. This has also been a recent focus of the labour movement.
Gross National Happinesswas coined by the king of Bhutan.
* [http://www.gpiatlantic.org/clippings/mc_planning.shtml Canada planning applications] . GDP has functioned as an "income sheet." GPI will function as a "balance sheet," taking into consideration that some income sources are very costly and contribute a negative profit overall.
* [http://www.redefiningprogress.org/projects/gpi/ Redefining Progress] . Reports and analyses. A non-profit organization with headquarters in Oakland, California. See also: [http://www.rprogress.org/publications/index.htm Publications of Redefining Progress]
* [http://www.eqb.state.mn.us/SDIdirectory/52.html Minnesota's Progress Indicator]
Full cost accounting(FCA) (with relevance to the environment)
Green Gross Domestic Product(Green GDP)
Gross Domestic Product(GDP)
Happy Planet Index(HPI)
Human Development Index(HDI)
ISEW(Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare)
*“Advantage or Illusion: Is Alberta’s Progress Sustainable?” by Mark Anielski. "Encompass" Vol. 5, No. 5, July/August 2001.
*"The Growth Consensus Unravels" by Jonathan Rowe. "Dollars and Sense", July-August 1999, pp. 15-18, 33.
*"Real Wealth: The Genuine Progress Indicator Could Provide an Environmental Measure of the Planet's Health" by Linda Baker. "E Magazine", May/June 1999, pp. 37-41.
*"The GDP Myth: Why 'Growth' Isn't Always a Good Thing" by Jonathan Rowe, and Judith Silverstein. "
Washington Monthly", March 1999, pp. 17-21.
*"If the GDP Is Up, Why Is America Down?" by Clifford Cobb, Ted Halstead, and Jonathan Rowe. "
Atlantic Monthly", October 1995, pp. 59-78.
*"Economic Issues" by Lusi Song, Troy Martin, and Timothy Polo. "4EM Taylor", May 28, 2008, pp. 1-3.
cientific articles and books
*Anielski, M, M. Griffiths, D. Pollock, A. Taylor, J. Wilson, S. Wilson. 2001. Alberta Sustainability Trends 2000: Genuine Progress Indicators Report 1961 to 1999. Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development. April 2001.
*Anielski, M. 2001. The Alberta GPI Blueprint: The Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) Sustainable Well-Being Accounting System. Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development. September 2001.
*Anielski, M. and C. Soskolne. 2001. “Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) Accounting: Relating Ecological Integrity to Human Health and Well-Being.” Paper in Just Ecological Integrity: The Ethics of Maintaining Planetary Life, eds. Peter Miller and Laura Westra. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield: pp. 83-97.
*Daly, H., 1996. "Beyond Growth: The Economics of Sustainable Development". Beacon Press, Boston.
*Daly, H. & Cobb, J., 1989. "For the Common Good". Beacon Press, Boston.
*Fisher, I., 1906. "Nature of Capital and Income". A.M. Kelly, New York.
*Hicks, J., 1946. "
Value and Capital", Second Edition. Clarendon, London.
*Lawn, P.A. "A theoretical foundation to support the Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare (ISEW), Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI), and other related indexes". "Ecological Economics" 44 (2003) 105-118.
*Max-Neef, M. "Economic growth and quality of life". "Ecological Economics" "'15" (1995) 115-118.
*"Redefining Progress", 1995. "Gross production vs genuine progress". Excerpt from the Genuine Progress Indicator: Summary of Data and Methodology. Redefining Progress, San Francisco.
* [http://www.flora.org/sustain/7GI/Hansard-June2-03.shtml Hansard record of Canadian House of Commons debate of June 2, 2003]
* [http://www.gpiatlantic.org/ GPI Atlantic]
* [http://www.rprogress.org/projects/gpi/ GPI at Redefining Progress]
* [http://www.anielski.com/Publications.htm Alberta GPI at Anielski Management Inc.]
* [http://www.fiscallygreen.ca/gpi/index.php/ Alberta GPI at The Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development]
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