List of Russian rulers


List of Russian rulers
Monarchy of Russia
Former Monarchy
Imperial
Lesser Coat of Arms of Russian Empire.svg
Imperial Coat of arms
Nicholas II of Russia painted by Earnest Lipgart.jpg
Nicholas II
First monarch Rurik
(as Grand Prince)
Last monarch Nicholas II
(as Emperor)
Style His/Her Imperial Majesty
Monarchy started c.860
Monarchy ended 15 March 1917
Current pretender Disputed
Nicholas Romanov
(Nikolaevichi branch)[citation needed]
Maria Vladimirovna
(Vladimirovichi branch)

The vast territory known today as Russia covers an area that has been known historically by various names, including Rus', Kievan Rus', the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire, and the sovereigns of these many nations and throughout their histories have used likewise as wide a range of titles in their positions as chief magistrates of a country. Some of the earliest titles include Kniaz and Velikiy Kniaz, which mean "Prince" and "Great Prince" respectively but are often rendered as "Duke" and "Grand Duke" in Western literature; then the title of Tsar, meaning "Caesar", which was disputed to be the equal of either a king or emperor; finally culminating in the title of Emperor. The full title of the Russian Emperors, according to Article 59 of the 1906 Russian Constitution, was given as:

Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias, of Moscow, Kiev, Vladimir, Novgorod, Tsar of Kazan, Tsar of Astrakhan, Tsar of Poland, Tsar of Siberia, Tsar of Tauric Chersonesos, Tsar of Georgia, Lord of Pskov, and Grand Duke of Smolensk, Lithuania, Volhynia, Podolia, and Finland, Prince of Estonia, Livonia, Courland and Semigalia, Samogitia, Belostok, Karelia, Tver, Yugra, Perm, Vyatka, Bulgaria and other territories; Lord and Grand Duke of Nizhni Novgorod, Sovereign of Chernigov, Ryazan, Polotsk, Rostov, Yaroslavl, Beloozero, Udoria, Obdoria, Kondia, Vitebsk, Mstislavl, and all northern territories; Sovereign of Iveria, Kartalinia, and the Kabardinian lands and Armenian territories – hereditary Lord and Ruler of the Circassians and Mountain Princes and others; Lord of Turkestan, Heir of Norway, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein, Stormarn, Dithmarschen, Oldenburg, and so forth, and so forth, and so forth.

The Patriarchs of Moscow, who are the head of Russian Orthodox Church, also have acted as the leaders of Russia from time to time, usually in periods of political upheaval as during the Polish occupation and interregnum of 1610–1613.

Contents

Princes of Novgorod

Legendary princes of Novgorod

Novgorod Rus

Monarch Portrait Born-Died Ruled from Ruled until
Rurik Rurik titularnik.jpg ?–879 862 879
Oleg of Novgorod Russian konung Oleg by Vasnetsov-2.jpg ?–912 879 882

Grand Princes of Kiev (c. 862–1132)

Monarch Portrait Born-Died Ruled from Ruled until
Askold and Dir (non-Rurikids) no image ?–882 842[1][2] or 862 882
Oleg of Novgorod Russian konung Oleg by Vasnetsov-2.jpg ?–912 882 912
Igor of Kiev Radzivill Igor-945.jpg ?–945 913[3] 945
Olga of Kiev (regent) Olga by Roerich 2.jpg ?–969 945 962
Sviatoslav I Sviatoslav sculputre.jpg 942–972 962 972
Yaropolk I Yaropolk murder.jpg 958 (960?)–980 972 980
Vladimir the Great St. Volodymyr.jpg 958–1015 980 1015
Sviatopolk the Accursed Sviatopolk silver srebrenik.jpg 980–1019 1015 1019
Yaroslav the Wise Bilibin yaroslav.jpg 978–1054 1019 1054
Iziaslav I of Kiev no image 1024–1078 1054 1068
Vseslav of Polotsk Usiaslau sr 2005.gif 1039–1101 1068 1069
Iziaslav I of Kiev (second time) no image 1024–1078 1069 1073
Sviatoslav II of Kiev Izbornik.jpg 1027–1076 1073 1076
Iziaslav I of Kiev (third time) no image 1024–1078 1076 1078
Vsevolod I of Kiev no image 1030–1093 1078 1093
Sviatopolk II of Kiev no image 1050–1113 1093 1113
Vladimir II Monomakh Vladimir Monomakh.jpg 1053–1125 1113 1125
Mstislav the Great Mstislav I of Kiev (Tsarskiy titulyarnik).jpg 1076–1132 1125 1132

Disintegrated Kievan Rus (c. 1132–1518)

Novgorod Republic (1136–1478)

  • Sviatoslav Olgovich, 1136–1138
  • Sviatopolk Mstislavich (2nd time), 1138
  • Rostislav Yurevich, 1138–1140
  • Sviatoslav Olgovich (2nd time), 1140–1141
  • Sviatoslav Vsevolodich, 1141
  • Rostislav Yurevich (2nd time), 1141–1142
  • Sviatopolk Mstislavich, 1142–1148
  • Yaroslav II of Kiev, 1148–1154
  • Rostislav Mstislavich, 1154
  • David Rostislavich of Smolensk, 1154–1155
  • Mstislav Yurevich, 1155–1158
  • Sviatoslav Rostislavich of Smolensk, 1158–1160
  • Mstislav the Eyeless, 1160–1161
  • Sviatoslav Rostislavich (2nd time), 1161–1168
  • Roman the Great, 1168–1170
  • Rurik Rostislavich, 1170–1171
  • Yuri Andreevich, 1171–1175
  • Sviatoslav Mstislavich, 1175–1176
  • Mstislav the Eyeless (2nd time), 1177
  • Yaroslav Mstislavich, 1177
  • Mstislav the Eyeless (3rd time), 1177–1178
  • Yaropolk Rostislavich, 1178
  • Roman Rostislavich, 1178–1179
  • Mstislav Rostislavich ("the Bold"), 1179–1180
  • Vladimir Sviatoslavich, 1180–1181
  • Yaroslav Vladimirovich, 1182–1184
  • Mstislav-Boris Davidovich, 1184–1187
  • Yaroslav Vladimirovich (2nd time), 1187–1196
  • Yaropolk Yaroslavich, 1197
  • Yaroslav Vladimirovich (3rd time), 1197–1199
  • Sviatoslav Vsevolodich, 1200–1205
  • Konstantin Vsevolodich, 1205–1207
  • Sviatoslav Vsevolodich (2nd time), 1207–1210
  • Mstislav Mstislavich, 1210–1215
  • Yaroslav II of Vladimir, 1215–1216
  • Mstislav Mstislavich (2nd time), 1216–1218
  • Sviatoslav Mstislavich, 1218–1219
  • Vsevolod Mstislavich, 1219–1221
  • Vsevolod Yurevich (Dmitry), 1221
  • Yaroslav II of Vladimir (2nd time), 1221–1223
  • Vsevolod Yurevich (2nd time), 1223–1224
  • Michael of Chernigov, 1225
  • Yaroslav II of Vladimir (3rd time), 1224–1228
  • Fedor Yaroslavich, 1228–1229
  • Alexander Nevsky, 1228–1229
  • Michael of Chernigov (2nd time), 1229
  • Rostislav Mikhailovich, 1229–1230
  • Yaroslav II of Vladimir (4th time), 1230–1236
  • Alexander Nevsky (2nd time), 1236–1240
  • Andrey II of Vladimir, 1240–1241
  • Alexander Nevsky (3rd time), 1241–1252
  • Vasily Aleksandrovich, 1252–1255
  • Yaroslav of Tver, 1255
  • Vasily Aleksandrovich (2nd time), 1255–1258
  • Alexander Nevsky (4th time), 1258–1260
  • Dmitry of Pereslavl, 1260–1263
  • Vasily of Kostroma, 1264–1272
  • Dmitry of Pereslavl (2nd time), 1272–1273
  • Vasily of Kostroma (2nd time), 1273–1276
  • Dmitry of Pereslavl (3rd time), 1276–1281
  • Andrey of Gorodets, 1281–1285
  • Dmitry of Pereslavl (4th time), 1285–1292
  • Andrey of Gorodets (2nd time), 1292–1304
  • Mikhail of Tver, 1308–1314
  • Afanasiy Danilovich, 1314–1315
  • Mikhail of Tver (2nd time), 1315–1316
  • Afanasiy Danilovich (2nd time), 1318–1322
  • Yury of Moscow, 1322–1325
  • Alexander of Tver, 1325–1327
  • Ivan I of Moscow (Kalita, "the Money-bag"), 1328–1337
  • Simeon of Moscow, 1346–1353
  • Ivan II of Moscow, 1355–1359
  • Dmitry of Suzdal, 1359–1363
  • Dmitry Donskoy, 1363–1389
  • Lengvenis of Lithuania, 1389–1392, 1406–1411
  • Vasily I of Moscow, 1408–1425
  • Vasily II of Moscow, 1425–1462
  • Jonas Vladimiraitis of Lithuania, Duke of Bely (1444–1446)
  • Ivan III of Moscow ("the Great"), 1462–1478

Grand Princes of Vladimir-Suzdal (1168–1389)

Grand Prince of Vladimir, Alexander Nevsky 1252–1263

Grand Princes of Tver (1246–1485)

  • Yaroslav of Tver, 1246–1271
  • Sviatoslav of Tver, 1271–1285
  • Michael the Saint, 1285–1318
  • Dmitry the Terrible Eyes, 1318–1326
  • Alexander I of Tver, 1326–1328
  • Konstantin of Tver, 1328–1338
  • Alexander I of Tver, (2nd time) 1338–1339
  • Konstantin of Tver, (2nd time) 1339–1346
  • Vsevolod of Tver, 1346–1349
  • Vasily of Kashin, 1349–1368
  • Mikhail II of Tver, 1368–1399
  • Ivan of Tver, 1399–1425
  • Alexander II of Tver, 1425
  • Yury of Tver, 1425
  • Boris the Great, 1425–1461
  • Mikhail III the Exile, 1461–1485

Grand Princes of Moscow (1283–1547)

Honour monopolized by rulers of Moscow principality, but see also Grand Prince (of Lithuania)

Rurik Dynasty

Monarch Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Became prince Died (ceased to be prince)
Daniel Danila titularnik.jpg 1261
son of Alexander Nevsky
Maria
6 children
1283 4 March 1303
Yuriy Jurij of Moscov.jpg 1281
son of Prince Daniel and Maria
Konchaka (sister of Uzbeg Khan)
no children
4 March 1303 21 November 1325
Ivan I Kalita (the Moneybag) Ivan Kalita.jpg 1288
son of Prince Daniel and Maria
Helena
9 children
21 November 1325 31 March 1340
Simeon the Proud Simeon Dumny.jpg 7 November 1316
son of Prince Ivan I and Helena
Anastasia of Lithuania
no children

Euphraxia of Smolensk
no children

Maria of Tver
4 sons (died young)
31 March 1340 27 April 1353
Ivan II Ivan krasniy titularnik.jpg 30 March 1326
son of Prince Ivan I and Helena
Fedosia Dmitrievna of Bryansk
no children

Alexandra Ivanovna Velyaminova
4 children
27 April 1353 13 November 1359
Dmitry I of the Don Dmitri Donskoy.jpg 12 October 1350
son of Prince Ivan II and Alexandra Ivanovna
Eudoxia Dmitrievna of Nizhny Novgorod
12 children
13 November 1359 19 May 1389
Vasiliy I Vasily Dmitrievich titularnik.jpg 30 December 1371
son of Prince Dmitry I and Eudoxia Dmitrievna
Sophia of Lithuania
9 children
19 May 1389 27 February 1425
Vasiliy II Tyomniy (the Blind) Vasil2b.gif 10 March 1415
son of Prince Vasiliy I and Sophia of Lithuania
Maria Yaroslavna of Borovsk
3 children
27 February 1425 27 March 1462
Ivan III the Great Ivan III of Russia 3.jpg 22 January 1440
son of Prince Vasiliy II and Maria Yaroslavna
Maria Borisovna of Tver
one son

Sophia Palaiologina
8 children
5 April 1462 6 November 1505
Vasiliy III Vasiliy3 titularnik.jpg 25 March 1479
son of Prince Ivan III and Sophie Palaiologina
Solomonia Yuryevna Saburova
no children

Elana Vasilyevna Glinskaya
2 sons
6 November 1505 13 December 1533
Ivan IV the Terrible Ivan grozny frame.jpg 25 August 1530
son of Prince Vasili III and Elena Glinskaya
unmarried as Prince 13 December 1533 28 March 1584 (title of Grand
Prince replaced by Tsar on
26 January 1547)

Tsars of Russia (1547–1721)

Rurik Dynasty

Monarch Portrait Born Marriage(s) Became tsar Died (ceased to be tsar)
Ivan IV the Terrible Ivan grozny frame.jpg 25 August 1530
son of Prince Vasili III and Elena Glinskaya
Anastasia Romanovna Zakharyina-Yurieva
6 children

Maria Temryukovna
one son (died young)

Marfa Vasilevna Sobakina

Anna Alexeievna Koltovskaya

Anna Vasilchikova

Vasilisa Melentyeva

Maria Dolgorukaya

Maria Feodorovna Nagaya
one son
26 January 1547 28 March 1584
Feodor I Tsarskiy titulyarnik feodor iv.jpg 31 May 1557 Irina Feodorovna Godunova
one daughter (died young)
28 March 1584 17 January 1598

Time of Troubles (1598–1613)

Dates are listed in the Old Style, which continued to be used in Russia.
Monarch Portrait Family Born Marriage Became tsar Ceased to be tsar Died
Boris Godunov Borisgodunov.jpg Godunov c.1551
son of Feodor Ivanovich Godunov and Stepanida
Maria Grigorievna Skuratova-Belskaya
2 children
21 February 1598 13 April 1605
Feodor II Tsar Fyodr II.jpg Godunov 1589
son of Tsar Boris and Maria Grigorievna
unmarried 13 April 1605 1 June 1605
Dmitry II
known as
False Dmitry I
Dymitr Samozwaniec.jpg usurper (claimed to be of the Rurik dynasty) c. 1581 Marina Mniszech
no children
1 June 1605 17 May 1606 27 May 1606
Vasiliy IV Basil IV.jpg Shuysky (a branch of the Rurik dynasty) 22 September 1552 unmarried 19 May 1606 27 July 1610 12 September 1612
Dmitry III
known as
False Dmitry II
Pseudo-Dimitrij.jpg usurper (claimed to be of the Rurik dynasty) c. 1582 Marina Mniszech
one son (posthumous)
10 July 1607 11 December 1610 21 December 1610
Dmitry IV
known as
False Dmitry III
Sin foto.svg usurper (claimed to be of the Rurik dynasty) unknown unknown 28 March 1611 18 May 1612 c. 1612

Council of Seven Boyars (27 July 1610 – 4 November 1612)

The Seven Boyars (the Boyar Duma), a group of the highest Russian nobles, deposed the tsar Vasily IV on 27 July [O.S. 17 July] 1610, and recognized the Polish prince Władysław IV Vasa as the new tsar on 6 September [O.S. 27 August] 1610.[4][5] The Poles entered Moscow on 21 September [O.S. 11 September] 1610:

  • Prince Fedor Puto Ivanovich Mstislavsky (the leader of the group)
  • Prince Andrey Vasilyevich Troubetskoy
  • Prince Boris Mikhailovich Lykov-Obolensky
  • Prince Ivan Mikhailovich Vorotynsky (to March 1611)
  • Prince Vasily Vasilyevich Golitsyn (to 8 April 1611)
  • Boyar Ivan Nikitich Romanov
  • Boyar Fedor Ivanovich Sheremetev

Later, the members of the council were also:

  • Mikhail Fedorovich Nagoy (from March 1611)
  • Ivan Semenovich Kurakin (from 8 April 1611)

The Deeds of the Seven Boyars had existed until the Poles were driven from Moscow on 4 November [O.S. 25 October] 1612.

House of Vasa

Monarch Portrait Born Marriage Became tsar Ceased to be tsar Died
Vladislaus LadislasIV.jpg 9 June 1595, Łobzów, near Kraków, Poland Cecilia Renata of Austria
no children

Marie Louise Gonzaga
no children
6 September 1610. However, the official condition for Vladislaus to ascend the Russian throne was his conversion to Russian Orthodoxy which was never fulfilled. Vladislaus neither came to Moscow, nor has he ever been crowned as the Russian Tsar 4 November 1612 (deposed)
14 June 1634 (resigned his claim)
20 May 1648

Merkinė, Lithuania

Council of All the Land (17 April 1611 – 26 July 1613)

(In opposition to the Poles and Władysław IV Vasa):

House of Romanov

Monarch Portrait Birth Marriages Tsar from Tsar until Death
Michael I Tsar Mikhail I -cropped.JPG 12 July 1596
Moscow
son of Feodor Nikitich Romanov and Kseniya Ioannovna Shestova
Maria Vladimirovna Dolgorukova
1624
one stillborn child

Eudoxia Lukyanovna Streshneva
5 February 1626
ten children
26 July 1613 14 July 1645 14 July 1645
Moscow
aged 49
Alexis I Alexis I of Russia.jpg 9 May 1629
Moscow
son of Tsar Michael I and Eudoxia Lukyanova Streshneva
Maria Ilyinichna Miloslavskaya
17 January 1648
13 children

Natalia Kirillovna Naryshkina
1 February 1671
3 children
14 July 1645 29 January 1676 29 January 1676
Moscow
aged 46
Feodor III Feodor III of Russia.jpg 9 June 1661
Moscow
son of Tsar Alexis I and Maria Ilyinichna Miloslavskaya
Agaphia Simeonovna Grushevskaya
28 July 1680
one son

Marfa Matveievna Apraksina
24 February 1682
no children
29 January 1676 7 May 1682 7 May 1682
Moscow
aged 20
Ivan V
jointly with Peter I
Ivan V kremlin.jpg 6 September 1666
Moscow
son of Tsar Alexis I and Maria Ilyinichina Miloslavskaya
Praskovia Feodorovna Saltykova
1684
5 daughters
2 June 1682 8 February 1696 8 February 1696
aged 29
Peter I the Great
jointly with Ivan V 1682–1696
Peter de Grote.jpg 9 June 1672
Moscow
son of Tsar Alexis I and Natalia Kirillovna Naryshkina
Eudoxia Feodorovna Lopukhina
1689
3 children

Marta Helena Skowrońska
1707
9 children
7 May 1682 2 November 1721 8 February 1725
aged 52

Emperors of Russia (1721–1917)

(Also Grand Princes of Finland from 1809 until 1917; and Kings of Poland from 1815 until 1916)

The monarchs listed below reigned with absolute power until 1905, and then with executive and administrative powers from 1905–1917.

House of Romanov

Monarch Portrait Birth Marriages Emperor from Emperor until Death
Peter I the Great, Father of the Fatherland Peter de Grote.jpg 9 June 1672
Moscow
son of Tsar Alexei and Natalia Kirillovna Naryshkina
Eudoxia Feodorovna Lopukhina
1689
3 children

Marta Helena Skowrońska
1707
9 children
1682 8 February 1725 8 February 1725
aged 52
Catherine I Catherine I of Russia by Nattier.jpg 15 April 1684
Ringen (Rõngu), Duchy of Livonia
daughter of Samuel Skowroński and Elisabeth Moritz
Peter I of Russia
1707
9 children
8 February 1725 17 May 1727 17 May 1727
Saint Petersburg
aged 43
Peter II PietroIIRussia.1730.jpg 23 October 1715
Saint Petersburg
son of Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich and Princess Charlotte Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
unmarried 18 May 1727 30 January 1730 30 January 1730
Moscow
aged 14
Anna Louis Caravaque, Portrait of Empress Anna Ioannovna (1730).jpg 7 February 1693
Moscow
daughter of Tsar Ivan V and Praskovia Feodorovna Saltykova
Frederick Wilhelm, Duke of Courland
November 1710
no children
13 February 1730 28 October 1740 28 October 1740
aged 47
Ivan VI Ivan VI of Russia.jpg 23 August 1740
Saint Petersburg
son of Duke Anthony Ulrich of Brunswick and Grand Duchess Anna Leopoldovna of Russia
unmarried 28 October 1740 6 December 1741 16 July 1764
Shlisselburg (murdered)
aged 23
Elizabeth Carle Vanloo, Portrait de l’impératrice Élisabeth Petrovna (1760).jpg 29 December 1709
Kolomenskoye
daughter of Emperor Peter I and Empress Catherine I
Alexey Razumovsky
1742
no children
6 December 1741 5 January 1762 5 January 1762
aged 52
Peter III Coronation portrait of Peter III of Russia -1761.JPG 21 February 1728
Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein
son of Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp and Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna
Princess Sophie Friederike Auguste of Anhalt-Zerbst
16 August 1745
one son
5 January 1762 9 July 1762 17 July 1762 (murdered)
Ropsha
aged 34
Catherine II the Great, the Wise, Mother of the Fatherland Johann-Baptist Lampi d. Ä. 007.jpg 2 May 1729
Stettin, Kingdom of Prussia, Holy Roman Empire
daughter of Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst and Princess Johanna Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp
Peter III of Russia
16 August 1745
one son
9 July 1762 6 November 1796 6 November 1796
Saint Petersburg
aged 67
Paul I Paul i russia.jpg 1 October 1754
Saint Petersburg
son of Emperor Peter III and Empress Catherine II
Princess Wilhelmina Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt
29 September 1773
one stillborn daughter

Princess Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg
26 September 1776
ten children
17 November 1796 11 March 1801 11 March 1801 (assassinated)
Saint Michael's Castle, Saint Petersburg
aged 46
Alexander I the Blessed Alexander I of Russia.PNG 23 December 1777
Saint Petersburg
son of Emperor Paul I and Maria Feodorovna (Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg)
Princess Louise of Baden
28 September 1793
2 daughters
24 March 1801 1 December 1825 1 December 1825
Taganrog
aged 47
Constantine I (disputed) Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich of Russia.JPG 27 April 1779
Tsarskoye Selo
son of Emperor Paul I and Maria Feodorovna (Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg)
Princess Juliane of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
26 February
no children
1 December 1825 26 December 1825 27 June 1831
Vitebsk
aged 52
Nicholas I the Unforgettable Tsar Nicholas I -3.jpg 6 July 1796
Gatchina
son of Emperor Paul I and Maria Feodorovna (Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg)
Princess Charlotte of Prussia
13 July 1817
7 children
26 December 1825 2 March 1855 2 March 1855
Saint Petersburg
aged 58
Alexander II the Liberator Makovsky Alexander II of Russia.jpg 29 April 1818
Moscow
son of Emperor Nicholas I and Alexandra Feodorovna (Charlotte of Prussia)
Princess Marie of Hesse and by Rhine
16 April 1841
8 children
2 March 1855 13 March 1881 13 March 1881 (assassinated)
Saint Petersburg
aged 62
Alexander III the Peace-Maker Kramskoy Alexander III.jpg 10 March 1845
Saint Petersburg
son of Emperor Alexander II and Maria Alexandrovna (Marie of Hesse)
Princess Dagmar of Denmark
9 November 1866
6 children
13 March 1881 1 November 1894 1 November 1894
Livadiya, Crimea
aged 49
Nicholas II Repin Nikolay2.jpg 6 May 1868
Tsarskoye Selo
son of Emperor Alexander III and Maria Feodorovna (Dagmar of Denmark)
Princess Alix of Hesse and by Rhine
26 November 1894
5 children
1 November 1894 15 March 1917 17 July 1918 (executed)
Yekaterinburg, Russian SFSR
aged 50
Michael II (disputed) Mikhail Aleksandrovich by Repin.JPG 22 November 1878
Tsarskoye Selo
son of Emperor Alexander III and Maria Feodorovna (Dagmar of Denmark)
Natalia Brassova
15 October 1911
one son (born before his parents' marriage)
15 March 1917 16 March 1917 12 June 1918 (murdered)
Perm, Russian SFSR
aged 39

See List of leaders of Russia for the continuation of leadership.

Pretenders to the Russian throne since 1917

See Line of succession to the Russian throne

See also

References

  1. ^ Suszko, Henryk (2003). Latopis hustyński. Opracowanie, przekład i komentarze. Slavica Wratislaviensia CXXIV. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego. ISBN 83-229-2412-7; Tolochko, Oleksiy (2010). The Hustyn' Chronicle. (Harvard Library of Early Ukrainian Literature: Texts) ISBN 978-1-932650-03-7
  2. ^ according to the Tale of Bygone Years, the date is not clearly identified
  3. ^ officially
  4. ^ Lev Gumilev (1992), Ot Rusi k Rossii. Ocherki e'tnicheskoj istorii [From Rus' to Russia], Moscow: Ekopros.
  5. ^ Michel Heller (1997), Histoire de la Russie et de son empire [A history of Russia and its empire], Paris: Plon.

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