Royal 22e Régiment


Royal 22e Régiment

Infobox Military Unit
unit_name=Royal 22e Régiment


caption=Cap badge of Le Royal 22e Régiment
dates=14 October 1914-
country=Canada
country=flag|Canada|1868
branch=Canadian Army
type=Line Infantry
role=Mechanized Infantry (two battalions)
Light Role Infantry/Paratroop (one battalion)
Reserve (two battalions)
size= Five battalions
command_structure= Royal Canadian Infantry Corps
current_commander=
garrison= Le quartier général - Quebec City
1er Bataillon - Valcartier
2e Bataillon - Quebec City
3e Bataillon - Valcartier
4e Batallion - Laval
6e Batallion - Saint-Hyacinthe
ceremonial_chief= HM The Queen
ceremonial_chief_label=Colonel en Chef
colonel_of_the_regiment= Général Maurice Baril, CMM, MSM, CD
colonel_of_the_regiment_label=Colonel du Régiment
nickname= "The Van Doos"
motto= "Je me souviens" (I Remember)
colors=
march= Quick: "Vive la Canadienne"
Slow: "Marche lente du Royal 22e Régiment: La Prière en famille"
mascot=Goat named "Bâtisse X"
battles=
identification_symbol=Red
Left of Bearskin cap
identification_symbol_label=Plume
identification_symbol_4=R22eR
identification_symbol_4_label=Abbreviation
notable_commanders=
anniversaries=
The Royal 22e Régiment is an infantry regiment and the most famous francophone organization of the Canadian Forces. The regiment comprises three Regular Force battalions, two Primary Reserve battalions, and a band, making it the largest regiment in the Canadian Army. The ceremonial home of the regiment is La Citadelle in Quebec City, where the regimental museum is housed. The regiment is nicknamed the Van Doos, a corruption of "vingt-deux", French for "twenty-two." The regiment's regimental headquarters is located in Quebec City, with all three of its regular battalions stationed at various bases in the province of Quebec. The regiment serves as the "local" infantry regiment for Quebec.

History

The ancestor of the regiment was formed in the early days of the First World War, when volunteers from all over Canada were being massed for training at Valcartier, Quebec, just outside of Quebec City. The first contingent of 30,000 volunteers, which became the 1st Canadian Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force, were grouped into numbered battalions, regardless of origin. The existing reserve regiments were not mobilized, due to the belief of the Defence Minister, Sam Hughes, that a new "efficient" structure was required. In the process, the new structure failed to create French-speaking units, such as those that had existed in the reserves. Over 1000 French-Canadian volunteers were scattered into different English-speaking units. This was not an oversight. Ontario (Hughes's political base) was in the process of forbidding teaching in French, or of French, in the school system (Regulation 17), causing outrage in French Canada and a lack of support for the war of the "king and country" that was perceived as seeking to destroy the Francophone community in Canada.

The second contingent was based, more logically, on battalions raised and trained in the various military districts in which they had been recruited, but still on an impersonal numbered basis (with the exception of some with a Highland or Irish identity). Considerable political pressure in Quebec, along with public rallies, demanded the creation of French-speaking units to fight a war that many viewed as being right and necessary, despite Regulation 17 in Ontario. When the government relented, the first such unit was the 22nd (French Canadian) Infantry Battalion, CEF. The 22nd went to France as part of the 5th Canadian Brigade and the 2nd Canadian Division in September 1915, and fought with distinction in every major Canadian engagement until the end of the war. While other French-speaking units were also created, they were all broken up upon arrival in France to provide reinforcements for the 22nd, which suffered close to 4000 wounded and killed in the course of the war. Two members of the 22nd were awarded the Victoria Cross in that war, Lieutenant Jean Brillant and Corporal Joseph Kaeble.

After the war, the 22nd Battalion was disbanded on May 20 1919, sharing the fate of the other numbered battalions of the Canadian Expeditionary Force. However, in the post-war reorganizations of the army, public pressure, such as resolutions by the Legislative Assembly of Quebec as well as the City Council of Quebec City, demanded that a permanent French-language unit be created in the peace-time Regular Force, and accordingly a new regiment was created, made up of veterans of the 22nd Battalion, on April 1 1920. Initially the regiment, which was given the guard of the Citadelle of Quebec, was simply the 22nd Regiment, but in June 1921 King George V approved renaming it The Royal 22nd Regiment. In 1928 the anomaly of a French-language unit with an English name was resolved, and the regiment became the Royal 22e Régiment.

In 1940, the regiment became the first Francophone Canadian unit to mount the King's Guard in London, and was the first of the three current Regular Force regiments to do so.

In the Second World War the regiment was part of the 3rd Canadian Infantry Brigade and the 1st Canadian Infantry Division and was involved in intense combat in Italy, (where Captain Paul Triquet earned the Victoria Cross) and later in the Netherlands and northwest Germany.

During the Korean War, 1951–1953, the regiment expanded to three battalions, each serving in turn as part of the Canadian brigade in the 1st Commonwealth Division. Thus the "Van Doos" represented one-third of Canada's infantry contingent throughout the war.

During the Cold War the regular battalions of the regiment served, in turn, in West Germany as part of 4 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group, with the 1er Batallion serving permanently from 1967 until the withdrawal in 1993.

The regiment also served during the Oka Crisis (see photo, right).

During the life of the Canadian Airborne Regiment (1968–1995) the 1er Commando was manned as a French-speaking sub-unit by soldiers of the Royal 22e Régiment.

In the 1950s, the Canadian Army promoted a scheme of administratively associating reserve infantry regiments with a regular one. Although this project did not make much progress in most of the army, three reserve regiments did join the Van Doos, becoming battalions of the Royal 22e Régiment:

In the case of Les Fusiliers du Saint-Laurent, the battalion designation was in a subsidiary title, but it became nevertheless, administratively, part of the Royal 22e Régiment. However, in 1968, Les Fusiliers du Saint-Laurent dropped the subsidiary title, and ended their administrative association with the R22eR.

Afghanistan

The 3rd Battalion (with a mechanized company from the 1st Battalion) provided the basis of the Canadian ISAF contingent in Kabul, Afghanistan, in 2004 (February-August).

In August 2007 a battle group based on the 3rd Battalion of the Royal 22e Régiment returned to Afghanistan, replacing the 2nd Battalion The Royal Canadian Regiment in Kandahar province. The battle group was made up of a company from each of the regiment's three regular battalions. It also included combat support and service support from all the units of 5 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group in Valcartier, Quebec. There was a reconnaissance squadron from the 12e Régiment blindé du Canada, a composite tank squadron from Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) (with troops from the other two armoured regiments), a battery from the 5e Régiment d'artillerie légère du Canada, an engineer squadron from 5 Combat Engineer Regiment as well as support from all the other Valcartier units and about 250 reservists, mostly from Quebec.

The Royal 22e Régiment also provided about 150 trainers (OMLT) for the three Afghan "Kandaks" serving with them. As well it provided a protection company for the PRT in Kandahar.

The regiment distinguished itself in Kandahar through its determined and successful efforts to establish Afghan police sub-stations, protected by ANA and Canadian 24/7 presence, in an ever-widening secure zone in the former Taliban home districts of Zhari and Panjawaii. The battle group, and its associated OMLT and PRT elements, lost 10 men KIA during its 6-month tour.

Battalions

Battle honours

*The Great War: Mont-Sorrel1, Somme 1916 '18, Flers-Courcelette, Thiepval, Les Hauteurs d'Ancre1, Arras 1917 '18, Vimy 1917, Arleux, Scarpe 1917 '18, Côte 701, Ypres 1917, Passchendaele, Amiens, Ligne Hindenburg1, Canal du Nord, Cambrai 1918, Poussée de Mons1, France et Flandres 1915–181
*The Second World War: Débarquement en Sicile1, Valguarnera, Adrano, Catenuova, Sicile 19431, Débarquement à Reggio1, Potenza, Le Sangro1, Casa Berardi, Torre Mucchia, Cassino II, Ligne Gustav1, Vallée de la Liri1, Ligne Hitler1, Ligne Gothique1, Borgo Santa Maria, Passage du Lamone1, Ligne Rimini1, San Martino-San Lorenzo, San Fortunato, Cesena, Italie 1943–19451, Apeldoorn, Nord-Ouest de l'Europe 19451
*Corée 1951–531

1. translated to French in 1958 from original English awards in 1957.

Victoria Cross recipients

*Corporal Joseph Kaeble – 22nd Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force – Neuville-Vitasse, France – June 8 1918
*Lieutenant Jean Brillant – 22nd Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force – near Amiens, France – August 8–9, 1918
*Major Paul Triquet – Royal 22e Régiment – Casa Berardi, Italy – December 14 1943

– Awarded posthumously

A note on the name

Most units of the Canadian Forces have official names in English and in French, but the historic regiments are exceptions, having monolingual names for the sake of tradition. The English name "Royal 22nd Regiment" is often seen, but strictly speaking is incorrect: only the French form is official.

Order of precedence

Regular Force:

Reserve Force:
"Note": The Royal 22e Régiment is last in precedence of Regular Force infantry regiments, and is immediately succeeded by the Governor General's Foot Guards, first in precedence of the Reserve infantry regiments.

Alliances

*GBRThe Royal Welsh
*GBRThe Mercian Regiment; 4e Bn

References

*cite book
title = Ducimus, The Regiments of the Canadian Infantry
publisher = Mobile Command Headquarters, Canadian Armed Forces
date= 1992
location = St. Hubert, Quebec, Canada
pages = 248p.
isbn = 0-9696421-0-5

ee also

* The Canadian Crown and the Canadian Forces
* List of Canadian organizations with royal patronage

External links

* [http://www.r22er.com Royal 22e Régiment] (Regimental Website) (in French)
* [http://www.4r22er.ca/ 4e Royal 22e Régiment]
* [http://www.34gbc6r22er.ca/ 6e Royal 22e Régiment]
* [http://www.armee.forces.gc.ca/mr22r/ La Musique du Royal 22e Régiment]
* [http://www.lacitadelle.qc.ca/ La Citadelle of Quebec and the Royal 22e Régiment Museum]
* [http://archives.cbc.ca/300c.asp?IDCat=71&IDDos=579&IDLan=1&IDMenu=0 CBC Digital Archives – Royal 22e Régiment: Canada's Fighting 'Van Doos']
* [http://archives.radio-canada.ca/300c.asp?IDCat=9&IDDos=534&IDLan=0&IDMenu=9 Les Archives de Radio-Canada – Les militaires du Royal 22e Régiment] (in French)
* [http://archives.cbc.ca/IDCC-1-71-112-734/conflict_war/korea/ CBC Digital Archives – Canada's Van Doos celebrate Christmas in Korea]
* [http://archives.radio-canada.ca/IDCC-0-9-38-313/guerres_conflits/coree/ Les Archives de Radio-Canada – Le Noël des soldats du Royal 22e Régiment] (in French)


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