The Cynics ( _el. Κυνικοί, _la. Cynici) were an influential group of philosophers from the ancient school of Cynicism. Their philosophy was that the purpose of life was to live a life of Virtue in agreement with Nature. This meant rejecting all conventional desires for wealth, power, health, and fame, and by living a life free from all possessions. As reasoning creatures, people could gain happiness by rigorous training and by living in a way which was natural for humans. They believed that the world belonged equally to everyone, and that suffering was caused by false judgments of what was valuable and by the worthless customs and conventions which surrounded society. Many of these thoughts were later absorbed into Stoicism.

The first philosopher to outline these themes was Antisthenes, who had been a pupil of Socrates in the late 5th century BCE. He was followed by Diogenes of Sinope, who lived in a tub on the streets of Athens, took Cynicism to its logical extremes, and came to be seen as the archetypal Cynic philosopher. He was followed by Crates of Thebes who gave away a large fortune so he could live a life of Cynic poverty in Athens. Cynicism spread with the rise of Imperial Rome in the 1st century, and Cynics could be found begging and preaching throughout the cities of the Empire. It finally disappeared in the late 5th century, although many of its ascetic and rhetorical ideas were adopted by early Christians.

Origin of the Cynic name

The name Cynic derives from the Greek word κυνικός, "kunikos", "dog-like" and that from κύων, "kuôn", "dog" (genitive: "kunos"). [ [ Kunikos, "A Greek-English Lexicon", Liddell and Scott, at Perseus] ] One explanation offered in ancient times for why the Cynics were called "dogs" was because the first Cynic, Antisthenes, taught in the Cynosarges gymnasium at Athens. [Diogenes Laërtius, vi. 13. Cf. "The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature", 2nd edition, p. 165.] The word "Cynosarges" means the place of the "white dog". It seems certain, however, that the word "dog" was also thrown at the first Cynics as an insult for their shameless rejection of conventional manners, and their decision to live on the streets. Diogenes, in particular, was referred to as "the Dog", [An obscure reference to "the Dog" in Aristotle's "Rhetoric" (3.10.1411a25) is generally agreed to be the first reference to Diogenes.] a distinction he seems to have revelled in, stating that "other dogs bite their enemies, I bite my friends to save them." [Diogenes of Sinope, from Stobaeus, "Florilegium", iii. 13. 44.] Later Cynics also sought to turn the word to their advantage, as a later commentator explained:

There are four reasons why the "Cynics" are so named. First because of the "indifference" of their way of life, for they make a cult of indifference and, like dogs, eat and make love in public, go barefoot, and sleep in tubs and at crossroads. The second reason is that the dog is a shameless animal, and they make a cult of shamelessness, not as being beneath modesty, but as superior to it. The third reason is that the dog is a good guard, and they guard the tenets of their philosophy. The fourth reason is that the dog is a discriminating animal which can distinguish between its friends and enemies. So do they recognize as friends those who are suited to philosophy, and receive them kindly, while those unfitted they drive away, like dogs, by barking at them.Scholium on Aristotle's "Rhetoric", quoted in Harvnb|Dudley|1937|p=5]


Cynicism is one of the most striking of all the Hellenistic philosophies. It offered people the possibility of happiness and freedom from suffering in an age of uncertainty. Although there was never an official Cynic doctrine, the fundamental principles of Cynicism can be summarised as follows:I. Kidd, "Cynicism", Harvnb|Rée|Urmson|2005] A. A. Long, "The Socratic Tradition: Diogenes, Crates, and Hellenistic Ethics", Harvnb|Bracht Branham|Goulet-Cazé|1996|p=29]
# The goal of life is happiness which is to live in agreement with Nature.
# Happiness depends on being self-sufficient, and a master of mental attitude.
# Self-sufficiency is achieved by living a life of Virtue.
# The road to virtue is to free oneself from any influence such as wealth, fame, or power, which have no value in Nature.
# Suffering is caused by false judgments of value, which cause negative emotions and a vicious character. A Cynic, then, has no property and rejects all conventional values of money, fame, power or reputation. A life lived according to nature requires only the bare necessities required for existence, and one can become free by unshackling oneself from any needs which are the result of convention. The Cynics adopted Hercules as their hero, as epitomizing the ideal Cynic. [Diogenes Laërtius, vi. 2, 71; Dio Chrysostom, [*.html#26 "Orations", viii. 26-32] ; Pseudo-Lucian, [ "Cynicus"] , 13; Lucian, [ "De Morte Peregrini"] , 4, 33, 36.] The Cynic way of life required continuous training, not just in exercising one's judgments and mental impressions, but a physical training as well:

[Diogenes] used to say, that there were two kinds of exercise: that, namely, of the mind and that of the body; and that the latter of these created in the mind such quick and agile impressions at the time of its performance, as very much facilitated the practice of virtue; but that one was imperfect without the other, since the health and vigour necessary for the practice of what is good, depend equally on both mind and body. [Diogenes Laërtius, vi. 70]
None of this meant that the Cynic would retreat from society, far from it, Cynics would live in the full glare of the public's gaze and would be quite indifferent in the face of any insults which might result from their unconventional behaviour. The Cynics are said to have invented the idea of cosmopolitanism: when he was asked where he came from, Diogenes replied that he was "a citizen of the world, (kosmopolitês)"." [Diogenes Laërtius, vi. 63] The ideal Cynic would evangelise; as the of humanity, it was their job to hound people about the error of their ways. The example of the Cynic's life (and the use of the Cynic's biting satire) would dig-up and expose the pretensions which lay at the root of everyday conventions. Although, by concentrating solely on ethics, Cynicism had limited goals, Cynic philosophy had a big impact on the Hellenistic world, ultimately becoming an important influence for Stoicism. The Stoic Apollodorus writing in the 2nd century BCE stated that "Cynicism is the short path to virtue." [Diogenes Laërtius, vii. 121]

History of Cynicism


Various philosophers, such as the Pythagoreans, had advocated simple living in the centuries preceding the Cynics. In the early 6th century BCE, Anacharsis, a Scythian sage had combined plain living together with criticisms of Greek customs in a manner which would become standard among the Cynics. [R. Martin, "The Scythian Accent: Anacharsis and the Cynics", Harvnb|Bracht Branham|Goulet-Cazé|1996] Perhaps of importance were tales of Indian philosophers, known to later Greeks as the Gymnosophists, who had adopted a strict asceticism together with a disrespect for established laws and customs. [J. Romm, "Dog Heads and Noble Savages: Cynicism before the Cynics", Harvnb|Bracht Branham|Goulet-Cazé|1996] By the 5th century BCE, the Sophists had begun a process of questioning many aspects of Greek society such as religion, law and ethics. However, the most immediate influence for the Cynic school was Socrates. Although he was not an ascetic, he did profess a love of Virtue and an indifference to wealth, [Plato, [ "Apology"] , 41e.] together with a disdain for general opinion. [Xenophon, [ "Apology"] , 1.] These aspects of Socrates' thought, which formed only a minor part of Plato's philosophy, became the central inspiration for another of Socrates' pupils, Antisthenes.


The story of Cynicism traditionally begins with Antisthenes (c. 445-365 BCE),Harvnb|Dudley|1937|p=1] Harvnb|Bracht Branham|Goulet-Cazé|1996|p=6] who was an older contemporary of Plato and a pupil of Socrates. At about 25 years his junior, Antisthenes was one of the most important of Socrates' disciples. [Xenophon, [ "Symposium"] , 4.57-64.] Although later classical authors had little doubt about labelling him as the founder of Cynicism, [Diogenes Laërtius, vi. 2] his philosophical views seem to be more complex than the later simplicities of pure Cynicism. In the list of works ascribed to Antisthenes by Diogenes Laërtius, [Diogenes Laërtius, vi. 15-18] writings on Language, Dialogue and Literature far outnumber those on Ethics or Politics,Susan Prince, "Socrates, Antisthenes, and the Cynics", Harvnb|Ahbel-Rappe|Kamtekar|2005|p=79] although they may reflect how his philosophical interests changed with time.Harvnb|Navia|1996|p=40] It is certainly true that Antisthenes preached a life of poverty:

I have enough to eat till my hunger is stayed, to drink till my thirst is sated; to clothe myself as well; and out of doors not [even] Callias there, with all his riches, is more safe than I from shivering; and when I find myself indoors, what warmer shirting do I need than my bare walls? [Xenophon, [ "Symposium"] , 4.34.]

Diogenes of Sinope

Diogenes of Sinope (c. 412-323 BCE) dominates the story of Cynicism like no other figure. He originally came to Athens, fleeing his home city, after he and his father, who was in charge of the mint at Sinope, got into trouble for falsifying the coinage. [Diogenes Laërtius, vi. 20-21] (The phrase "defacing the currency" later became proverbial in describing Diogenes' rejection of conventional values.) [Diogenes Laërtius, vi. 20, 71] Later tradition claimed that Diogenes became the disciple of Antisthenes, [Diogenes Laërtius, vi. 6, 18, 21; Aelian, x. 16; Epictetus, "Discourses", iii.22.63] but it is by no means certain that they ever met.A. A. Long, "The Socratic Tradition: Diogenes, Crates, and Hellenistic Ethics", Harvnb|Bracht Branham|Goulet-Cazé|1996|p=45] Harvnb|Dudley|1937|p=2] Susan Prince, "Socrates, Antisthenes, and the Cynics", Harvnb|Ahbel-Rappe|Kamtekar|2005|p=77] What is true is that Diogenes adopted Antisthenes teachings and embraced the ascetic way of life, pursuing a lifestyle of self-sufficiency ("autarkeia"), austerity ("askēsis"), and shamelessness ("anaidei"a). [Sarton, G., "Ancient Science Through the Golden Age of Greece," Dover Publications. (1980).] There are countless anecdotes about his extravagant asceticism (sleeping in a tub), [Diogenes Laërtius, vi. 23; Jerome, Adversus Jovinianum, 2.14] shameless behaviour (eating raw meat), [Diogenes Laërtius, vi. 34] and his biting satire (on travelling from Sparta to Athens: "I am going from the men's apartments to the women's"), [Diogenes Laërtius, vi. 59] and although it is impossible to tell which of these stories are genuine, they do illustrate the broad character of the man, including an ethical seriousness.

Crates of Thebes

Crates of Thebes (c. 365-c. 285 BCE) is the third figure who dominates Cynic history. He is notable because he renounced a large fortune to live a life of Cynic poverty in Athens. [Diogenes Laërtius, vi. 87-88] He is said to have been a pupil of Diogenes, [Diogenes Laërtius, vi. 85, 87; Epictetus, "Discourses", iii.22.63] but again this is uncertain.A. A. Long, "The Socratic Tradition: Diogenes, Crates, and Hellenistic Ethics", Harvnb|Bracht Branham|Goulet-Cazé|1996|p=46] Crates married Hipparchia after she had fallen in love with him and together they lived like beggars on the streets of Athens, [Although there is no mention in ancient sources of them actually begging.] where Crates was treated with respect. [Plutarch, "Symposiacs", 2.1; Apuleius, "Florida", 22; Julian, "Orations", 6.201b] Crates' later fame (apart from his unconventional lifestyle) lies in the fact that he became the teacher of Zeno of Citium, the founder of Stoicism. [Diogenes Laërtius, i. 15, vi. 105, vii. 2, etc] The Cynic strain to be found in early Stoicism (such as Zeno's own radical views on sexual equality spelled out in his "Republic") can be ascribed to Crates' influence.Harvnb|Schofield|1991]

Other Cynics

There were many other Cynics around in the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE, including Onesicritus (who sailed with Alexander the Great to India), and the moral satirists Bion of Borysthenes and Menippus of Gadara. However, with the rise of Stoicism in the 3rd century BCE, Cynicism as a serious philosophical activity underwent a decline,Harvnb|Dudley|1937|p=117] Harvnb|Bracht Branham|Goulet-Cazé|1996|p=13] and it is not until we reach the Roman era that there seems to be a Cynic revival.

Cynicism in the Roman World

We hear very little about Cynicism in the second or first centuries BCE; Cicero (c. 50 BCE), who was much interested in Greek philosophy, had little to say about Cynicism, except that "it is to be shunned; for it is opposed to modesty, without which there can be neither right nor honor." [Cicero, "De Officiis", i. 41.] However, by the 1st century, Cynicism reappeared with full force. The rise of Imperial Rome, like the Greek loss of independence under Philip and Alexander three centuries earlier, may have led to a sense of powerlessness and frustration among many people which allowed a philosophy which emphasized self-sufficiency and inner-happiness to flourish once again.Harvnb|Dudley|1937|p=124] Cynics could be found throughout the empire, standing on street corners, preaching about Virtue. [Lucian, [ "De Morte Peregrini"] , 3] Lucian complained that "every city is filled with such upstarts, particularly with those who enter the names of Diogenes, Antisthenes, and Crates as their patrons and enlist in the Army of the Dog." [Lucian, [ "Fugitivi"] , 16.] The most notable representative of Cynicism in the 1st century was Demetrius, whom Seneca praised as "a man of consummate wisdom, though he himself denied it, constant to the principles which he professed, of an eloquence worthy to deal with the mightiest subjects." [Seneca, [ "De Beneficiis"] , vii.] Cynicism in Rome was both the butt of the satirist and the ideal of the thinker. In the 2nd century, Lucian, whilst pouring scorn on the Cynic philosopher Peregrinus Proteus, [Lucian, [ "De Morte Peregrini"] .] nevertheless praised his own Cynic teacher, Demonax, in a dialogue. [Lucian, [ "Demonax"] .]

Cynicism came to be seen as an idealised form of Stoicism, a view which led Epictetus to eulogise the ideal Cynic in a lengthy discourse. [Epictetus, [ "Discourses"] , 3. 22.] According to Epictetus, the ideal Cynic "must know that he is sent as a messenger from Zeus to people concerning good and bad things, to show them that they have wandered." [Epictetus, [ "Discourses"] , 3. 22. 23] Unfortunately for Epictetus, many Cynics of the era did not live up to the ideal: "consider the present Cynics who are dogs that wait at tables, and in no respect imitate the Cynics of old except perchance in breaking wind." [Epictetus, [ "Discourses"] , 3. 22. 80]

Cynicism seems to have thrived into the 4th century,Harvnb|Dudley|1937|p=202] (unlike Stoicism, which declined as an independent philosophy after the 2nd century). The Emperor Julian (ruled 361-363), like Epictetus, praised the ideal Cynic and complained about the actual practitioners of Cynicism. [Julian, "Oration 6: To the Uneducated Cynics"; "Oration 7: To the Cynic Heracleios".]

The final Cynic we hear about is Sallustius of Emesa in the late 5th century. [Damascius, "Life of Isidorus": fragments preserved in the "Commentary on Plato's Parmenides" by Proclus, in the "Bibliotheca" of Photius, and in "The Suda".] A student of the Neoplatonic philosopher Isidore of Alexandria, he devoted himself to living a life of Cynic asceticism.

Cynicism and Christianity

Historical Jesus as a Jewish Cynic

Many historians have noted the similarities between the life and teachings of Jesus and those of the Cynics. Some scholars on the quest for the historical Jesus, such as John Dominic Crossan of the Jesus Seminar, who have conducted a study of Jesus using cross-cultural anthropology, Greco-Roman history, and an analysis of the primary sources of the Jesus tradition itself, have come to the controversial conclusion that the historical Jesus was more like a Cynic sage from an Hellenistic Jewish tradition than either a Christ who would die as a substitute for sinners or a Messiah who would lead a revolt against the Roman Empire and establish an independent Jewish state of Israel. [The Historical Jesus: The Life of a Mediterranean Jewish Peasant, 1991, ISBN 0-06-061629-6] Burton Mack has described Jesus as a "rather normal Cynic-type figure." [Quoted in R. Ostling, [,9171,968139,00.html "Who was Jesus?", Time, August 15, 1988, pages 37-42] .] The city of Gadara, only a day's walk from Nazareth, was particularly notable as a center of Cynic philosophy. [In particular, Menippus (3rd century BCE), Meleager (1st century BCE), and Oenomaus (2nd century CE), all came from Gadara.]

Cynic influences on early Christianity

Many of the ascetic practices of Cynicism were undoubtably adopted by early Christians, and Christians often employed the same rhetorical methods as the Cynics. [F. Gasco Lacalle, (1986) "Cristianos y cinicos. Una tificacion del fenomeno cristiano durante el siglo II," pages 111-119. Memorias de Historia Antigua 7.] Some Cynics were actually martyred for speaking out against the authorities. [Dio Cassius, [*.html#p291 "Epitome of book 65", 15.5] ] One Cynic, Peregrinus Proteus, lived for a time as a Christian before converting to Cynicism, [Lucian, [ "De Morte Peregrini"] , 10-15] whereas in the 4th century, Maximus of Alexandria, although a Christian, was also called a Cynic because of his ascetic lifestyle. The ascetic orders of Christianity also had direct connection with the Cynics,Harvnb|Dudley|1937|p=209-211] as can be seen in the wandering mendicant monks of the early church who in outward appearance, and in many of their practices were little different from the Cynics of an earlier age.

Important Cynics

Greek-era Cynics:
*Antisthenes (c. 445-c. 365 BCE), Pupil of Socrates.
*Diogenes (c. 412-323 BCE), The archetypal Cynic.
*Onesicritus (c. 360-c. 290 BCE), Historian of Alexander the Great.
*Crates (c. 365-c. 285 BCE), Cynic teacher of Zeno of Citium.
*Hipparchia (c. 325 BCE), Wife of Crates.
*Metrocles (c. 325 BCE), Brother of Hipparchia.
*Bion of Borysthenes (c. 325-c. 255 BCE), Cynic satirist and diatribist.
*Menippus (c. 275 BCE), Cynic satirist.
*Cercidas (c. 250 BCE), Cynic poet.
*Teles (c. 235 BCE), Cynic teacher and writer.

Roman era Cynics:
*Demetrius (c. 10-c. 80), Cynic friend of Seneca.
*Demonax (c. 70-c. 170), Cynic praised by Lucian.
*Oenomaus (c. 120), Cynic critic of religion.
*Peregrinus Proteus (c. 95-167), Cynic who killed himself at the Olympics.
*Sallustius (c. 430-c. 500), Neoplatonist who became a Cynic.

ee also

* Asceticism
* Natural law
* Stoicism



* Harvard reference
Surname1 = Ahbel-Rappe
Given1 = Sara
Surname2 = Kamtekar
Given2 = Rachana
Title = A Companion to Socrates
Year = 2005
Publisher = Blackwell Publishing
ISBN = 1405108630
* Harvard reference
Surname1 = Bracht Branham
Given1 = R.
Surname2 = Goulet-Cazé
Given2 = Marie-Odile
Title = The Cynics: The Cynic Movement in Antiquity and Its Legacy
Year = 1996
Publisher = University of California Press
ISBN = 0520216458
* Harvard reference
Surname1 = Dudley
Given1 = Donald R.
Title = A History of Cynicism from Diogenes to the 6th Century A.D.
Year = 1937
Publisher = Cambridge
Access-date = 30 September 2008
* Harvard reference
Surname1 = Navia
Given1 = Luis
Title = Classical Cynicism: A Critical Study
Year = 1996
Publisher = Greenwood Press
ISBN = 0313300151
* Harvard reference
Surname1 = Rée
Given1 = Jonathan
Surname2 = Urmson
Given2 = J.
Title = The Concise Encyclopedia of Western Philosophy
Year = 2005
Publisher = Routledge
ISBN = 0415329248
* Harvard reference
Surname1 = Schofield
Given1 = Malcolm
Title = The Stoic Idea of the City
Year = 1991
Publisher = Cambridge University Press
ISBN = 0226740064

Further reading

Primary sources

*Diogenes Laërtius, [ "Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers, Book VI: The Cynics"]
*Dio Chrysostom, Cynic Discourses: [*.html "Oration 6"] , [*.html "Oration 8"] , [*.html "Oration 9"] , [*.html "Oration 10"] .
*Epictetus, [ "Discourse 3.22, On Cynicism"]
*Pseudo-Lucian, [ "The Cynic"]

econdary sources

*R. Bracht Branham, Marie-Odile Goulet-Cazé, (editors), (1996), "The Cynics: The Cynic Movement in Antiquity and Its Legacy". University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21645-8
*Ian Cutler, (2005), "Cynicism from Diogenes to Dilbert". McFarland & Co. ISBN 0-786-42093-6
*William D. Desmond, (2006), "The Greek Praise of Poverty: Origins of Ancient Cynicism". University of Notre Dame Press. ISBN 0-268-02582-7
*F. Gerald Downing, (1992), "Cynics and Christian Origins". T. & T. Clark. ISBN 0-567-09613-0
*Donald R. Dudley, (1937), "A History of Cynicism from Diogenes to the 6th Century A.D." Bristol Classical Paperbacks. ISBN 1-853-99548-7 (Available at the [ Internet Archive] )
*Luis E. Navia, (1996), "Classical Cynicism: A Critical Study". Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-30015-1

External links

* [ "Cynics"] , from "The Dictionary of the History of Ideas"
* [ "Cynicism"] , BBC Radio 4 programme: "In Our Time"
* [ "Was Jesus a philosophical Cynic?"] , article by Bruce W. Griffin.
*ws|"" in the 1913 "Catholic Encyclopedia".

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