- Salt in Cheshire
Cheshire is a county in
North West England. Rock saltwas laid down in this region some 220 million years ago, during the Triassicgeological era. Seawater moved inland from an open sea, creating a chain of shallow salt marshes across what is today the Cheshire basin. As the marshes evaporated, deep deposits of rock salt were formed.
History of Salt workings in Cheshire
A settlement, "Condate", was built during Roman times at the current location of
Northwich. It is believed that the Romans built this settlement due to the strategic river crossing of the Weaver and the presence of the brine springs. The Romans used lead salt pans to extract the salt from the brine. Salt pans and 1st Centurybrine kilns have all been found around the Roman fort.
The salt beds beneath Northwich were re-discovered in the
1670by employees of the local Smith-Barry family.cite web | title=History| work=Northwich Community Woodlands | url=http://www.northwichcommunitywoodlands.org.uk/history.shtml | accessdate=2006-12-05] The family were actually looking for coal when they accidentally discovered rock saltin the grounds of their house, Marbury Hall, Marbury, north of Northwich with salt extraction starting shortly afterwards.
During the 19th century it became uneconomical to mine for the salt, and so solvent extraction using water as a solvent was used. Hot water was pumped through the mines that dissolved the salt and the resultant brine was pumped out and the salt extracted from the brine. This technique was known as "wild brine pumping" or "natural brine pumping" but weakened mines and led to land subsidence as mines collapsed. The collapse of a number of mines led to salt mining to move to
Winsford. [cite web | title=Northwich: The Town With That Sinking Feeling | work=TimeTravel-Britain.com | author=Sue Wilkes| url=http://www.cheshire.gov.uk/Planning/NaturalHistoricEnv/Historic/NHE_Historic_FieldworkFull.htm#2000 | accessdate=2007-01-26]
Northwich has had a salt museum for more than 100 years.
Following the Roman invasion, Middlewich was named "Salinae" on account of the salt deposits around it, as it was one of their major sites of salt production.cite book | first=T.J. | last=Strickland | title=Roman Middlewich: A Story of Roman and Briton in Mid-Cheshire | year=2001] During this time the Romans built a
fortat Harbutts Field (SJ70216696), to the north of the town [cite web | title=Roman Fort Minor Salt-Working Settlement | work=WWW.Roman-Britain. ORG | url=http://www.roman-britain.org/places/salinae_cornoviorum.htm | accessdate=2006-09-10] [cite web | title=Historic Environment Fieldwork Full Summary 1999 | work=Cheshire County Council Planning Dept. | url=http://www.cheshire.gov.uk/Planning/NaturalHistoricEnv/Historic/NHE_Historic_FieldworkFull.htm#1999 | accessdate=2006-09-10] and recent excavations to the south of the fort have found evidence of further Roman activity [cite web | title=Historic Environment Fieldwork Full Summary 2000 | work=Cheshire County Council Planning Dept. | url=http://www.cheshire.gov.uk/Planning/NaturalHistoricEnv/Historic/NHE_Historic_FieldworkFull.htm#2000 | accessdate=2006-09-10] [cite web | title=Historic Environment Fieldwork Full Summary 2001 | work=Cheshire County Council Planning Dept. | url=http://www.cheshire.gov.uk/Planning/NaturalHistoricEnv/Historic/NHE_Historic_FieldworkFull.htm#2001 | accessdate=2006-09-10] including a well and part of a preserved Roman road.
Salt manufacture has remained one of the principal employers in
Middlewichfor most of the past 2,000 years. Salt making is mentioned in the Domesday book, and by the 13th century there were approximately 100 "wich houses" packed around the towns two brine pits.cite book | first=Mary | last=Barry | title=Memories of Middlewich | year=1972] By 1908 there were nine industrial scale salt manufacturers in the town, with a number of open pan salt works close to the Trent and Mersey Canal.
The origins of the settlement at
Nantwichdate to Roman times when salt from Nantwich was used by the Roman garrisons at Chester and Stoke-on-Trentas both a preservative and a condiment. Salt has been used in the production of Cheshire cheese and in the tanning industry, both industries being products of the dairy industry based on the Cheshire plainaround Nantwich.
Domesday Book, Nantwich is recorded as having eight salt houses. The salt industry peaked in the late sixteenth century when there were 216 salt houses, but the industry ended in 1856with the closure of the last salt house. Similarly the last tannery closed in 1974, but the clothing industry remains important to the area.
From the 1830s, salt became important to Winsford, partly because the salt mines under
Northwichhad begun to collapse and another source of salt near the River Weaverwas needed. A new source was discovered in Winsford, leading to thedevelopment of a salt industry along the course of the River Weaver, where many factories were established. By 1897, Winsford had become the largest producer of salt in Britain. As a result, a new town developed within a mile of the old Borough of Over which had been focused on Delamere Street. Most of the early development took place on the other side of the river, with new housing, shops, pubs, chapels and a new church being built in the former hamlet of Wharton. As the wind usually blew the smoke away from Over, it became the place for the wealthier inhabitants to live. However, people who worked on the barges and other people working in Winsford started to develop along the old Over Lane, now the High Street. The old Borough tried to remain separate but had been connected by the 1860s.
Current salt manufacturing in Cheshire
The manufacture of white salt for food and allied industries is now concentrated in Middlewich, in the manufacturer,
British Salt, who sell under the name Saxa, and also through third parties e.g. supermarket own brands. Salt produced by British Salt in Middlewich has 57% of the UK market [cite web | title=Factors affecting rivalry in the relevant market prior to the merger | work=British Salt Limited and New Cheshire Salt Works Limited: A report on the acquisition by British Salt Limited of New Cheshire Salt Works Limited | url=http://www.competition-commission.org.uk/rep_pub/reports/2005/fulltext/505.pdf#page=37| author=The Competition Commission|accessdate=2006-09-10] for salt used in cooking.
The UK's only
rock saltmine is at Winsford, [cite news|last=Vidal|first=John|title=Salt mine to become huge dump for toxic waste|work=Guardian Unlimited|date=2004-01-08|url=http://politics.guardian.co.uk/green/story/0,9061,1118161,00.html|accessdate 2007-01-26] with extraction beginning at Winsford in the 17th century. Initially it was used only as salt licks for animals, and to strengthen weak brine. In 1844 the salt mine was opened. Today, rock saltis quarried from a depth of more than 150 metres below ground, producing salt (commonly known as "grit") for use on road surfaces in winter weather.
History of salt
History of salt in Middlewich
Lion Salt Works
* Northwich Salt Museum
Open pan salt making
* Tom Lightfoot (2000), "Open Pan Salt Making in Cheshire: An Illustrated Description", Lion Salt Works Trust Research Report
* [http://www.saltmuseum.org.uk/ The Salt Museum, Northwich]
* [http://www.saltsense.co.uk/history04.htm Romans] Salt Manufacturers' Association
* [http://www.saltsense.co.uk/history05.htm Anglo Saxons] Salt Manufacturers' Association
* [http://www.saltsense.co.uk/history06.htm Normans] Salt Manufacturers' Association
* [http://www.saltunion.com/winsfordrocksaltmine/ Winsford Rock Salt Mine]
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