- Basic Law of Saudi Arabia
Basic Lawof Saudi Arabia( _ar. النظام الأساسي للحكم بالمملكة العربية السعودية) (Alternative name: Basic System of Governance) is a constitution-like charter divided into nine chapters, consisting of 83 articles. [ [http://saudinf.com/main/c541.htm The Basic Law - Saudi Arabia Information ] ] It is in accordance with the Wahhabi understanding of shariaand does not override Islamic laws.
Iraqi invasion of Kuwaitand the First Gulf War, late King Fahadissued a royal decree that was officially published in official television channels and newspapers on the 31st of January 1992. [ [http://www.oefre.unibe.ch/law/icl/sa00000_.html Saudi Arabia - Constitution] ] [ [http://www.hrw.org/reports/1992/saudi/ Empty Reforms: Saudi Arabia's New Basic Laws May 1992] ] The Decree stated the following:::Royal Decree No. A/90::27/8/1412 AH
::By the Help of
Allah,::We, Fahd bin Abdul Aziz, the King of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, consistent with the public interest, and in view with the development of the State in different fields, in addition to our enthusiasm to achieve our prospected objectives, we ordered the following:::First: Issue the Basic System of Governance according to the context herein below.
::Second: Act in accordance with all the systems, orders, and resolutions that are currently adopted, until they are amended pursuant to the Basic System of Governance.
::Third: The Basic System of Governance shall be published in the official journal and shall be enforceable as of the date of its publication. [ [http://www.mofa.gov.sa/Detail.asp?InNewsItemID=35297 Saudi Ministry of Foreign Affairs] ]
The Consultative Council also came to life about a year after in the light of the emerging conditions affecting the country after the war.
The Saudi cultural and religious views stigmatize any reference to "Constitution" other than the
Qu'ranitself and the practice of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Article 1 of the Basic Law emphasize that "God's Book (Qu'ran) and the Sunnahof His Prophet (Muhammad), God's prayers and peace be upon him, are its ( Saudi Arabia) constitution". [ [http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Basic_Law_of_Saudi_Arabia?oldid=446074| Wikisource] ] As the prince Talal bin Abdul Azizputs it, who's referred to as the "red prince" and the "free prince" among other nicknames for his liberal views, there cannot be a "a constitution, a regulation, or a law that runs counter to the Islamic Shari'a" in Saudi Arabia [ [http://www.memritv.org/Transcript.asp?P1=1361 Saudi Prince Talal bin Abd Al-'Aziz Explains the New Method of Determining Future Kings in Saudi Arabia] 12 January 2007]
Articles of the Basic Law of Governance
: General Principles
Article 1 states that "God's Book and the Sunnah of His Prophet" are the country's constitution and Arabic is the official language with the capital at Riyadh.
Article 7 proclaims the rights of the monarch. Next, per Article 8, "justice, consultation, and equality" shall be in accordance with Shari'ah.
: Features of the Saudi Family
Article 9 states that all members of each family in Saudi Arabia shall be reared "on the basis of the Islamic faith."
: Economic Principles
Article 18 guard the
private propertyof citizens.
Article 21 calls for an "alms tax".
: Rights and Duties
Article 27 establishes a "system of social security" that has made Saudi Arabia a
welfare state. It is become feasible without expropriation and high taxes due to the large supplies of oil and a population of fewer than 30 million people.
: The Authorities of the State
Islam as cornerstone of governance
Article 45 affirm that religious rulings must be in accordance with the " Holy Qur'an and the Prophet's Sunnah." To this end, a panel of Islamic clergy and research group shall be established.
According to Article 55, the king has to "rule according to the rulings of Islam and shall supervise the application of Shari'ah." Article 56 states that the king is the
prime ministeras well. Article 57 makes it clear that the king's cabinetand other lower-ranking officials must follow Islam. Those who deviate from this can be dismissed or punished.
Articles 60-62: The king is the
commander-in-chiefand it endowed with powers concerning war and the national security of the country.
: Financial Affairs
Article 71 specifies that
revenueis entered and spent according to rules of statutes which will be published regularly in the "Official Gazette" per Article 70.
: Control Bodies
: General Provisions
Article 82 makes it clear that a temporary
state of emergencyduring turmoil cannot violate Article 7 ( Quranand sunnah).
The Basic Law was drafted by an
ad hoccommittee of the interior ministry, which Human Rights Watch accuses of egregious violations of human rights. [ [http://www.hrw.org/reports/1992/saudi/INTROTHR.htm#TopOfPage Introduction to Basic Law of Saudi Arabia] " Human Rights Watch"] Muhammad bin Saudand Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhabin the 1700s, political and religious institutions were integrated into one governing body. [ [http://saudinf.com/main/c3.htm The Role of the Ulema (Religious Leaders)] ] The government of Saudi Arabia reserves numerous jobs for the clergy that range from preaching to judgeships. Islamic clergy(ulema) like muftis and sheikhswho dominate the Saudi Arabian legal positions make use of the Basic Law in addition to the Quran, [ [http://unix.dfn.org/Saudi_Arabia.shtml The Frontline : Violators of Freedom] ] hadith, sunnah, and Islamic jurisprudencewhich all falls within sharia.
The constitution makes no mention of women; Amnesty International write in their 2000 report on Saudi:
Discussion of discrimination against women and their status as second class citizens has for a long time been a taboo, untouchable even by the highest of state authorities in the country despite all the misery and suffering of women for no reason other than their having been born female. [citeweb|url=http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/MDE23/057/2000/en/dom-MDE230572000en.html|title=Saudi Arabia: Gross human rights abuses against women|publisher=amnesty.org]
Saudi writer and Journalist Wajeha Al-Huwaider writes that "Saudi women are weak, no matter how high their status, even the 'pampered' ones among them - because they have no law to protect them from attack by anyone. The oppression of women and the effacement of their selfhood is a flaw affecting most homes in Saudi Arabia." [citeweb|title=Saudi Writer and Journalist Wajeha Al-Huwaider Fights for Women's Rights|url=http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?Page=archives&Area=ia&ID=IA31206]
* [http://saudinf.com/main/c541.htm The Basic Law]
* [http://www.mideastinfo.com/documents/Saudi_Arabia_Basic_Law.htm Saudi Arabia: Basic Law of Government]
* [http://www.law.emory.edu/IFL/legal/saudiarabia.htm Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's legal system]
* [http://www.the-saudi.net/saudi-arabia/constitution.htm Saudi Arabia Constitution]
* [http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/world/saudiarabia.htm Constitution, Government & Legislation of Saudi Arabia]
* [http://www.saudi-us-relations.org/articles/2006/interviews/061231-kurdi-interview.html The View from a Majlis Ash-Shura Member - A Conversation with Usamah al Kurdi] "The
Saudi-US Relations Information Service"
* [http://www.concourt.am/wwconst/constit/sarabia/sarabi-e.htm Saudi Arabia - Constitution]
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