Tamarack Larch


Tamarack Larch

Taxobox
name = Tamarack Larch



image_width = 240px
image_caption = Tamarack Larch in fall colors, with Black Spruce
status = LR/lc
status_system =iucn2.3
status_ref = [IUCN2006|assessors=Conifer Specialist Group|year=1998|id=42313|title=Larix laricina|downloaded=12 May 2006]
regnum = Plantae
divisio = Pinophyta
classis = Pinopsida
ordo = Pinales
familia = Pinaceae
genus = "Larix"
species = "L. laricina"
binomial = "Larix laricina"
binomial_authority = (Du Roi) K. Koch

Tamarack Larch, or Tamarack or American Larch ("Larix laricina") is a species of larch native to northern North America, mainly in Canada, from eastern Yukon and Inuvik, Northwest Territories east to Newfoundland, and also south into the northeastern United States from Minnesota to West Virginia; there is also a disjunct population in central Alaska. The name Tamarack is the Algonquian Native American name for the species.

It is a small to medium-size deciduous coniferous tree reaching 10-20 m tall, with a trunk up to 60 cm diameter. The bark is tight and flaky, brown, but under flaking bark it can appear reddish. The leaves are needle-like, 2-3 cm long, light blue-green, turning bright yellow before they fall in the autumn, leaving the pale pinkish-brown shoots bare until the next spring. The needles are produced spirally on long shoots and in dense clusters on short woody spur shoots. The cones are the smallest of any larch, only 1-2.3 cm long, with 12-25 seed scales; they are bright red, turning brown and opening to release the seeds when mature, 4-6 months after pollination.

It is very cold tolerant, able to survive winter temperatures down to at least -65°C, and commonly occurs at the arctic tree line at the edge of the tundra. Trees in these severe climatic conditions are smaller than further south, often only 5 m tall. Tamarack is commonly found in swamps, though also occasionally grows on drier sandy soils. While extremely tolerant of different soil types, the Tamarack is very sensitive to shading, and so it often gets pushed to more marginal soil types by more vigorous species.

The central Alaskan population, separated from the eastern Yukon populations by a gap of about 700 km, is treated as a distinct variety "Larix laricina" var. "alaskensis" by some botanists, though others argue that it is not sufficiently distinct to be distinguished.

Uses

The wood is tough and durable, but also flexible in thin strips, and was used by the Algonquian people for making snowshoes and other products where toughness was required.

It is also grown as an ornamental tree in gardens in cold regions, and is a favorite tree for bonsai. Tamarack Trees were used before 1917 in Alberta to mark the North East Corner of Sections surveyed within Townships. They were used by the surveyors because at that time the very rot resistant wood was readily available in the bush and was light to carry.

According to 'Aboriginal Plant Use in Canada's Northwest Boreal Forest', the inner bark has also been used as a poultice to treat cuts, infected wounds, frostbite, boils and hemorrhoids. The outer bark and roots are also said to have been used with another plant as a treatment for arthritis, cold and general aches and pains.

Tamarack is the Territorial tree of Northwest Territories. It is mentioned in the Ernest Hemingway short story 'The Battler' from In Our Time. It also is the name of a tennis and soccer camp in the White Mountains of New Hampshire run by skier Bode Miller's family, and the four-season Tamarack Resort and ski area in central Idaho.

References

* [http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500743 Flora of North America: "Larix laricina"]
* [http://www.conifers.org/pi/la/laricina.htm Gymnosperm Database: "Larix laricina"]


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  • tamarack — (n.) North American red larch, 1805, probably of Algonquian origin (Cf. synonymous hackmatack, 1792, from a source akin to Abenaki akemantak a kind of supple wood used for making snowshoes ) …   Etymology dictionary

  • tamarack — [tam′ə rak΄] n. [CdnFr tamarac: presumed to be of Algonquian orig.] 1. an American larch tree (Larix laricina), usually found in swamps 2. the wood of this tree …   English World dictionary

  • larch — larcher, adj. /lahrch/, n. 1. any coniferous tree of the genus Larix, yielding a tough durable wood. 2. the wood of such a tree. [1540 50; earlier larche < MHG L laric (s. of larix) larch] * * * Any of about 10–12 species of coniferous trees that …   Universalium

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