A lumberjack or logger is a man who harvests lumber. The term "lumberjack" is somewhat archaic, having been mostly replaced by "logger". When "lumberjack" is used, it usually refers to a logger from an earlier time before the advent of
chainsaws, feller-bunchers and other modern logging equipment. Other terms for the occupation include woodcutter, and the colloquial term woodhick (Pennsylvania, US).
The term "lumberjill" has been known for a woman who does this work, for example in Britain during
World War II. [http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/stories/68/a4682568.shtml]
Lumberjacks worked in lumber camps and often lived a migratory life, following timber harvesting jobs as they opened. They also had to take a long time to move the logs from place to place, because of low technology. Being a lumberjack was seasonal work. Lumberjacks were exclusively men. They usually lived in
bunkhouses or tents. Common equipment included the axeand crosscut saw. Lumberjacks could be found wherever there were vast forests to be harvested and a demand for wood, most likely in Scandinavia, Canada, and northern parts of the United States. In the U.S., many lumberjacks were of Scandinavian or Finnish ancestry, continuing the occupation of their parents and grandparents. American lumberjacks were first centered in northeastern states such as Maineand then followed the general westward migration on the continent to the Upper Midwest, and finally the Pacific Northwest. Stewart Holbrookdocumented the rise and eventual westward migration of the classic American lumberjack in his first book, "Holy Old Mackinaw: A Natural History of the American Lumberjack", and often wrote colorfully about lumberjacks in his subsequent books, romanticizing them as hard-drinking, hard-working men. Logging camps were slowly phased out between World War IIand the early 1960s as crews could by then be transported to remote logging sites in motor vehicles.
The division of labor in lumber camps led to several specialized jobs on logging crews - such as whistle punk, chaser, and high climber. The whistle punk's job was to sound a whistle as a signal to the
yarderoperator controlling the movement of logs and act as a safety lookout, and a good whistle punk had to be alert and think fast as the safety of the others depended on him. The high climber (also known as a tree topper) used iron climbing hooks and rope to ascend a tall tree in the landing area of the logging site, where he would chop off limbs as he climbed, chop off the top of the tree, and finally attach pulleys and rigging to the tree so it could be used as a spar so logs could be skidded into the landing. High climbers and whistle punks were both phased out in the 1960s to early 1970s when portable steel towers replaced spar trees and radio equipment replaced steam whistles for communication. The chokersetters attached steel cables (or chokers) to downed logs so they could be dragged into the landing by the yarder. The chasers removed the chokers once the logs were at the landing. Chokersetters and chasers were often entry-level positions on logging crews, with more experienced loggers seeking to move up to more skill-intensive positions such as yarder operator and high climber, or supervisory positions such as hooktender. Despite the common perception that all loggers cut trees, the actual felling and bucking of trees were also specialized job positions done by fallers and buckers. Fallers and buckers were once two separate job titles but are now combined.
During the era before modern diesel or gasoline powered equipment, what machinery existed was steam-powered, and animal- or steam-powered
skidders could be used to haul harvested logs to nearby railroads for shipment to sawmills. Horse driven logging wheels was a means used for moving logs out of the woods. Another way for transporting logs to sawmills was to float them down a body of water or a specially-constructed log flume. The art of log rolling- staying on top of a floating log while "rolling" the log by walking - was another skill much in demand among lumberjacks. Spiked boots known as "caulks" or "corks" were used for log rolling and often worn by lumberjacks as their regular footwear.
The term "
skid row", which today means a poor city neighborhood frequented by homelesspeople, originated in a way in which harvested logs were once transported. Logs could be "skidded" down hills or along a corduroy road, and one such street in Seattlewas named Skid Road. This street later became frequented by people down on their luck, and both the name and its meaning morphed into the modern term.
Lumberjacks, especially in the northwestern United States and western Canada, incorporated many terms from the
Chinook Jargoninto their language including such terms as " skookum" (excellent or impressive), "muckeymuck" (executives or higher-ups), and "hooch" (liquor) which are still familiar today. Lumber camps were the sites of many militant labor disputes and strikes during unionizationefforts in the early 20th century.
The modern logger
Modern technology has changed the job of the modern logger considerably. Although the basic task of harvesting trees is still the same, the machinery and tasks are no longer the same. Many of the old job specialties on logging crews are now obsolete.
Chainsaws, harvesters, and feller bunchers are now used to cut or fell trees. The tree is turned into logs by removing the limbs (delimbing) and cutting it into logs of optimal length (bucking). The felled tree or logs are moved from the stump to the landing. Ground vehicles such as a
skidderor forwardercan pull, carry, or shovel the logs. Cable systems "cars" can pull logs to the landing. Logs can also be flown to the landing by helicopter. Logs are commonly transported to the sawmill using trucks. Harvesting methods may include clearcuttingor selective cutting. Concerns over ecologyhave led to controversy about modern logging practices. In certain areas of forest loggers re-plant their crop for future generations.
A recent Wall Street Journal survey on the best jobs in the United States ended by listing being a logger as the "worst" "
3D's" job [http://www.careerjournal.com/jobhunting/change/20020507-lee.html] , citing "work instability, poor income and pure danger." A Bureau of Labor Statisticssurvey of [http://money.cnn.com/2005/08/26/pf/jobs_jeopardy/ America's most dangerous jobs] put loggers at the top of the list for 2004.
The modern lumberjack can be found in our competitive culture, originally started as a competition in the old lumber camps to see who the best lumberjack was. Today these competitions are used to acknowledge the rich history forestry and logging and keep traditions alive. This is reflected in the events at these competitions. With the most notable event being the
Lumberjack World Championship, held in Hayward, Wisconsin. The competition began in 1960 and is now one of the largest spectator gathers of the sport bringing in over 12,000 on an annual basis. STIHL Timbersports Series, is another large event that has helped to bring worldwide popularity due to the association with ESPN, which airs the competition as apart of there Outdoor Games. What began as a small telecast from one universal camera has turned into a spectacle. Many colleges have woodsmen teams or forestry clubs, which compete regionally, nationally, and internationally. Following in their own footsteps STIHL introduced the STIHL Timbersports Collegiate Series Events, which airs on ESPN's, ESPNU. The collegiate series involves over 50 schools across the country. There are also lumberjack shows which tour the United States, demonstrating these old time lumber practices to the general public. Loggers’ rodeos are also held in some towns which demonstrate these events to the public.
The Collegiate series is designed to bring awareness of the sport to college campus' with incentives for the students. STIHL gives sponsorship to each host school of a regional conclave, hands out prizes consisting of: three MS 440 Magnum chain saws, four Competition Racing Axes and one J.P. Mercier Single Buck Saw. [www.stihltimbersports.com] . They provide demonstrations, and the winner of the each conclave gets a bid to the STIHL TIMBERSPORTS Collegiate Championships. With the top rated participants in each event receiving $1000 given to their school to be used for scholarship or any other school related funds, vouchers to help with the purchase of profession competition gear and an opportunity to participate in STIHL TIMBERSPORTS Series, against the top professionals in the world.
The [http://www.lumberjackworldchampionships.com/history/ Lumberjack World Championships] have been held annually in Hayward, Wisconsin since 1960. Over twelve thousand visitors come to this small northern Wisconsin town each year in late July to watch men and women compete in 21 different events, including log rolling, chopping, timed hot (power) saw and buck saw cutting, and pole climbing.
In popular culture
In popular culture the
clichéof a lumberjack is a strong, burly, usually bearded man who likes to brave the natural environment. He is depicted wearing suspenders, a long-sleeved plaid flannel shirt, and heavy boots. He is often depicted as being very hungry and eating a large stack of flapjacks or pancakes. He works by cutting down trees with either an axe or with the help of another lumberjack, a crosscut saw, as opposed to the modern chainsaw.
The most famous depiction of a lumberjack in
folkloreis Paul Bunyan. Several towns claim to have been the home of Paul Bunyan and have statues of Bunyan and his ox "Babe" in the town.
Monty Python, a popular skit is " The Lumberjack Song" known for its refrain "I'm a lumberjack and I'm okay / I sleep all night and I work all day". Johnny Cashrecorded a song about lumberjacks titled "Lumberjack", which appeared on the " Ride This Train" album.
"The Lumberjack" is a song by
Books and films
The 2003 book "Blackwater Ben" by
William Durbinis about a boy who gets to live with his father as a cook in a lumberjack camp.
Maddox's book "
The Alphabet of Manliness" lists the lumberjack as one of 26 examples of the pinnacle of manliness.
The 1954 movie "Seven Brides for Seven Brothers" is a classic film musical about seven lumberjack brothers who, in the spirit of the Roman story of the
The Rape of the Sabine Women, decide to kidnap brides for themselves from the neighboring town. It contains one of the best dancing scenes in film history, the barn raising dance.
William Kurelekwrote and illustrated a book called "Lumberjack" (1974) [ISBN 0-88776-378-2] about his days working in a logging camp.
professional wrestling, a lumberjack match is a contest between two or more wrestlers where the outside of the ring area is surrounded by other grapplers. These performers are supposed to forcibly return to inside the ring wrestlers that leave the mat.
The lumberjack is the
mascotof many schools and universities including:
*Colleges and universities
Humboldt State Universityin Arcata, California
Minot State University-Bottineauin Bottineau, North Dakota
Northern Arizona Universityin Flagstaff, Arizona
Stephen F. Austin State Universityin Nacogdoches, Texas
**Bemidji High School in
**Bogalusa High School in
**Cloquet High School in Cloquet, Minnesota
**Diboll High School in
**Deposit Central School in
Deposit, New York
**Ladysmith High School in
**Libby High School in
Lin-Wood Public Schoolin the Lincoln/Woodstock Co-op, New Hampshire
North Tonawanda High Schoolin North Tonawanda, New York
Oakwood High Schoolin Oakwood, Montgomery County, Ohio
**Onalaska High School in
Patterson High Schoolin Patterson, Louisiana
R. A. Long High Schoolin Longview, Washington
**Richwood High School in
Richwood, West Virginia
**Springhill High School in
St. Maries High Schoolin St. Maries, Idaho
**Tupper Lake High School in
Tupper Lake, New York
**Warren High School in
Wausau East High Schoolin Wausau, Wisconsin
**Loggers Run Community Middle School in
Boca Raton, Florida
* Griffiths, Bus. "Now You're Logging", Harbour Publishing, 1978.
* Holbrook, Stewart H. "Holy Old Mackinaw: A Natural History of the American Lumberjack", 1938.
* Lemonds, James. "Deadfall: Generations of Logging in the Pacific Northwest". Missoula, Montana: Mountain Press, 2001.
* Roberge, Earl. "Timber Country". Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers, 1973.
The Log Driver's Waltz
* [http://www.lumberjackworldchampionships.com/ Lumberjack World Championships]
* [http://www.uslogrolling.org/ United States Logrolling Association]
* [http://content.lib.washington.edu/ University of Washington Libraries: Digital Collections] :
** [http://content.lib.washington.edu/kinseyweb/index.html Darius Kinsey Photographs] Images from 1890-1939, documenting the logging industry in Washington State. Includes images of loggers and logging camps, skid roads, donkey engines, loading operations, logging trucks and railroads.
** [http://content.lib.washington.edu/clarkkinseyweb/index.html Clark Kinsey Photographs] Over 1000 images by commercial photographer Clark Kinsey documenting the logging and milling camps and other forest related activities in Washington State, ca. 1910-1945.
** [http://content.lib.washington.edu/indoccweb/index.html Industry and Occupations Photographs] An ongoing and expanding collection devoted to the workers in the Pacific Northwest from 1880s-1940s. Many occupations and industries are represented including the logging and lumber industry.
** [http://content.lib.washington.edu/cmpweb/exhibits/logging/index.html Man to Machine: Peninsula Logging] Online museum exhibit based upon the Clark Kinsey Logging Photographs Collection and the recollections of Harry C. Hall, who worked as a logger on the Olympic Peninsula in the early 1900s. Includes a video on the Hobi family logging history (late 1800s – early 1900s).
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
См. также в других словарях:
Lumberjack — (engl.: ‚Holzfäller‘, ‚Holzhacker‘; aus lumber ‚Schnittholz‘ und dem Allerweltsvornamen Jack als Synonym für Mann) bezeichnet folgendes: englisch einen Holzfäller, vor allem aus früheren, unmotorisierten Zeiten The Lumberjack Song, ein Sketch von … Deutsch Wikipedia
lumberjack — lum ber*jack n. 1. a person who works at lumbering; a lumberman. Syn: lumberman, timberman. [WordNet 1.5] 2. (Zool.) The grey jay. [Canadian] [PJC] … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
lumberjack — 1831, Canadian English, from LUMBER (Cf. lumber) (n.) + JACK (Cf. Jack) … Etymology dictionary
lumberjack — (izg. làmberdžek) m DEFINICIJA vrsta kaputa od toplog sukna ili kože ETIMOLOGIJA engl.: drvosječa … Hrvatski jezični portal
lumberjack — (also lumberman) ► NOUN ▪ a person who fells trees, cuts them into logs, or transports them … English terms dictionary
lumberjack — ☆ lumberjack [lum′bər jak΄ ] n. 1. LOGGER 2. an earlier type of short, woolen or leather coat or jacket, of a kind worn by lumberjacks: also called lumber jacket … English World dictionary
Lumberjack — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Lumberjack est un jeu de société de Alan R. Moon et Aaron Weissblum. Lumberjack un western de Lesley Selander sorti 1944. Lumberjack est l ancien nom du… … Wikipédia en Français
Lumberjack — Lum|ber|jack 〈[ lʌ̣mbə(r)dʒæk] m. 6〉 Jacke aus Leder od. Tuch mit vielen gestrickten Bünden [amerikan. engl., eigtl. lumberjacket „Holzfällerjacke“] * * * Lumberjack [ lʌmbədʒæk; englisch amerikanisch, eigentlich »Holzfäller«] der, s/ s,… … Universal-Lexikon
lumberjack — UK [ˈlʌmbə(r)ˌdʒæk] / US [ˈlʌmbərˌdʒæk] noun [countable] Word forms lumberjack : singular lumberjack plural lumberjacks someone whose job is to cut down trees for wood … English dictionary
Lumberjack — Lum|ber|jack [...dʒæk] der; s, s <aus gleichbed. engl. amerik. lumberjack, eigtl. »Holzfäller«, nach der Jacke der Holzfäller> Jacke aus Leder, Kord o. Ä., meist mit Reißverschluss, mit engem Taillenschluss u. Bund an den Ärmeln … Das große Fremdwörterbuch