- Refraction (metallurgy)
metallurgy, refraction is a property of metals that indicates their ability to withstand heat. Metals with a high degree of refraction are referred to as " refractory". These metals derive their high melting points from their strong intermolecular forces. Large quantities of energy are required to overcome intermolecular forces.
refractory metalsinclude molybdenum, niobium, tungsten, and tantalum. These materials are also noted for their high elastic modulusand hardness. Binary compoundssuch as tungsten carbideor boron nitridecan be even more refractory than metals. Hafnium carbide is the most refractory binary compound known, with a melting point of 3890 degrees C. [http://periodic.lanl.gov/elements/72.html] [http://www.mdatechnology.net/techsearch.asp?articleid=648]
Refractoryfor the term as applied to nonmetallic substances
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