Refraction (metallurgy)


Refraction (metallurgy)

In metallurgy, refraction is a property of metals that indicates their ability to withstand heat. Metals with a high degree of refraction are referred to as "refractory". These metals derive their high melting points from their strong intermolecular forces. Large quantities of energy are required to overcome intermolecular forces.

Some refractory metals include molybdenum, niobium, tungsten, and tantalum. These materials are also noted for their high elastic modulus and hardness.

Binary compounds such as tungsten carbide or boron nitride can be even more refractory than metals. Hafnium carbide is the most refractory binary compound known, with a melting point of 3890 degrees C. [http://periodic.lanl.gov/elements/72.html] [http://www.mdatechnology.net/techsearch.asp?articleid=648]

ee also

*Refractory for the term as applied to nonmetallic substances


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