- Art and architecture of Assyria
Assyriaflourished from the Old Assyrian periodin the Middle Bronze Ageuntil the Neo-Assyrian Empirein the Early Iron Age.
In Babylonia, an abundance of brick, and lack of stone, led to greater use of
mudbrick; Babylonian temples are massive structures of crude brick, supported by buttresses, the rain being carried off by drains. One such drain at Urwas made of lead. The use of brick led to the early development of the pilasterand column, and of frescoes and enamelled tiles. The walls were brilliantly coloured, and sometimes plated with zincor gold, as well as with tiles. Painted " terra-cotta" cones for torches were also embedded in the plaster.
Assyria, imitating Babylonian architecture, also built its palaces and temples of brick, even when stone was the natural building material of the country — faithfully preserving the brick platform, necessary in the marshy soil of Babylonia, but little needed in the north.
As time went on, however, later Assyrian architects began to shake themselves free of Babylonian influence, and to use stone as well as brick. The walls of Assyrian palaces were lined with sculptured and coloured slabs of stone, instead of being painted as in
Chaldea. Three stages may be traced in the art of these "bas-reliefs": it is vigorous but simple under Ashurnasirpal II, careful and realistic under Sargon II, and refined but wanting in boldness under Ashurbanipal.
In Babylonia, in place of the "bas relief", there is greater use of three-dimensional figures in the round — the earliest examples being the statues from
Telloh, that are realistic if somewhat clumsy. The paucity of stone in Babylonia made every pebble precious, and led to a high perfection in the art of gem-cutting.
Two seal-cylinders from the age of
Sargon of Akkadare among the best examples of their kind. One of the first remarkable specimens of early metallurgyto be discovered by archaeologists is the silver vase of Entemena. At a later epoch, great excellence was attained in the manufacture of such jewellery as earrings and bracelets of gold. Copper, too, was worked with skill; indeed, it is possible that Babylonia was the original home of copper-working.
The people were famous at an early date for their embroideries and rugs.
The forms of Assyrian pottery are graceful; the porcelain, like the glass discovered in the palaces of
Nineveh, was derived from Egyptian models. Transparent glass seems to have been first introduced in the reign of Sargon. Stone, clay and glass were used to make vases, and vases of hard stone have been dug up at Telloh similar to those of the early dynastic period of Egypt.
Babylonia and Assyria
"This article was originally based on content from the 1911
Encyclopædia Britannica. Update as needed."
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
art and architecture, Mesopotamian — Introduction the art and architecture of the ancient Mesopotamian civilizations. The name Mesopotamia has been used with varying connotations by ancient writers. If, for convenience, it is to be considered synonymous with the modern… … Universalium
art and architecture, Iranian — ▪ ancient art Introduction the art and architecture of ancient Iranian civilizations. Any reservation about attributing to Iran primary status among the countries contributing to the art of the ancient Middle East must be associated… … Universalium
art and architecture, Anatolian — Introduction the art and architecture of ancient Anatolian civilizations. Anatolia is the name that is currently applied to the whole Asian territory of modern Turkey. Its western half is a broad peninsula connecting the continent of… … Universalium
Art Deco — The art deco spire of the Chrysler Building in New York, built 1928–1930 … Wikipedia
Assyria — • Includes geographical and historical information Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Assyria Assyria † … Catholic encyclopedia
Art Du Relief Rupestre Dans L'antiquité Iranienne — Distribution par provinces des reliefs rupestres antiques en Iran L’art du relief rupestre est pratiqué par plusieurs civilisations au cours de l antiquité iranienne depuis la fin du IIIe millénaire av. J. C. jusqu’au … Wikipédia en Français
Art du relief rupestre dans l'antiquite iranienne — Art du relief rupestre dans l antiquité iranienne Distribution par provinces des reliefs rupestres antiques en Iran L’art du relief rupestre est pratiqué par plusieurs civilisations au cours de l antiquité iranienne depuis la fin du IIIe… … Wikipédia en Français
Art du relief rupestre dans l’antiquité iranienne — Art du relief rupestre dans l antiquité iranienne Distribution par provinces des reliefs rupestres antiques en Iran L’art du relief rupestre est pratiqué par plusieurs civilisations au cours de l antiquité iranienne depuis la fin du IIIe… … Wikipédia en Français
Architecture of Mesopotamia — A ziggurat in Iraq The architecture of Mesopotamia is the ancient architecture of the region of the Tigris–Euphrates river system (also known as Mesopotamia), encompassing several distinct cultures and spanning a period from the 10th millennium… … Wikipedia
Art du relief rupestre dans l'antiquité iranienne — Distribution par provinces des reliefs rupestres antiques en Iran L’art du relief rupestre est pratiqué par plusieurs civilisations au cours de l antiquité iranienne depuis la fin du IIIe millénaire av. J. C. jusqu’au VIIe siècle de… … Wikipédia en Français