- History of Buddhism
The History of Buddhism spans the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. This makes it one of the oldest religions practiced today. Starting in
India, the religion evolved as it spread through Central Asia, East Asia, and Southeast Asia. At one time or another it affected most of the Asian continent. The history of Buddhism is also characterized by the development of numerous movements and schisms, foremost among them the Theravada, Mahāyāna and Vajrayanatraditions, with contrasting periods of expansion and retreat.
Life of the Buddha
According to the Buddhist tradition, the historical Buddha Siddhartha Gautama was born to the
Shakyaclan, at the beginning of the Magadhaperiod (546–324 BCE), in the plains of Lumbiniin Ancient India. He is also known as the "Shakyamuni" (literally "The sage of the Shakya clan").
After an early life of luxury under the protection of his father, Śuddhodana, the ruler of Kapilavastu (later to be incorporated into the state of
Magadha), Siddhartha entered into contact with the realities of the world and concluded that life was inescapably bound up with suffering and sorrow. Siddhartha renounced his meaningless life of luxury to become an ascetic. He ultimately decided that asceticism couldn't end suffering, and instead chose a middle way, a path of moderation away from the extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification.
figtree, now known as the Bodhi tree, he vowed never to leave the position until he found Truth. At the age of 35, he attained Enlightenment. He was then known as Gautama Buddha, or simply "The Buddha", which means "the enlightened one", or "the awakened one".
For the remaining 45 years of his life, he traveled the
Gangetic Plainof central India(the region of the Ganges/Ganga river and its tributaries), teaching his doctrine and discipline to an diverse range of people.
The Buddha's reluctance to name a successor or to formalise his doctrine led to the emergence of many movements during the next 400 years: first the schools of
Nikaya Buddhism, of which only Theravadaremains today, and then the formation of Mahayanaand Vajrayana, pan-Buddhist sects based on the acceptance of new scriptures and the revision of older techniques.
Before the royal sponsorship of Asoka the Great in the 3rd century BCE, Buddhism remained centered around the Ganges valley, spreading gradually from its ancient heartland. The canonical sources record two Councils, where the monastic Sangha established the textual collections based on the Buddha's teachings, and settled certain disciplinary problems within the community.
1st Buddhist council (5th c. BCE)
The first Buddhist council was held soon after the death of the Buddha, and presided by Venerable
Mahakasyapa, one of the most senior disciples, at Rajagriha (today's Rajgir). The objective of the council was to record the Buddha's doctrinal teachings ( sutra) and to codify the monastic rules ( vinaya): Ananda, one of the Buddha's main disciples and his cousin, was called upon to recite the discourses of the Buddha, and Upali, another disciple, recited the rules of the vinaya. These became the basis of the Tripitaka, which is preserved in Pali, Chinese, and Tibetan, and has been the orthodox text of reference throughout the history of Buddhism.
2nd Buddhist council (4th c. BCE)
The second Buddhist council was held at Vaisali following a dispute that had arisen in the Sangha over the relaxation by some monks of various points of discipline. Eventually it was decided to hold a second Council at which the original Vinaya texts that had been preserved at the first Council were cited to show that these relaxations went against the recorded teachings of the Buddha.
Ashokan proselytism (c. 261 BCE)
The Mauryan Emperor
Ashoka the Great(273–232 BCE) converted to Buddhism after his bloody conquest of the territory of Kalinga (modern Orissa) in eastern India during the Kalinga War. Regreting the horrors brought about by the conflict, the king decided to renounce violence, and propagate the faith by building stupas and pillars urging amongst other things respect of all animal life, and enjoining people to follow the Dharma. Perhaps the finest example of these is the Great Stupa in Sanchi, India (near Bhopal). It was constructed in the third century BCE and later enlarged. Its carved gates, called Tohans, are considered among the finest examples of Buddhist art in India. He also built roads, hospitals, resthouses, universities and irrigationsystems around the country. He treated his subjects as equals regardless of their religion, politics or caste.
This period marks the first spread of Buddhism beyond India. According to the plates and pillars left by Ashoka (the
Edicts of Ashoka), emissaries were sent to various countries in order to spread Buddhism, as far South as Sri Lanka, and as far West as the Greek kingdoms, in particular the neighboring Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, and possibly even farther to the Mediterranean.
3rd Buddhist council (c.250 BCE)
Ashokaconvened the third Buddhist council around 250 BCE at Pataliputra (today's Patna). It was held by the monk Moggaliputtatissa. The objective of the council was to purify the Sangha, particularly from non-Buddhist ascetics who had been attracted by the royal patronage. Following the council, Buddhist missionaries were dispatched throughout the known world.
Some of the
Edicts of Ashokainscriptions describe the efforts made by Ashoka to propagate the Buddhist faith throughout the Hellenistic world, which at that time formed an uninterrupted continuum from the borders of India to Greece. The Edicts indicate a clear understanding of the political organization in Hellenistic territories: the names and location of the main Greek monarchs of the time are identified, and they are claimed as recipients of Buddhist proselytism: Antiochus II Theosof the Seleucid Kingdom(261–246 BCE), Ptolemy II Philadelphos of Egypt (285–247 BCE), Antigonus Gonatasof Macedonia (276–239 BCE), Magas of Cyrene(288–258 BCE) in Cyrenaica(modern Libya), and Alexander II of Epirus(272–255 BCE) in Epirus (modern Northwestern Greece).
proselytismat the time of king Ashoka(260–218 BCE), according to the Edicts of Ashoka.]
:"The conquest by
Dharmahas been won here, on the borders, and even six hundred yojanas (5,400–9,600 km) away, where the Greek king Antiochos rules, beyond there where the four kings named Ptolemy, Antigonos, Magas and Alexander rule, likewise in the south among the Cholas, the Pandyas, and as far as Tamraparni( Sri Lanka)." ( Edicts of Ashoka, 13th Rock Edict, S. Dhammika).
Furthermore, according to Pali sources, some of Ashoka's emissaries were Greek Buddhist monks, indicating close religious exchanges between the two cultures:
:"When the thera (elder) Moggaliputta, the illuminator of the religion of the Conqueror (Ashoka), had brought the (third) council to an end (...) he sent forth theras, one here and one there: (...) and to Aparantaka (the "Western countries" corresponding to
Gujaratand Sindh) he sent the Greek ( Yona) named Dhammarakkhita". ( MahavamsaXII).
The fact that some of Ashoka's emissaries were Greek agrees with Dr. Ranajit Pal's observation that Ashoka was the same as the Indo-Greek King Diodotus-I [http://www.ranajitpal.com] . Ashoka also issued Edicts in the Greek language as well as in Aramaic. One of them, found in Kandahar, advocates the adoption of "Piety" (using the Greek term
Eusebeiafor Dharma) to the Greek community:
:"Ten years (of reign) having been completed, King Piodasses (Ashoka) made known (the doctrine of) Piety (Greek:"εὐσέβεια",
Eusebeia) to men; and from this moment he has made men more pious, and everything thrives throughout the whole world.":(Trans. from the Greek original by G.P. Carratelli [ [http://www.afghanan.net/afghanistan/mauryans.htm History of Afghanistan ] ] )
It is not clear how much these interactions may have been influential, but some authors have commented that some level of
syncretismbetween Hellenist thought and Buddhism may have started in Hellenic lands at that time. They have pointed to the presence of Buddhist communities in the Hellenistic world around that period, in particular in Alexandria(mentioned by Clement of Alexandria), and to the pre-Christian monastic order of the Therapeutae(possibly a deformation of the Pali word " Theravada" [According to the linguist Zacharias P. Thundy] ), who may have "almost entirely drawn (its) inspiration from the teaching and practices of Buddhist asceticism". ["Zen living", Robert Linssen] , and may even have been descendants of Ashoka's emissaries to the West. ["The Original Jesus" (Element Books, Shaftesbury, 1995), Elmar R Gruber, Holger Kersten] The philosopher Hegesias of Cyrene, from the city of Cyrenewhere Magas of Cyreneruled, is sometimes thought to have been influenced by the teachings of Ashoka's Buddhist missionnaries. ["The philosopher Hegesias of Cyrene (nicknamed "Peisithanatos", "The advocate of death") was contemporary of Magas and was probably influenced by the teachings of the Buddhist missionnaries to Cyrene and Alexandria. His influence was such that he was ultimately prohited to teach." Jean-Marie Lafont, Inalcoin "Les Dossiers d'Archéologie", No254, p.78]
Buddhist gravestones from the
Ptolemaic periodhave also been found in Alexandria, decorated with depictions of the Dharma wheel (Tarn, "The Greeks in Bactria and India"). Commenting on the presence of Buddhists in Alexandria, some scholars have even pointed out that "It was later in this very place that some of the most active centers of Christianity were established" ( Robert Linssen"Zen living").
In the 2nd century CE, the Christian dogmatist
Clement of Alexandriarecognized Bactrian Buddhists ( Sramanas) and Indian Gymnosophists for their influence on Greek thought:
:"Thus philosophy, a thing of the highest utility, flourished in antiquity among the barbarians, shedding its light over the nations. And afterwards it came to
Greece. First in its ranks were the prophets of the Egyptians; and the Chaldeansamong the Assyrians; and the Druidsamong the Gauls; and the Sramanas among the Bactrians("Σαρμαναίοι Βάκτρων"); and the philosophers of the Celts; and the Magiof the Persians, who foretold the Saviour's birth, and came into the land of Judaeaguided by a star. The Indian gymnosophists are also in the number, and the other barbarian philosophers. And of these there are two classes, some of them called Sramanas ("Σαρμάναι"), and others Brahmins("Βραφμαναι")." Clement of Alexandria "The Stromata, or Miscellanies" Book I, Chapter XV [ [http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/clement-stromata-book1.html Clement of Alexandria "The Stromata, or Miscellanies" Book I, Chapter XV] ]
According to Donald A. Mackenzie, Saint Origen in the 2nd century CE mentioned Buddhists co-existing with
Druids in pre-Christian Britain::"The island (Britain) has long been predisposed to it (Christianity) through the doctrines of the Druids and Buddhists, who had already inculcated the doctrine of the unity of the Godhead" - Origen, "Commentary on Ezekiel". [Mackenzie, Donald A. (1928), "Buddhism in pre-Christian Britain", " American Journal of Archaeology", p. 42]
Expansion to Sri Lanka and Burma
Sri Lankawas proselytized by Ashoka's son Mahindaand six companions during the 2nd century BCE. They converted the king Devanampiya Tissa and many of the nobility. This is when the Mahaviharamonastery, a center of Sinhalese orthodoxy, was built. The Pali Canonwas written down in Sri Lanka during the reign of king Vattagamani (29–17 BCE), and the Theravada tradition flourished there. Later some great commentators worked there, such as Buddhaghosa(4th–5th century) and Dhammapala (5th–6th century), and they systemised the traditional commentaries that had been handed down. Although MahayanaBuddhism gained some influence in Sri Lankaat that time, Theravada ultimately prevailed, and Sri Lanka turned out to be the last stronghold of Theravada Buddhism, from where it would expand again to South-East Asia from the 11th century.
In the areas east of the Indian subcontinent (modern
Burmaand Thailand), Indian culture strongly influenced the Mons. The Mons are said to have been converted to Buddhism from the 3rd century BCE under the proselytizing of the Indian Emperor Ashoka the Great, before the fission between Mahayanaand HinayanaBuddhism. Early Mon Buddhist temples, such as Peikthano in central Burma, have been dated between the 1st and the 5th century CE.
Buddhist artof the Mons was especially influenced by the Indian art of the Gupta and post-Gupta periods, and their mannerist style spread widely in South-East Asia following the expansion of the Mon kingdom between the 5th and 8th centuries. The Theravada faith expanded in the northern parts of Southeast Asia under Mon influence, until it was progressively displaced by Mahayana Buddhism from around the 6th century CE.
According to the "
Ashokavadana" (2nd century CE), Ashoka sent a missionary to the north, through the Himalayas, to Khotanin the Tarim Basin, then the land of the Tocharians, speakers of an Indo-European language.
Rise of the Sunga (2nd–1st c. BCE)
Sunga dynasty(185–73 BCE) was established in 185 BCE, about 50 years after Ashoka's death. After assassinating King Brhadrata(last of the Mauryanrulers), military commander-in-chief Pusyamitra Sungatook the throne. Buddhist religious scriptures such as the Ashokavadanaallege that Pusyamitra (an orthodox Brahmin) was hostile towards Buddhists and persecuted the Buddhist faith. Buddhists wrote that he "destroyed monasteries and killed Monks" [ Divyavadana, pp. 429–434] : 84,000 Buddhist stupas which had been built by Ashoka were "destroyed" (R. Thaper), and 100 gold coins were offered for the head of each Buddhist monk [Indian Historical Quarterly Vol. XXII, p. 81 ff cited in Hars.407] . In addition, Buddhist sources allege that a large number of Buddhist monasteries ( viharas) were converted to Hindutemples, in such places as Nalanda, Bodhgaya, Sarnath, or Mathura.
Following Ashoka's sponsorship of Buddhism, it is possible that Buddhist institutions fell on harder times under the Sungas but no evidence of active persecution has been noted.
Etienne Lamotteobserves: "To judge from the documents, Pushyamitra must be acquitted through lack of proof." [ [http://koenraadelst.voiceofdharma.com/books/acat/ch2.htm#5a Ashoka and Pushyamitra, iconoclasts?] by Koneraad Elst] . Another eminent historian, Romila Thapar, points to archaeological evidence that "suggests the contrary [to the claim that Pusyamitra was a fanatical anti-Buddhist] " and never actually destroyed 84000 stupas as claimed by Buddhist works. Thapar stresses that Buddhist accounts are probably hyperbolic renditions of Pusyamitra's attack of the Mauryas, and merely reflect the frustration of the Buddhist religious figures to the decline in the importance of their religion by the Sungas. [Asoka and the Decline of the Mauryas by Romila Thapar, Oxford University Press, 1960 P200] .
During the period, Buddhist monks deserted the
Gangesvalley, following either the Northern road ( Uttarapatha) or the Southern road (Daksinapatha). ["Gandhara", Francine Tissot, p128: "The monks, expelled from the Ganges valley, maybe by sectarian disputes, followed the northern road (Uttarapatha) or the northern road (Daksinapatha), which conducted them to the Northwest for some, and to the Occidental ocean for the others, with multiple artistic creations marking their respective roads"] Conversely, Buddhist artistic creation stopped in the old Magadhaarea, to reposition itself either in Northwest area of Gandharaand Mathura, or in the Southeast around Amaravati. Some artistic activity also occurred in central India, as in Bharhut, to which the Sungas may or may not have contributed.
Greco-Buddhist interaction (2nd c. BCE–1st c. CE)
In the areas west of the Indian subcontinent, neighboring Greek kingdoms had been in place in
Bactria(today's northern Afghanistan) since the time of the conquests of Alexander the Greataround 326 BCE: first the Seleucidsfrom around 323 BCE, then the Greco-Bactrian kingdom from around 250 BCE.
Greco-Buddhiststatue, one of the first representations of the Buddha, 1st-2nd century CE, Gandhara.]
Greco-Bactrianking Demetrius I invaded India in 180 BCE as far as Pataliputra, establishing an Indo-Greek kingdom that was to last in various part of northern India until the end of the 1st century BCE.Buddhism flourished under the Indo-Greek kings, and it has been suggested that their invasion of India was intended to show their support for the Mauryan empire, and to protect the Buddhist faith from the alleged religious persecutions of the Sungas (185–73 BCE).
One of the most famous Indo-Greek kings is Menander (reigned c. 160–135 BCE). He apparently converted to Buddhism and is presented in the
Mahayanatradition as one of the great benefactors of the faith, on a par with king Ashokaor the later Kushan king Kanishka. Menander's coins bear the mention "Saviour king" in Greek, and sometimes designs of the eight-spoked wheel. Direct cultural exchange is also suggested by the dialogue of the Milinda Panhabetween Menander and the monk Nagasenaaround 160 BCE. Upon his death, the honour of sharing his remains was claimed by the cities under his rule, and they were enshrined in stupas, in a parallel with the historic Buddha ( Plutarch, Praec. reip. ger. 28, 6). Several of Menander's Indo-Greeksuccessors inscribed the mention "Follower of the Dharma" in the Kharoshthiscript on their coins, and depicted themselves or their divinities forming the "vitarka" mudra.
The interaction between Greek and Buddhist cultures may have had some influence on the evolution of
Mahayana, as the faith developed its sophisticated philosophical approach and a man-god treatment of the Buddha somewhat reminiscent of Hellenic gods. It is also around that time that the first anthropomorphicrepresentations of the Buddha are found, often in realistic Greco-Buddhiststyle: "One might regard the classical influence as including the general idea of representing a man-god in this purely human form, which was of course well familiar in the West, and it is very likely that the example of westerner's treatment of their gods was indeed an important factor in the innovation" (Boardman, "The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity" ).
Central Asian expansion
A Buddhist gold coin from India was found in northern
Afghanistanat the archaeological site of Tillia Tepe, and dated to the 1st century CE. On the reverse, it depicts a lion with a nandipada, with the Kharoshthilegend "Sih [o] vigatabhay [o] " ("The lion who dispelled fear"). On the obverse, an almost naked man only wearing an Hellenistic chlamysand a petasushat (an iconography similar to that of Hermes/ Mercury) rolls a Buddhist wheel. The legend in Kharoshthi reads "Dharmacakrapravata [ko] " ("The one who turned the Wheel of the Law"). It has been suggested that this may be an early representation of the Buddha. ["Il semble qu'on ait là la plus ancienne représentation du Buddha, selon une modalité qui n'est pas encore celle de l'iconograhie boudhique traditionnelle" (French): "It seems this might be the earliest representation of the Buddha, in a style which is not yet that of traditional Buddhist iconography", in "Afghanistan, les trésors retouvés", p280.]
Rise of Mahayana (1st c. BCE–2nd c. CE)
The rise of Mahayana Buddhism from the 1st century BCE was accompanied by complex political changes in northwestern India. The
Indo-Greekkingdoms were gradually overwhelmed, and their culture assimilated by the Indo-Scythians, and then the Yuezhi, who founded the Kushan Empirefrom around 12 BCE.
The Kushans were supportive of Buddhism, and a fourth Buddhist council was convened by the
Kushanemperor Kanishka, around 100 CE at Jalandhar or in Kashmir, and is usually associated with the formal rise of MahayanaBuddhism and its secession from Theravada Buddhism. TheravadaBuddhism does not recognize the authenticity of this council, and it is sometimes called the "council of heretical monks".
The new form of Buddhism was characterized by an almost God-like treatment of the Buddha, by the idea that all beings have a Buddha-nature and should aspire to Buddhahood, and by a syncretism due to the various cultural influences within northwestern India and the
The Two Fourth Councils
The Fourth Council is said to have been convened in the reign of the
Kushanemperor Kanishka, around 100 CE at Jalandhar or in Kashmir. Theravada Buddhism had its own Fourth Council in Sri Lanka about 200 years earlier in which the Pali Canonwas written down "in toto" for the first time. Therefore there are two Fourth Councils: one in Sri Lanka (Theravada), and one in Kashmir (Sarvastivadin).
It is said that for the Fourth Council of Kashmir,
Kanishkagathered 500 monks headed by Vasumitra, partly, it seems, to compile extensive commentaries on the Abhidharma, although it is possible that some editorial work was carried out upon the existing canon itself. Allegedly, during the council there were all together three hundred thousand verses and over nine million statements compiled, and it took twelve years to complete. The main fruit of this Council was the compilation of the vast commentary known as the Mahā-Vibhāshā ("Great Exegesis"), an extensive compendium and reference work on a portion of the Sarvāstivādin Abhidharma. Scholars believe that it was also around this time that a significant change was made in the language of the Sarvāstivādin canon, by converting an earlier Prakritversion into Sanskrit. Although this change was probably effected without significant loss of integrity to the canon, this event was of particular significance since Sanskrit was the sacred language of Brahmanismin India, and was also being used by other thinkers (regardless of their specific religious or philosophical allegiance), thus enabling a far wider audience to gain access to Buddhist ideas and practices. For this reason, there was a growing tendency among Buddhist scholars in India thereafter to write their commentaries and treatises in Sanskrit. Many of the early schools, however, such as Theravada, never switched to Sanskrit, partly because Buddha explicitly forbade translation of his discourses into Sanskrit because it was an elitist religious language (like Latinwas in Europe in earlier times). He wanted his monks to use a local language instead; a language which could be understood by all. Over time however, the language of the Theravadin scriptures ( Pali) became a scholarly or elitist language as well.
Mahayana expansion (1st c. CE–10th c. CE)
MahayanaBuddhism between the 1st–10th century CE.]
From that point on, and in the space of a few centuries, Mahayana was to flourish and spread in the East from India to
South-East Asia, and towards the north to Central Asia, China, Korea, and finally to Japanin 538 CE.
After the end of the Kushans, Buddhism flourished in India during the dynasty of the Guptas (4th-6th century). Mahayana centers of learning were established, especially at
Nalandain north-eastern India, which was to become the largest and most influential Buddhist university for many centuries, with famous teachers such as Nagarjuna. The Gupta style of Buddhistart became very influential from South-East Asia to China as the faith was spreading there.
Indian Buddhism had weakened in the 6th century following the
White Huninvasions and Mihirkulas persecution. Xuanzangreports in his travels across India during the 7th century of Buddhism being popular in Andhra, Dhanyakataka, and Dravidawhich today roughly correspond to the modern day Indian states of Andhra Pradeshand Tamil Nadu. [ [http://www.upf.es/materials/huma/central/historia/xinamon/docums/budxidoc/miyaki.htm Personality of Xuanzang Sanzang] ] While reporting many deserted stupas in the area around modern day Nepaland the persecution of buddhists by Ssanka in the Kingdom of Gouda. (In modern day West Bengal.) Xuanzangcompliments the patronage of Harshavardana during the same period. After Harshavardanas kingdom, the rise of many small kingdoms that lead to the rise of the Rajputs across the gangetic plains and marked the end of Buddhist ruling clans along with a sharp decline in royal patronage until a revival under the Pala Empirein the Bengalregion. Here Mahayana Buddhism flourished and spread to Bhutanand Sikkimbetween the 8th and the 12th century before the Palas collapsed under the assault of the Hindu Sena dynasty. The Palas created many temples and a distinctive school of Buddhist art. Xuanzangnoted in his travels that in various regions Buddhismwas giving way to Jainismand Hinduism. [ [http://www.indiaprofile.com/religion-culture/buddhisminandhra.htm Buddhism in Andhra Pradesh, story of Buddhism] ] By the 10th century Buddhism had experienced a sharp decline beyond the Pala realms in Bengal under a resurgent Hinduism and the incorporation in VaishnaviteHinduism of Buddha as the 9th incarnation of Vishnu. [ [http://www.metta.lk/english/buddhism-ap.htm?bcsi_scan_40D940621B5BD15F=0&bcsi_scan_filename=buddhism-ap.htm Buddhism In Andhra Pradesh] ]
A milestone in the decline of Indian Buddhism in the North occurred in 1193 when Turkic Islamic raiders under
Muhammad Khiljiburnt Nalanda. By the end of the 12th century, following the Islamic conquest of the Buddhist strongholds in Bihar, and the loss of political support coupled with social and caste pressures, the practice of Buddhism retreated to the Himalayan foothills in the North and Sri Lankain the south. Additionally, the influence of Buddhism also waned due to Hinduism's revival movements such as Advaita, the rise of the bhakti movementand the missionary work of Sufis.
Central and Northern Asia
Central Asiahad been influenced by Buddhism probably almost since the time of the Buddha. According to a legend preserved in Pali, the language of the Theravadacanon, two merchant brothers from Bactria, named Tapassu and Bhallika, visited the Buddha and became his disciples. They then returned to Bactria and built temples to the Buddha (Foltz).
Central Asia long played the role of a meeting place between
China, Indiaand Persia. During the 2nd century BCE, the expansion of the Former Han to the west brought them into contact with the Hellenistic civilizations of Asia, especially the Greco-Bactrian Kingdoms. Thereafter, the expansion of Buddhismto the north led to the formation of Buddhist communities and even Buddhist kingdoms in the oases of Central Asia. Some Silk Roadcities consisted almost entirely of Buddhist stupas and monasteries, and it seems that one of their main objectives was to welcome and service travelers between east and west.
Theravadatraditions first spread among the Turkic tribes before combining with the Mahayanaforms during the 2nd and 3rd centuries BCE to cover modern-day Pakistan, Kashmir, Afghanistan, eastern and coastal Iran, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistanand Tajikistan. These were the ancient states of Gandhara, Bactria, Parthiaand Sogdiafrom where it spread to China. Among the first of these Turkic tribes to adopt Buddhism was the Turki- Shahiwho adopted Buddhism as early as the 3rd century BCE. It was not, however, the exclusive faith of this region. There were also Zoroastrians, Hindus, NestorianChristians, Jews, Manichaeans, and followers of shamanism, Tengrism, and other indigenous, nonorganized systems of belief.
Nikayaschools persisted in Central Asia and China until around the 7th century CE. Mahayana started to become dominant during the period, but since the faith had not developed a Nikaya approach, Sarvastivadinand Dharmaguptakasremained the Vinayas of choice in Central Asian monasteries.
Various Buddhism kingdoms rose and prospered in both the Central Asian region and downwards into the Indian sub-continent such as
Kushan Empireprior to the White Huninvasion in the 5th century where under the King Mihirkula they were heavily persecuted.
Buddhism in Central Asia started to decline with the expansion of
Islamand the destruction of many stupas in war from the 7th century. The Muslims accorded them the status of dhimmis as "people of the Book", such as Christianityor Judaismand Al-Biruniwrote of Buddha as prophet "burxan".
Buddhism saw a surge during the reign of
Mongolsfollowing the invasion of Genghis Khanand the establishment of the Il Khanateand the Chagatai Khanatewho brought their Buddhistinfluence with them during the 13th century, however within a 100 years the Mongolswho remained in that region would convert to Islamand spread Islam across all the regions across central Asia. Only the eastern Mongols and the Mongols of the Yuan dynastywould keep Vajrayana Buddhism.
Buddhism expanded westward into
Arsacid Parthia, at least to the area of Merv, in ancient Margiana, today's territory of Turkmenistan. Soviet archeological teams have excavated in Giaur Kala, near Merv, a Buddhist chapel, a gigantic Buddha statue, as well as a monastery.
Parthians were directly involved in the propagation of Buddhism:
An Shigao(c. 148 CE), a Parthian prince, went to China, and is the first known translator of Buddhist scriptures into Chinese.
Central Asian and East-Asian Buddhist monks, Bezaklik, Eastern Tarim Basin, China, 9th-10th century.] The eastern part of central Asia (Chinese Turkestan, Tarim Basin, Xinjiang) has revealed extremely rich Buddhist works of art (wall paintings and reliefs in numerous caves, portable paintings on canvas, sculpture, ritual objects), displaying multiple influences from Indian and Hellenistic cultures. Serindian artis highly reminiscent of the Gandharan style, and scriptures in the Gandhari script Kharosthihave been found.
Central Asians seem to have played a key role in the transmission of Buddhism to the East. The first translators of Buddhists scriptures into Chinese were either
Parthian (Ch: Anxi) like An Shigao(c. 148 CE) or An Hsuan, Kushanof Yuezhiethnicity like Lokaksema(c. 178 CE), Zhi Qianand Zhi Yao, or Sogdians(Ch: SuTe/粟特) like Kang Sengkai. Thirty-seven early translators of Buddhist texts are known, and the majority of them have been identified as Central Asians.
Central Asian and East Asian Buddhist monks appear to have maintained strong exchanges until around the 10th century, as shown by frescoes from the Tarim Basin.
These influences were rapidly absorbed however by the vigorous Chinese culture, and a strongly Chinese particularism develops from that point.
Buddhism probably arrived in China around the 1st century CE from Central Asia (although there are some traditions about a monk visiting China during
Ashoka's reign), and through to the 8th century it became an extremely active center of Buddhism.
The year 67 CE saw Buddhism's official introduction to China with the coming of the two monks
Motonand Chufarlan. In 68 CE, under imperial patronage, they established the White Horse Temple(白馬寺), which still exists today, close to the imperial capital at Luoyang. By the end of the second century, a prosperous community had been settled at Pengcheng (modern Xuzhou, Jiangsu).
The first known Mahayana scriptural texts are translations made into Chinese by the Kushan monk Lokaksema in Luoyang, between 178 and 189 CE. Some of the earliest known Buddhist artifacts found in China are small statues on "money trees", dated circa 200 CE, in typical Gandharan style (drawing): "That the imported images accompanying the newly arrived doctrine came from Gandhara is strongly suggested by such early Gandhara characteristics on this "money tree" Buddha as the high ushnisha, vertical arrangement of the hair, moustache, symmetrically looped robe and parallel incisions for the folds of the arms." ("Crossroads of Asia" p209)Buddhism flourished during the beginning of the
Tang Dynasty(618–907). The dynasty was initially characterized by a strong openness to foreign influences, and renewed exchanges with Indian culture due to the numerous travels of Chinese Buddhist monks to India from the 4th to the 11th century. The Tang capital of Chang'an(today's Xi'an) became an important center for Buddhist thought. From there Buddhism spread to Korea, and Japanese embassies of Kentoshi helped gain footholds in Japan. However foreign influences came to be negatively perceived towards the end of the Tang Dynasty. In the year 845, the Tang emperor Wuzong outlawed all "foreign" religions (including Christian Nestorianism, Zoroastrianism, and Buddhism) in order to support the indigenous Taoism. Throughout his territory, he confiscated Buddhist possessions, destroyed monasteries and temples, and executed Buddhist monks, ending Buddhism's cultural and intellectual dominance.
However, about a hundred years after the
Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution, Buddhismrevived during the Song Dynasty(1127–1279). Pure Landand Chan Buddhism, however, continued to prosper for some centuries, the latter giving rise to Japanese Zen. In China, Chan flourished particularly under the Song dynasty(1127–1279), when its monasteries were great centers of culture and learning.
Today, China boasts one of the richest collections of Buddhist arts and heritages in the world.
UNESCO World Heritage Sitessuch as the Mogao Cavesnear Dunhuangin Gansuprovince, the Longmen Grottoesnear Luoyangin Henanprovince, the Yungang Grottoesnear Datongin Shanxiprovince, and the Dazu Rock Carvingsnear Chongqingare among the most important and renowned Buddhist sculptural sites. The Leshan Giant Buddha, carved out of a hillside in the 8th century during Tang Dynastyand looking down on the confluence of three rivers, is still the largest stone Buddha statue in the world.
Buddhism was introduced around 372 CE, when Chinese ambassadors visited the Korean kingdom of
Goguryeo, bringing scriptures and images.Buddhism prospered in Korea, and in particular Seon ( Zen) Buddhism from the 7th century onward.However, with the beginning of the ConfuceanYi Dynasty of the Joseon period in 1392, Buddhism was strongly discriminated against until it was almost completely eradicated, except for a remaining Seon movement.
The Buddhism of Japan was introduced from
Three Kingdoms of Koreain the sixth century. The Chinese priest Ganjinoffered the system of Vinaya to the Buddhism of Japan in 754. As a result, the Buddhism of Japan has developed rapidly. Saichōand Kūkaisucceeded to a legitimate Buddhism from China in nine century.
Being geographically at the end of the
Silk Road, Japan was able to preserve many aspects of Buddhism at the very time it was disappearing in India, and being suppressed in Central Asia and China.
From 710 CE numerous temples and monasteries were built in the capital city of Nara, such as the five-story
pagodaand Golden Hall of the Hōryū-ji, or the Kōfuku-jitemple. Countless paintings and sculptures were made, often under governmental sponsorship. The creation of Japanese Buddhist art was especially rich between the 8th and 13th century during the periods of Nara, Heian, and Kamakura.
From the 12th and 13th, a further development was
Zenart, following the introduction of the faith by Dogenand Eisaiupon their return from China. Zen art is mainly characterized by original paintings (such as sumi-eand the Enso) and poetry (especially haikus), striving to express the true essence of the world through impressionistic and unadorned "non-dualistic" representations. The search for enlightenment "in the moment" also led to the development of other important derivative arts such as the Chanoyutea ceremony or the Ikebanaart of flower arrangement. This evolution went as far as considering almost any human activity as an art with a strong spiritual and aesthetic content, first and foremost in those activities related to combat techniques ( martial arts).
Buddhism remains very active in Japan to this day. Around 80,000 Buddhist temples are preserved and regularly restored.
During the 1st century CE, the trade on the overland Silk Road tended to be restricted by the rise in the Middle-East of the
Parthian empire, an unvanquished enemy of Rome, just as Romans were becoming extremely wealthy and their demand for Asian luxury was rising. This demand revived the sea connections between the Mediterranean and China, with India as the intermediary of choice. From that time, through trade connection, commercial settlements, and even political interventions, India started to strongly influence Southeast Asian countries. Trade routes linked India with southern Burma, central and southern Siam, lower Cambodiaand southern Vietnam, and numerous urbanized coastal settlements were established there.
For more than a thousand years, Indian influence was therefore the major factor that brought a certain level of cultural unity to the various countries of the region. The Pali and
Sanskritlanguages and the Indian script, together with Theravadaand MahayanaBuddhism, Brahmanism, and Hinduism, were transmitted from direct contact and through sacred texts and Indian literature such as the Ramayanaand the Mahabharata.
From the 5th to the 13th century, South-East Asia had very powerful empires and became extremely active in Buddhist architectural and artistic creation. The main Buddhist influence now came directly by sea from the Indian subcontinent, so that these empires essentially followed the Mahayana faith. The
Sri VijayaEmpire to the south and the Khmer Empireto the north competed for influence, and their art expressed the rich Mahayana pantheon of the Bodhisattvas.
rivijayan Empire (7th–13th century)
Srivijaya, a maritime empire centered at Palembangon the island of Sumatrain Indonesia, adopted Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism under a line of rulers named the Sailendras. Yijingdescribed Palembang as a great centre of Buddhist learning where the emperor supported over a thousand monks at his court. Atishastudied there before travelling to Tibetas a missionary.
Buddhist artduring its expansion in Southeast Asia. Numerous statues of Bodhisattvas from this period are characterized by a very strong refinement and technical sophistication, and are found throughout the region. Extremely rich architectural remains are visible at the temple of Borobudur(the largest Buddhist structure in the world, built from around 780 CE), in Java, which has 505 images of the seated Buddha. Srivijaya declined due to conflicts with the Cholarulers of India, before being destabilized by the Islamic expansion from the 13th century.
Khmer Empire (9th–13th century)
Later, from the 9th to the 13th century, the Mahayana Buddhist and Hindu
Khmer Empiredominated much of the South-East Asian peninsula. Under the Khmer, more than 900 temples were built in Cambodia and in neighboring Thailand. Angkorwas at the center of this development, with a temple complex and urban organization able to support around one million urban dwellers. One of the greatest Khmer kings, Jayavarman VII(1181–1219), built large Mahayana Buddhist structures at Bayonand Angkor Thom.
Following the destruction of Buddhism in mainland India during the 11th century, Mahayana Buddhism declined in Southeast Asia, to be replaced by the introduction of Theravada Buddhism from Sri Lanka.
Emergence of the Vajrayana (5th century)
Vajrayāna Buddhism, also called
Tantric Buddhism, first emerged in eastern India between the 5th and 7th centuries CE. It is sometimes considered a sub-school of Mahayana and sometimes a third major "vehicle" ("Yana") of Buddhism in its own right. The Vajrayana is an extension of Mahayana Buddhism in that it does not offer new philosophical perspectives, but rather introduces additional techniques (upaya, or 'skilful means'), including the use of visualizations and other yogic practices. Many of the practices of Tantric Buddhism are common with Hindu tantricism (the usage of mantras, yoga, or the burning of sacrificial offerings). This school of thought was founded by Padmasambhava.
Early Vajrayana practitioners were forest-dwelling
mahasiddhas who lived on the margins of society, but by the 9th century Vajrayana had won acceptance at major Mahayana monastic universities such as Nalandaand Vikramashila. Along with much of the rest of Indian Buddhism, the Vajrayana was eclipsed in the wake of the late 12th century Muslim invasions. It has persisted in Tibet, where it was wholly transplanted from the 7th to 12th centuries and became the dominant form of Buddhism to the present day, and on a limited basis in Japan as well where it evolved into Shingon Buddhism.
Theravada Renaissance (11th century CE— )
TheravadaBuddhism from the 11th century CE.] From the 11th century, the destruction of Buddhism in the Indian mainland by Islamic invasions led to the decline of the Mahayana faith in South-East Asia. Continental routes through the Indian subcontinent being compromised, direct sea routes between the Middle-Eastthrough Sri Lankaand to Chinadeveloped, leading to the adoption of the TheravadaBuddhism of the Pali canon, introduced to the region around the 11th century CE from Sri Lanka.
Anawrahta(1044–1077); the historical founder of the Burmese empire, unified the country and adopted the Theravada Buddhist faith. This initiated the creation of thousands of Buddhist temples at Pagan, the capital, between the 11th and 13th century. Around 2,000 of them are still standing. The power of the Burmese waned with the rise of the Thai, and with the seizure of the capital Pagan by the Mongolsin 1287, but Theravada Buddhism remained the main Burmese faith to this day.
The Theravada faith was also adopted by the newly founded ethnic Thai kingdom of Sukhothai around 1260. Theravada Buddhism was further reinforced during the Ayutthaya period (14th–18th century), becoming an integral part of the Thai society.
In the continental areas, Theravada Buddhism continued to expand into
Laosand Cambodiain the 13th century. However, from the 14th century, on the coastal fringes and in the islands of South-East Asia, the influence of Islamproved stronger, expanding into Malaysia, Indonesia, and most of the islands as far as the southern Philippines.
However, since 1966 with
Soeharto's rise of power in the aftermath of the bloody events after the so called "September 30th, 1965 murders", allegedly executed by the Communists Party, there has been a remarkable renaissance of Buddhism in Indonesia. This is partly due to the Soeharto's New Order's requirements for the people of Indonesiato adopt one of the five official religions: Islam, Protestantism, Catholicism, Hinduismor Buddhism. Today it is estimated there are some 10 millions Buddhists in Indonesia. A large part of them are people of Chinese ancestry.
Expansion of Buddhism to the West
After the Classical encounters between Buddhism and the West recorded in Greco-Buddhist art, information and legends about Buddhism seem to have reached the West sporadically. An account of Buddha's life was translated in to Greek by
John of Damascus, and widely circulated to Christians as the story of Barlaamand Josaphat. By the 1300s this story of Josaphathad become so popular that he was made a Catholic saint.
The next direct encounter between Europeans and Buddhism happened in Medieval times when the
Franciscanfriar William of Rubruckwas sent on an embassy to the Mongolcourt of Mongkeby the French king Saint Louis in 1253. The contact happened in Cailac (today's Qayaliq in Kazakhstan), and William originally thought they were wayward Christians (Foltz, "Religions of the Silk Road").
Interest in Buddhism increased during the colonial era, when Western powers were in a position to witness the faith and its artistic manifestations in detail. The opening of
Japanin 1853 created a considerable interest in the arts and culture of Japan, and provided access to one of the most thriving Buddhist cultures in the world. Buddhism started to enjoy a strong interest from the general population in the West following the turbulence of the 20th century.
Buddhism has been displaying a strong power of attraction, due to its tolerance, its lack of deist authority and determinism, and its focus on understanding reality through self inquiry.Fact|date=September 2008
Timeline of Buddhism
* "Dictionary of Buddhism" by Damien Keown (Oxford University Press, 2003) ISBN 0-19-860560-9
* "The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity" by John Boardman (Princeton University Press, 1994) ISBN 0-691-03680-2
* "Living Zen" by Robert Linssen (Grove Press, New York, 1958) ISBN 0-8021-3136-0
* "National Museum Arts asiatiques- Guimet" (Editions de la Reunion des Musées Nationaux, Paris, 2001) ISBN 2-7118-3897-8.
* "Religions of the Silk Road" by Richard Foltz (St. Martin's Griffin, New York, 1999) ISBN 0-312-23338-8
* "The Shape of Ancient Thought. Comparative studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies" by Thomas McEvilley (Allworth Press, New York, 2002) ISBN 1-58115-203-5
* "The Times Atlas of Archeology" (Times Books Limited, London, 1991) ISBN 0-7230-0306-8
* "Japanese Buddhism" by Sir Charles Eliot, ISBN 0-7103-0967-8
* "Hinduism and Buddhism: An Historical Sketch" by Sir Charles Eliot, ISBN 81-215-1093-7
* "The Crossroads of Asia. Transformation in Image and symbol", 1992, ISBN 0-9518399-1-8
* "Revival of Buddhism in India and Role of Dr. Baba Saheb B.R. Ambedkar" by Bhagwan Das (Dalit Today Prakashan, 18/455, Indira Nagar, Lucknow, U.P., India, 1998)
* "Gandhara" Francine Tissot, Librairie d'Amérique et d'Orient, Paris, ISBN 2-7200-1031-6
* [http://berzinarchives.com/islam/index.html Historical Interactions between Buddhism and Islam]
* [http://berzinarchives.com/history_buddhism/index.html History of Tibetan Buddhism and Bön]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
History of Buddhism in India — Buddhism is a world religion, which arose in Bihar, India and is based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, who is known as the Buddha (literally the Enlightened One or Awakened One ). It flourished during the reign of Maurya Empire. Buddhism… … Wikipedia
History of Buddhism in Cambodia — Suvannabhumi= King Asohka sent missionaries to the land of Suvannabhumi (Suwannaphum), which has sometimes been identified as the mainland southeast Asian region of the Mon kingdoms of southern Thaton in Burma, central Thailand and Issan. The… … Wikipedia
Buddhism in the United States of America — Buddhism is a religion with millions of followers in the United States, including traditionally Buddhist Asian Americans as well as non Asians, many of whom are converts [ [http://www.beliefnet.com/story/7/story 732 1.html Beliefnet.com American… … Wikipedia
Buddhism and Hinduism — are two closely related religions that are in some ways parallel each other and in other ways are divergent in theory and practice.The Vedic, Buddhist, and Jain religions share a common regional culture situated near and around north eastern… … Wikipedia
Buddhism in Cambodia — Buddhism has existed in Cambodia since at least the 5th century CE, with some sources placing its origin as early as the 3rd century BCE.Fact|date=December 2007 Theravada Buddhism has been the Cambodian state religion since the 13th century CE… … Wikipedia
Buddhism in the Netherlands — Buddhism is a small minority religion in The Netherlands, but it has shown rapid growth in recent years. As of the 2004 estimate, 169,000 Dutch people identified their religion as Buddhist (about 1.0% of the total population).Early historyThe… … Wikipedia
Buddhism in the United Kingdom — Buddhism has a small but growing number of adherents in the United Kingdom.According to a Buddhist organisation, this growth has in recent years been predominately the result of conversion [ [http://www.buddhistchannel.tv/index.php?id=3,1952,0,0,1… … Wikipedia
Buddhism in Bangladesh — Buddhism is the third largest religion in Bangladesh with about 0.7% of population adheres to the Theravada Buddhism [ [http://www.banbeis.gov.bd/bd pro.htm BANGLADESH: COUNTRY PROFILE] ] . Most of the practitioners are from the south eastern… … Wikipedia
Buddhism in Laos — Buddhism is the primary religion of Laos. The Buddhism practiced in Laos is of the Theravada tradition. Lao Buddhism is a unique version of Theravada Buddhism and is at the basis of Lao culture. Buddhism in Laos is often closely tied to animist… … Wikipedia
Buddhism in the West — broadly encompasses the knowledge and practice of Buddhism outside of Asia. Occasional intersections between Western civilization and the Buddhist world have been occurring for thousands of years, but it was not until the era of European… … Wikipedia