Themis


Themis

For other uses, see Themis (disambiguation). In Greek mythology, Hesiod mentions [Hesiod, "Theogony" 132; this origin was part of Orphic tradition as well (Orphic Hymn 79).] Themis ( _el. Θέμις) among the six sons and six daughters of Gaia and Uranus, that is, of Earth with Sky. Among these Titans of primordial myth, few were venerated at specific sanctuaries in classical times, and Themis was so ancient that the followers of Zeus claimed that it was with him she produced the Three Fates themselves [Hesiod, "Theogony," 904.] A fragment of Pindar, [Pindar, fragment 30.] however, tells that the Moerae were already present at the nuptials of Zeus and Themis, that in fact the Moerae rose with Themis from the springs of Okeanos the encircling World-Ocean and accompanied her up the bright sun-path to meet Zeus at Olympus.

Themis (meaning "law (of nature)" rather than human ordinance, literally "that which is put in place", from the verb τίθημι, "títhēmi", to put), she "of good counsel" was the embodiment of divine order, law and custom. When Themis is disregarded, Nemesis brings just and wrathful retribution, thus Themis shared the "Nemesion" temple at Rhamnous ("illustration below"). Themis is not wrathful: she, "of the lovely cheeks", was the first to offer Hera a cup when she returned to Olympus distraught over threats from Zeus ("Iliad" xv.88). Themis presided over the proper relation between man and woman, the basis of the rightly ordered family (the family was seen as the pillar of the deme), and judges were often referred to as "themistopóloi" (the servants of Themis). Such was the basis for order upon Olympus too. Even Hera addressed her as "Lady Themis." The name of Themis might be substituted for Adrasteia in telling of the birth of Zeus on Crete. She built the Oracle at Delphi and was herself oracular. According to another legend, Themis received the Oracle at Delphi from Gaia and later gave it to Phoebe.

With Zeus she more certainly bore the Horae, [Hesiod, "Theogony", 901ff.] those embodiments of the right moment — the rightness of Order unfolding in Time — and Astraea. Themis was there at Delos to witness the birth of Apollo. According to Ovid, it was Themis rather than Zeus who told Deucalion to throw the bones of his Mother over his shoulder to create a new race of mankind after the Deluge.

To these ancient Greeks she was originally the organizer of the "communal affairs of humans, particularly assemblies. [ [http://lib.law.washington.edu/ref/themis.html (University of Washington School of Law) Themis, Goddess of Justice] ] " Her ability to foresee the future enabled her to become one of the Oracles of Delphi, which in turn led to her establishment as the goddess of divine justice. Some classical representationsFact|date=July 2008 of Themis did not show her blindfolded (because of her talent for prophecy, she had no need to be blinded) nor was she holding a sword (because she represented common consent, not coercion).

The first recorded appearance of Justice as a divine personage (Themis) occurred in Hesiod's "Theogony" where, drawing not only on the socio-religious consciousness of his time but also on many of the earlier cult-religions, he described the forces of the universe as cosmic divinities. Hesiod portrayed Dike as the daughter of Zeus and Themis (daughter of Uranus and Gaia). Dike executed the law of judgments and sentencing and, together with her mother Themis, carried out the final decisions of Moira. For Hesiod, Justice is at the center of religious and moral life, who independently of Zeus, is the embodiment of divine will. It is important to note that in Hesiod, Moira, Themis and Dike are the divine descendants of the Great Mother-Goddess. This personification of Dike will stand in contrast to justice viewed as custom or law, and as retribution or sentence. [ []

Consorts/Children

# With Zeus
## Horae: the Hours
### First Generation (other names are also known)
#### Auxo (the Grower)
#### Carpo (the Fruit-bringer)
#### Thallo (the Plant-raiser)
### Second Generation
#### Dike (Trial), known as Astraea in Roman mythology, the constellation Virgo
#### Eirene (Peace)
#### Eunomia (Rule of Law)
## Moirae: the Fates
### Atropos (the Inevitable)
### Clotho (the Weaver)
### Lachesis (the Lot-caster)

Iustitia

A Roman equivalent of one aspect of Hellenic Themis, as the personification of the divine rightness of law, was Iustitia (Anglicized as Justitia). Her origins are in civic abstractions of a Roman mindset, rather than archaic mythology, so drawing comparisons is not fruitful. Portrayed as an impassive woman, holding scales and a double-edged sword (sometimes a cornucopia), and since the 1500s usually shown blindfolded, the sculpted figure outside a county courthouse is "Iustitia" or Lady Justice, not Themis.

ee also

*Nyx
*Themis music

References

External links

* [http://www.theoi.com/Titan/TitanisThemis.html Theoi Project: Themis]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Themis — Thémis Pour les articles homonymes, voir Thémis (homonymie). Statue de Thémis trouvée à Rhamnonte en Attique, dans le petit temple de Némésis, v.  …   Wikipédia en Français

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  • THEMIS — на орбите THEMIS название космического проекта НАСА, по изучению магнитосферных суббурь. Проект THEMIS состоит из пяти идентичных по конструкции и взаимозаменяемости микроспутников, которые были запущены 17 февраля 2007 …   Википедия

  • THÉMIS — Fille d’Ouranos et de Gaia, avec laquelle elle se confond parfois (Eschyle, Prométhée , 209), Thémis est, parmi les Titanides, la déesse de la Loi. Elle est, après Mêtis, la seconde des épouses divines de Zeus (Hésiode, Théogonie , 901 sq.). Avec …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Themis [2] — Themis, 1) Titanide, die personificirte Ordnung in der Natur u. dem socialen Menschenleben, früher auch Besitzerin des Orakels in Delphi, welches sie von ihrer Mutter Gäa erhalten hatte, aber nachher an Apollo abtrat. Von Zeus geliebt, floh sie… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Themis — [thē′mis] n. Gr. Myth. a goddess of law and justice, daughter of Uranus and Gaea: represented as holding aloft a scale for weighing opposing claims * * * ▪ Greek god Greek“Order”       in Greek religion, personification of justice, goddess of… …   Universalium

  • Themis — THEMIS, ĭdos, Gr. Θέμις, ιδος, (⇒ Tab. I. ⇒ II. & ⇒ X.) 1 §. Namen. Diesen leiten einige von dem Griechischen θέω, ich setze, verordne, her; andere aber von dem phönicischen Worte them, aufrichtig, redlich, daß Themis dem nach so viel, als… …   Gründliches mythologisches Lexikon

  • Themis — {{Themis}} Göttin des unumstößlichen Rechts, eine Tochter des Uranos* und der Gaia*, von Zeus* Mutter der Horen* und der Moiren*, Herrin des delphischen Orakels, bevor Apollon* davon Besitz ergriff. An sie wandten sich Deukalion* und Pyrrha* nach …   Who's who in der antiken Mythologie

  • Themis — The mis, n. [L., fr. Gr. ?, fr. ? that which is laid down or established by usage, law, prob. fr. ? to set, place.] (Gr. Myth.) The goddess of law and order; the patroness of existing rights. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Themis [1] — Themis (gr.), 1) das Eingesetzte, der Brauch, Sitte; bes. 2) gesetzliches Herkommen, Gesetze, Anordnungen, Rechtssprüche; 3) Orakelspruch …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon


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