Complex interdependence


Complex interdependence

Complex interdependence in international relations is the idea put forth by Robert Keohane and Joseph Nye that states and their fortunes are inextricably tied together. The concept of economic interdependence was popularized through the work of Richard N. Cooper. With the analytical construct of complex interdependence in their critique of political realism, “Robert Keohane and Joseph Nye go a step further and analyze how international politics is transformed by interdependence” (Crane & Amawi 1997: 107-109). The theorists recognized that the various and complex transnational connections and interdependencies between states and societies were increasing, while the use of military force and power balancing are decreasing but remain important. In making use of the concept of interdependence, Keohane and Nye (1997: 122-132) also importantly differentiated between interdependence and dependence in analyzing the role of power in politics and the relations between international actors.

From the analysis, complex interdependence is characterized by three characteristics, involving (1) the use of multiple channels of action between societies in interstate, transgovernmental, and transnational relations, (2) the absence of a hierarchy of issues with changing agendas and linkages between issues prioritized and the objective of (3) bringing about a decline in the use of military force and coercive power in international relations. Respectively, complex interdependence is based on specific characteristics that critique the implicit and explicit assumptions of traditional international politics;[1] (i.e., the superiority of the state and a hierarchy of issues with military force and power the most important leverages in international relations, which traditionally defines political realism in political science).

Nye and Keohane thus argue that the decline of military force as a policy tool and the increase in economic and other forms of interdependence should increase the probability of cooperation among states. The work of the theorists surfaced in the 1970s to become a significant challenge to political realist theory in international politics and became foundational to current theories that have been categorized as liberalism, neoliberalism and liberal institutionalism. Traditional critiques of liberalism are often defined alongside critiques of political realism, mainly that they both ignore the social nature of relations between states and the social fabric of international society. With the rise of neoliberal economics, debates, and the need to clarify international relations theory, Keohane (2002: 2-19) has most recently described himself as simply an institutionalist, nothing purpose for developing sociological perspectives in contemporary international relations theory. Liberal, neoliberal and neoliberal institutional theories continue to influence international politics and have become closely intertwined with political realism.[citation needed]

The term “complex interdependence” was claimed by Raymond Leslie Buell in 1925 to describe the new ordering among economies, cultures and races.[2]

References

  1. ^ Nye, Joseph; Robert Keohane (1977). Power and Interdependence: World Politics in Transition.. Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0316489360. 
  2. ^ Buell, Raymond Leslie (1925). International Relations. H. Holt and Company. pp. 5. 

Works cited

  • Crane, G.T. & Amawi, A. 1997. The Theoretical evolution of international political economy: a reader. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Keohane, R.O. 2002. Power and Governance in a Partially Globalized World. London: Routledge.
  • Keohane, R.O. & Nye, J.S. 1997. “Interdependence in World Politics.” In Crane, G.T. & Amawi, A., The Theoretical evolution of international political economy: a reader. New York: Oxford University Press.

See also

  • Keohane, R.O., & Nye, J.S. (1987). Power and Interdependence Revisited. International Organization, 41(4), pp. 725-753.
  • Keohane, R.O., & Nye, J.S. (1998). Power and Interdependence in the Information Age. Foreign Affairs, 77(5), p. 81.
  • Quango
  • Symbolic interactionism
  • Negarchy

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • complex — adj Complex, complicated, intricate, involved, knotty are comparable when they mean having parts or elements that are more or less confusingly interrelated. Something is complex which is made up of so many different interrelated or interacting… …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • Economic interdependence — is a consequence of specialization, or the division of labor, and is almost universal. It was described as early as 1828, when A. A. Cournot wrote: : but in reality the economic system is a whole of which the parts are connected and react on each …   Wikipedia

  • Neoliberalism in international relations — In the study of international relations, neoliberalism refers to a school of thought which believes that nation states are, or at least should be, concerned first and foremost with absolute gains rather than relative gains to other nation states …   Wikipedia

  • international relations — a branch of political science dealing with the relations between nations. [1970 75] * * * Study of the relations of states with each other and with international organizations and certain subnational entities (e.g., bureaucracies and political… …   Universalium

  • Interdependenzansatz — Der Interdependenztheoretische Ansatz beschreibt in seiner politikwissenschaftlichen Ausprägung die wechselseitige Abhängigkeit von Nationalstaaten gegenüber anderen Nationalstaaten, in ihrer ökonomischen Ausprägung auch die wechselseitige… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Interdependenztheoretischer Ansatz — Der Interdependenztheoretische Ansatz beschreibt in seiner politikwissenschaftlichen Ausprägung die wechselseitige Abhängigkeit von Nationalstaaten gegenüber anderen Nationalstaaten, in ihrer ökonomischen Ausprägung auch die wechselseitige… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Interdependenztheorie — Der Interdependenztheoretische Ansatz beschreibt in seiner politikwissenschaftlichen Ausprägung die wechselseitige Abhängigkeit von Nationalstaaten gegenüber anderen Nationalstaaten, in ihrer ökonomischen Ausprägung auch die wechselseitige… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • International relations — See also: Foreign affairs Part of the Politics series Politics …   Wikipedia

  • Interventionism (politics) — Interventionism is a term for a policy of non defensive (proactive) activity undertaken by a nation state, or other geo political jurisdiction of a lesser or greater nature, to manipulate an economy or society. The most common applications of the …   Wikipedia

  • animal development — Introduction  the processes that lead eventually to the formation of a new animal starting from cells derived from one or more parent individuals. Development thus occurs following the process by which a new generation of organisms is produced by …   Universalium