- Earth Abides
infobox Book |
name = Earth Abides
image_caption = Cover of the 1949
Random Housefirst edition.
George R. Stewart
H. Lawrence Hoffman[cite web|url=http://www.locusmag.com/2006/Issues/10Sleight.html|title=Yesterday's Tomorrows:Arthur C. Clarke and George R. Stewart |author=Graham Sleight|accessdate=2008-03-07]
language = English
Science fiction novel
release_date = 1949
media_type = Print (
pages = 373
isbn = NA
oclc = 2205195
"Earth Abides", a 1949
post-apocalyptic science fictionnovel by Berkeley English professor George R. Stewart, tells the story of the fall of civilization from deadly disease and its rebirth. Set in the United Statesin the 1940s, it deals with Isherwood Williams, Emma, and the community they founded. The survivors live off the remains of the old world, while learning to adapt to the new. Along the way they are forced to make tough decisions and choose what kind of civilization they will rebuild.
"Earth Abides" won the inaugural
International Fantasy Awardin 1951. It was included in Locus Magazine's list of best All Time Science Fiction in 1987 and 1998 [cite web|url=http://www.locusmag.com/SFAwards/Db/LocusATNomList.html|title=The Locus Index to SF Awards: Locus All-Time Poll Nominees List|author=Locus Magazine| accessdate=2008-03-04] and was a nominee to be entered into the Prometheus Hall Of Fame [cite web|url=http://www.lfs.org/hof_nominees.htm|title=Prometheus Hall of Fame Nominees|author=Libertarian Futurist Society| accessdate=2008-03-04] . In November 1950, it was adapted for the CBSradio program "Escape" as a two-part drama starring John Dehner.
The book earned much praise from
James Sallis, writing in the " Boston Globe":
Earth Abides takes place in the United States during the 1940s, largely in
Berkeley, Californiaarea, within sight of the Golden Gate Bridge. Most of the Earth's population has perished from a virulent airborne disease. Isherwood Williams, who had been living in a solitary California mountain cabin, is one of the survivors of the pandemic. He emerges from his scientific studies in the mountains to find his entire world barren of people. Ish explores the empty world and then settles down with a handful of survivors to begin the process of restoring the human race and civilization.
"part i: World Without End"
While working on his graduate studies in biology, Ish is bitten by a
rattlesnake. As he heals from the bite, he gets sick with a disease that looks like measles. He recovers and makes his way back to civilization, only to discover that most people died from the same disease he had just gotten over. He goes home, to Berkeley. As he travels, he observes the world in the light of ecology, watching it adapt to the loss of humans. Near his home he comes across a pet dog who seems set to starve to death without its owner who swiftly adopts Ish as her new master and sticks by him for much of the book. Ish meets few human survivors—a man drinking himself to death, a couple who seem to have lost their sanity, and a teenage girl who flees from him as someone dangerous. Wondering if this is typical of humanity, he sets out on a cross country tour, traveling all the way to New York City and back, scavenging for food and fuel. As he travels, he finds small pockets of survivors, whom he doubts will survive the loss of civilization, and he returns to his home in California.
He finds a woman, Emma (Em), to be his wife, and they have children. They are joined by other survivors. Over time the electricity fails and the comforts of civilization recede. As the children grow, Ish tries to instill basic academics, teaching reading, arithmetic and geography.
"part ii: The Year 22"
Twenty-two years later, the community flourishes. The younger generation adapts easily to the primitive world. They come to have a better grasp of the natural world than the adults, and when running water fails, the younger generation comes to the rescue, knowing where water may be found flowing. The children see no need for academics, and Ish isn't a natural teacher. Only one child, his son Joey, seems to be able to grasp the academic skills. Ish increasingly sees Joey as the future leader and brains of the community.
Ish turns his attention from ecology to his newly forming society. One thing that he notices is that the children are becoming very
superstitious. One day Ish asks for his hammer, which he carries around, and finds the children are afraid to touch it. It is a symbol for them of the old times. The long-dead Americans are now like gods—and Ish too.
Ish becomes disturbed at his community's lack of ambition to learn and work. He tries to motivate them so often with speeches that the kids think this is simply his line, safe to be ignored. In an attempt to motivate them, Ish mentions the idea of a cross country exploration, and his son Robert and another boy Richard start out in a
Robert and Richard return from their trip. They explored east across the country until they met impassible roads near
Toledo, Ohio. They discovered several societies in their travels including a black family who Ish had met on his cross-country journey years earlier. They brought back a man named Charlie, who gives Ish a bad feeling. Soon it is obvious that Charlie is after Evie, a girl the community regards as outside the acceptable gene pool—she has an adult body and the mind of a small child. Ish confronts Charlie and is intimidated; he feels alone and lost about what to do. Em takes control, calling a meeting of the adults. Ish isn't alone—they are a tribe. Under Em's insistence, the tribe's four adults vote on Charlie's fate. Em insists that they cannot wait until harm is done, that they have responsibility to protect their children. They unanimously vote to kill him.
The incident with Charlie makes Ish reflect that he is really not a nation builder, but he keeps trying. He begins practical lessons, such as planting
corn. Then, typhoid fevererupts among them, perhaps carried by Charlie. Joey dies of typhoid, and this devastates Ish. With Joey gone, Ish decides teaching academic topics will be a fruitless effort. He worries what will become of his people when ammunitionand matches are gone. He decides instead to teach his people to survive. He begins by inspiring the children to build bows and arrows.
The years flow by. Ish's lessons take—growing corn and playing with bows and arrows. Ish presides at meetings, his hammer a symbol of his status. He is given respect, but his ideas are not listened to by the younger men. The Tribe merges with another. The "Americans" (those born before the Great Disaster) die off, until only Ezra and Ish are left, two old men. After Ezra dies, Ish becomes a sort of god that the young men go to and demand answers from, the last American.
"part iii: The Last American"
He spends most of his elderly life in a fog, unaware of the world. Superstition has set in; the tribe has reverted to a primitive lifestyle hunting with dogs (the descendants of Ish's first dog) and bow and arrow. Occasionally the fog in his mind lifts. During one such time, he finds himself aware of his great-grandson Jack, who stands before him. Jack shows him that the bow and arrow have become more reliable than the
gun, whose cartridges don't always work. The children of the world are taking the toys of their youth and improving them on their own. During his last lucid moments, Ish realizes that the former civilization is now totally gone. But he also wonders if the new world is that much worse off than the old world, and finds himself hoping that the new world will not rebuild civilization and its mistakes.
"Isherwood Williams" (Ish) is a
graduate studentat Berkeley, studying the ecologyof an area in the mountains, somewhere in California. As an ecologist, one who studies the relationships of living things to one another and to their environment, he is an ideal person to understand just what happens to the world when humans are abruptly removed from the picture. Isherwood thinks of himself as a loner—not the kind of person to become a leader of people—but that is precisely what happens to him. After he survives the "Great Disaster", he spends some time observing the world without humans. Beyond initial shock, he doesn't seem to miss them too much. He comes to be a leader, mainly because he is the only surviving intellectualin his area. He realizes his weaknesses with people, however, and comes to rely on the talents of those around him, especially his wife Em.
"Emma" (Em) is a woman who Isherwood meets in his hometown. The author may have been taking a chance with this character, who is
African-American[cite web|url=http://www.avclub.com/content/node/74664|title=The Box Of Paperbacks Book Club: Earth Abides by George R. Stewart (1949)|author=Keith Phipps|accessdate=2008-02-28] , while Isherwood is white; when the book was written, interracial marriageswere heavily discouraged in American society [cite web|url=http://www.lostbooks.org/reviews/1998-06-11-1.html|title=Lost Book Archives, Earth Abides by George R. Stewart|author=D. D. Shade|accessdate=2008-02-28] . Isherwood does marry her, and race isn't important to the couple's relationship. Rather, the couple become partners in their marriage and in their leadership of the community. Em becomes the community's mother, letting it grow as it will, but stepping in to help when no one else is filling the leadership role. She is the one who rallies the community when an outsider, Charlie, threatens it. It is she who brings up the idea that the community cannot wait until their children are harmed, that the value of protecting the children trumps the value of justice [cite book |title=Earth Abides |last=Stewart |first=George R. |authorlink= |year=1969 |publisher=Houghton Mifflin |location=Boston |isbn= |pages=2275-283 ] . She is the one who showed no fear when the community was stricken by typhoid fever. She was the adult while others panicked, and Ish thought of her as the "Mother of Nations" [cite book |title=Earth Abides |last=Stewart |first=George R. |authorlink= |year=1969 |publisher=Houghton Mifflin |location=Boston |isbn= |pages=295-299 ] .
"Princess" is a
beaglethat adopts Ish. She plays a role in introducing Ish to Em, and helping him to overcome his fears. Her descendants also play a major part in the development of the tribe.
"Ezra" met Emma and Ish while traveling. They liked him, but feared the complications of a
love triangle, so he left. He returned with Molly and Jean, his wives [cite book |title=Earth Abides |last=Stewart |first=George R. |authorlink= |year=1969 |publisher=Houghton Mifflin |location=Boston |isbn= |pages=142-145 ] . Ish values Ezra as a good judge of people.
"Molly" is the older of Ezra's two wives, about 35 when Ish and Em meet her.
"Jean" is "a younger woman," and one of Ezra's two wives.
"Evie" is a "half grown girl" who Ezra found living "in squalor and solitude." She appears to have little mind left, if she ever had one, and everyone cares for her [cite book |title=Earth Abides |last=Stewart |first=George R. |authorlink= |year=1969 |publisher=Houghton Mifflin |location=Boston |isbn= |pages=144 ] . The tribe has a rule, that as the children grow no one will marry her—she wouldn't understand, and her mental condition could possibly be hereditary.
"George" and "Maurine" are a older couple found by Ezra while traveling. George is a carpenter. George is "dull" and Maurine is "stupid" [cite book |title=Earth Abides |last=Stewart |first=George R. |authorlink= |year=1969 |publisher=Houghton Mifflin |location=Boston |isbn= |pages=145 ] . George becomes the fix-it man for the Tribe.
"Joey" is the son of Ish and Em. Of all the children in the Tribe, he is the only one that truly gets the academic skills that Ish tries to teach—geometry, reading, geography. Ish thinks of him as the hope for the tribe, in the quest to restore civilization.
"Jack" is Ish's great-grandson. Jack is confident and possibly a leader. Ish sees something of Joey in him. When Ish dies, he gives Jack his hammer.
Biological controls on population
On the title page Stewart immediately starts with the theme, quoting
Ecclesiastes1:4 — "Men go and come, but earth abides." For the first half of "Earth Abides", George R. Stewart concentrates on a major theme for the book, that humans have no privileged place in nature and are not immune to nature's built-in population controls. The main character, an ecologist, states it plainly, "When anything gets too numerous it's likely to get hit by some plague" [cite book |title=Earth Abides |last=Stewart |first=George R. |authorlink= |year=1969 |publisher=Houghton Mifflin |location=Boston |isbn= |pages=125 ] . On the first page Stewart tells readers how contagion could bring the end very quickly for mankind:::"If a killing type of virus strain should suddenly arise by mutation...it could, because of the rapid transportation in which we indulge nowadays, be carried to the far corners of the earth and cause the deaths of millions of people." W.M Stanley, in Chemical and Engineering News, Dec. 22, 1947. [cite book |title=Earth Abides |last=Stewart |first=George R. |authorlink= |year=1969 |publisher=Houghton Mifflin |location=Boston |isbn= |page=1 ]
Within a few pages he makes it clear that basic biology applies to humans too: ::"Some zoologists have even suggested a biological law: that the number of individuals in a species never remains constant, but always rises and falls--the higher the animal and the slower its breeding-rate, the longer its' period of fluctuation [...] As for man, there is littler reason to think that he can in the long run escape the fate of other creatures, and if there is a biological law of flux and reflux, his situation is now a highly perilous one....Biologically, man has for too long a time been rolling an uninterrupted run of sevens." [cite book |title=Earth Abides |last=Stewart |first=George R. |authorlink= |year=1969 |publisher=Houghton Mifflin |location=Boston |isbn= |pages=8-9]
Population size subjects world to
Noel Perrinhas pointed out that George R. Stewart had written two books before this, in which the main character was not a person, but "a natural force." In "Storm" the main character is weather, and in "Fire", a forest firetakes center stage. [cite journal | last = Perrin | first = Noel | date = Spring, 2003 | title = unlisted title | journal = American Scholar | volume = | issue = 72.2| pages = 109| publisher = Gale | location =Gale Document Number: A101175935 | url = http://go.galegroup.com/ps/start.do?p=LitRC&u=wylrc_sheridanc | accessdate = 2008-03-19]
In the same way, Stewart centers the first half of "Earth Abides" on the forces of natural and
artificial selection. Perrin said:
::The original goal, I suspect, was simply to imagine as accurately as possible what would happen to the land mass of North America if human activity abruptly ceased. First, Stewart swept the country more or less clean of humanity, using a plague as a broom...An immense series of changes now begins. [cite journal | last = Perrin | first = Noel | date = Spring, 2003 | title = unlisted title | journal = American Scholar | volume = | issue = 72.2| pages = 109| publisher = Gale | location =Gale Document Number: A101175935 | url = http://go.galegroup.com/ps/start.do?p=LitRC&u=wylrc_sheridanc | accessdate = 2008-03-19]
In freeing the landscape from humans, half of the book is devoted to looking at how the world would change in their absence. Stewart chose to make his main human character an
ecologist, and sends him on a cross country tour, to see what the world is like without people. As animals and plants no longer have humans taking care of them or controlling them, they are free to breed uncontrolled and to prey upon one another. The main character sees that some have been under humans so long that they are helpless in the face of change, while others are still able to adapt and survive. Stewart shows that humans have routinely influenced the lives of almost every plant and animal around them.
Numbers allow human-diversity, shape customs
Another theme of the book is what happens to human skills as the population decreases. Reviewer
Lionel Shriverpoints out this theme in an article about literature which features human extinction: ::But as Stewart tracks three post-plague generations, he vividly demonstrates that advanced civilisation depends on numbers. Reduce the race to the size of a small town and how many residents will remember how to make plastic? The last Americans plunder canned goods(with little respect for sell-by dates), and literacyatrophies; electrical and water systems break down. At length, the community reverts to its hunter-gatherer forebears. [cite journal | last = Shriver | first = Lionel | date = June 10, 2002| title = Population doomsday | journal = New Statesman | volume = 131 | issue = 4591| pages = 38| publisher = EBSCO Host Academic Search Premier | location = | url = http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=6808391&site=ehost-live | accessdate = 2008-03-19]
Loss of reading
Stewart uses the second half of his book to show that, if humans are reduced to low numbers, it will be difficult for them to continue civilization as we know it. Reading becomes a casualty.
::The society is so small that the death of one member—a little boy named Joey—seems likely to determine for many generations to come whether the emerging society will or won't be literate...As Ish thinks of it, each new baby is a candle lit against the dark. [cite journal | last = Perrin | first = Noel | date = Spring, 2003 | title = unlisted title | journal = American Scholar | volume = | issue = 72.2| pages = 109| publisher = Gale | location =Gale Document Number: A101175935 | url = http://go.galegroup.com/ps/start.do?p=LitRC&u=wylrc_sheridanc | accessdate = 2008-03-19]
And like a candle, a child living in primitive conditions can easily be snuffed by the environment.
In the struggle to survive,
natural selectionculls humans whose culture isn't survival oriented; if skills and customs don't work in the new situation, these die out, or those holding them do. Children adapt naturally to the new situation, and immediately-useful customs and skills are more interesting to them than reading and writing. The information in librariesis useless within a generation.
One custom that Stewart predicts could die out is
racism. When there are fewer partners to choose from, mankind will not be able to afford to be too choosy in picking one's partner.
Another issue he brings up is how law and order will function, when the lawmakers, courts and enforcers are all gone. Even laws won't be immune to the pressure to survive. One of the characters in the book point out, "What laws?" when they have to determine the fate of an outsider. Stewart shows how people may come to worry about potential harm rather than justice when dealing with outsiders.
Biblical theme: replenishing the Earth
Having explored the depopulated Earth, Stewart shifts his thematic focus in part 2 and 3, from the biological theme of population crash to a biblical theme of populating the world.
A 1949 book review says that "Earth Abides" parallels two biblical stories that shows mankind spreading out and populating the world:::...the dual themes are as old as
Genesis...Not a flood but a swift and deadly new disease wipes out all but a few of the human race. Ish (for "Isherwood") is the Noah of this "Great Disaster." As material civilization begins to crumble, Ish gradually devolves into a kind of Adam who, inevitably, finds his Eve, Em (For "Emma"), a level-headed lady with Negro blood, and nature takes its time-worn course. Em. is hailed by Ish as "The Mother of Nations." [cite journal | last = Bell | first = Eric T. | month = December | year = 1949 | title = Books: Earth Abides by George R. Stewart. Random House, Inc. New York | journal = Engineering and Science Monthly | volume = XIII | issue = 3| pages = 3–4| publisher = California Institute of Technology | location = Pasadena, California | url = http://calteches.library.caltech.edu/309/01/books.pdf | accessdate = 2008-03-15|format=PDF]
Stewart, who specialized in meanings of names, chose names in
Hebrewthat have appropriate meanings for the biblical theme; this couple who restart the human tribe are literally "man" and "mother". Ish means “man” in Hebrew [cite web|url=http://home1.gte.net/res0z77f/'ish--Pt_1_of_7.Stein.7-30-06.pdf|title=What Does It Mean to Be a “Man”? The Noun ’ish in Biblical Hebrew: A Reconsideration|author=David E. S. Stein|accessdate=2008-02-25|format=PDF] , and Em means “mother” [cite web|url=http://www.proz.com/kudoz/501201|title=mother, mom, -em, ima (translation glossary|author=Thijs van Dorssen|accessdate=2008-02-25] .
In addition to the
Hebraicnames in "Earth Abides", the story also has a symbol in common with biblical tradition—the snake. Ish encounters a rattlesnake; before this event he is part of a larger civilization. After it bites him, his world changes, just as the snake changes Adam's world in the "Genesis" story. Adam loses paradise, and Ish finds civilization dead.
Aside from the biblical origin of "Ish", there is another tale of the fall of civilization that George R. Stewart could have taken account of, the story of
Ishi, the last of his tribe, who lived at Berkeley while Stewart was there."Ish" is very similar to " Ishi", and it also means "man", in the language of a man whose whole tribe was dead. Ishi's story parallels the "Genesis" and "Earth Abides" stories, telling of one who has to adapt to a changed world.
"Earth Abides" fits into the "post-apocalyptic" sub-genre of
Science Fiction. It was published in 1949, four years after the end of World War II and in the earliest stages of the Cold Warbetween the United States and the Soviet Union. While post-apocalyptic fiction is now quite common, "Earth Abides" distinctly predates many similar well-known novels including " Alas, Babylon" (1959), " A Canticle for Leibowitz" (1960), and " The Last Ship" [cite web|url=http://www.transparencynow.com/aptable1.htm|title= FALSE UTOPIAS OF SIMULATION AND TECHNOLOGY|author=Ken Sanes|accessdate=2008-02-23] (1988). It is predated, however by " The Scarlet Plague" [cite web|url=http://taint.org/2004/07|title=Justin Mason’s Weblog, July 27, 2004: Post-Apocalyptic Fiction|author=Justin Mason| accessdate=2008-02-23] (1912), " The Time Machine" (1895), " The Machine Stops" 1928, and "Anthem" (1936).
A common theme of post-apocalyptic works is, "What if the world we know no longer exists." [cite web|url=http://dodrilljewelers.com/marshall/ENG311/SciFi%20Analysis.doc|title=Post-Apocalyptic Science Fiction|author=Marshall University Computing Services| accessdate=2008-02-23|format=DOC] , and each of these books paints a different picture of the future. "Earth Abides" explores such issues as family structure, education, the meaning and purpose of civilization, and the basic nature of humankind — especially in regard to religion, superstition, and custom. As it was written in the beginning years of the cold war, it lacks some common post-apocalyptic conventions found in later novels: there are no warlords or biker gangs (as in
Mad Max); there is no fear of atomic weapons or radiation, no mutants and no warring tribes [cite web|url=http://www.sffworld.com/brevoff/279.html|title=Official sffworld.com Book Review: Earth Abides by George Rippey Stewart (2006-06-06)|author=Rob L. Bedford|accessdate=2008-02-23] (as in " A Canticle for Leibowitz").
According to WorldCat.org, there have been [http://worldcat.org/oclc/2205195?tab=editions#tabs 28 editions] of "Earth Abides" published in English. The book has been in print in every decade from 1949 to 2008.
It was mentioned in a serious overview of modern science fiction, "Contemporary Science Fiction" by
August Derleth, in the January 1952 edition of "College English". Derleth called it an "excellent example" of the "utopian theme" of "rebuilding after a holocaust leaving but few survivors."
It was described as a persuasive answer to the question, "What is man," in the October, 1973 edition of "Current Anthropology". The article "Anthropology and Science Fiction" examines the nature of Science Fiction and its relationship to understanding people. The magazine concluded of "Earth Abides" that it shows ..."man is man, be he civilized or tribal. Stewart shows us that a tribal hunting culture is just as valid and real to its members as civilization is to us."
In the 1959 review of "On the Beach", "Earth Abides" mechanism of death for the world, "a mysterious plague, arisen from some obscure ecological imbalance" was seen as not up to date. To the reviewer, a rain of radioactive particles was more current.
The article "Population in Literature" by
Lionel Shriverfrom the "Population and Development Review", June 2003, found the reverse. "Most doomsday novels feature war or disease...with the fears of the bomb receding, and AIDS in ascendancy, plague novels have become more in vogue."
In the "American Quarter" article "California's Literary Regionalism", Autumn 1955, George R. Stewart is seen as a "humanist in the old classical sense. His novels, "Storm", "Fire", "East of the Giants", "Earth Abides", demonstrate the complex interlocking of topography, climate, and human society; and their general tone is objective and optimistic."
References to other works
The book makes a reference to "
Robinson Crusoe" and " The Swiss Family Robinson". Ish compares the situations within these books to what he is going through. He finds Robinson Crusoe less appealing, because "his religious preoccupations seemed boring and rather silly" [cite book |title=Earth Abides |last=Stewart |first=George R. |authorlink= |year=1969 |publisher=Houghton Mifflin |location=Boston |isbn= |pages=90 ] . He looks at the ship in the "Swiss Family Robinson" as an "infinite grab-bag from which at any time they might take exactly what they wanted," [cite book |title=Earth Abides |last=Stewart |first=George R. |authorlink= |year=1969 |publisher=Houghton Mifflin |location=Boston |isbn= |pages=90-91 ] which is similar to the situation of those living after the Great Disaster.
Stewart also mentions "
Ecclesiastes" 1:4 in the title and theme: "Men go and come, but Earth abides" [cite book |title=Earth Abides |last=Stewart |first=George R. |authorlink= |year=1969 |publisher=Houghton Mifflin |location=Boston |isbn= |pages=title page ]
=Legacy and ho
*An homage to the book is found in the episode "Emancipation" of the
dystopian sci-fi series "", where "Earth Abides" became the name of a political group. [cite web|url=http://www.efc.com/episodes/ep303.html|title=Emancipation (Episode 303)|author=Earth Final Conflict, efc.com|accessdate=2008-02-25]
Stephen Kinghas also stated that "Earth Abides" was an inspiration for his post-apocalyptic novel, " The Stand". [cite web |url=http://www.sfsite.com/11a/ea92.htm |title=George R. Stewart |accessdate=2007-06-12 |format=sidebar |last=Dodds |first=Georges T |work= ]
author = Bedford, Robert H.
June 6, 2006
title = Earth Abides by George Rippey Stewart
url = http://www.sffworld.com/brevoff/279.html
publisher = SFFWorld.com
accessdate = 2008-03-04
author = Dodds, Georges T.
year = 2000
title = Earth Abides by George R. Stewart, The Purple Cloud by M. P. Shiel
url = http://www.sfsite.com/11a/ea92.htm
publisher = SF Site
accessdate = 2007-06-12
author = efc.com
title = Emancipation (Episode 303)
url = http://www.efc.com/episodes/ep303.html
work = Earth Final Conflict, Episode Guide
publisher = Tribune Interactive
accessdate = 2008-02-25
*cite journal |last=LeBlanc |first=Lucy |title=Cover Evolution |journal=Autumn Leaves |volume= |issue= |date=
June 26, 2006|pages= |url=http://leavesofautumn.blogspot.com/2005_06_26_leavesofautumn_archive.html |accessdate=2008-02-24
author = Libertarian Futurist Society
title = Prometheus Hall of Fame Nominees
url = http://www.lfs.org/hof_nominees.htm
publisher = Locus Magazine
accessdate = 2008-03-04
author = Locus Magazine
title = The Locus Index to SF Awards: Locus All-Time Poll Nominees List
url = http://www.locusmag.com/SFAwards/Db/LocusATNomList.html
publisher = Locus Magazine
accessdate = 2008-03-04
*cite journal |last=Sallis |first=James |title=Earth Abides: Stewart's dark eulogy for humankind|journal=The Boston Globe |volume= |issue= |date=
February 16, 2003|pages= |url=http://www.grasslimb.com/sallis/GlobeColumns/globe.06.earth.html |accessdate=
*cite journal |last=Mason |first=Justin |title=Post-Apocalyptic Fiction|journal=Justin Mason's Weblog |volume= |issue= |date=
July 27, 2004|pages= |url=http://taint.org/2004/07 |accessdate= 2008-02-23
author = Phipps, Keith
February 21, 2008
title = The Box Of Paperbacks Book Club: Earth Abides by George R. Stewart (1949)
url = http://www.avclub.com/content/node/74664
publisher = AVclub.com
accessdate = 2008-02-28
author = Sanes, Ken
title = FALSE UTOPIAS OF SIMULATION AND TECHNOLOGY
url = http://www.transparencynow.com/aptable1.htm
publisher = www.transparencynow.com
accessdate = 2008-02-23
author = Shade, D. D.
date = June 11, 1998
title = Earth Abides by George R. Stewart
url = http://www.lostbooks.org/reviews/1998-06-11-1.html
publisher = Lost Books Archives
accessdate = 2008-02-28
author = Stein, David E. S., Rabbi
date = August 5, 2006
title = What Does It Mean to Be a “Man”? The Noun ’ish in Biblical Hebrew: A Reconsideration
url = http://home1.gte.net/res0z77f/'ish--Pt_1_of_7.Stein.7-30-06.pdf
work = The Contemporary Torah: A Gender-Sensitive Adaptation of the JPS Translation
publisher = Jewish Publication Society
accessdate = 2008-02-28
*Stewart, George R. (1969). "Earth Abides". Boston:Houghton Mifflin Company.
* [http://www.otr.net/r/esca/137.ram "Escape" "Earth Abides" Part One (November 5, 1950)]
* [http://www.otr.net/r/esca/138.ram "Escape" "Earth Abides" Part Two (November 12, 1950)]
* [http://www.grasslimb.com/sallis/GlobeColumns/globe.06.earth.html "Boston Globe" review by James Sallis]
* [http://www.survivors-mad-dog.org.uk/a-world-away/Archive_Rev_EE.shtml Review by Rich Cross at Survivors: A World Away]
* [http://www.ireadscifi.com/earth-abides-by-george-r-stewart/ Review and Discussion on We Read Science Fiction] #3 All-Time Best Science Fiction Novel
* [http://www.munchkinpress.com/cpg149/displayimage.php?pos=-2942 A large version of the painting by Robert Abbett for the 1962 Ace Books cover.]
* [http://people.uncw.edu/smithms/K-singles.html Two versions of the painting for the Ace Books cover and blurbs about the book]
* [http://jacqke.blogspot.com/2008/03/earth-abides-cover-photos.html Earth Abides book covers]
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