Nooksack language

Nooksack language
Spoken in Whatcom County
Extinct 1988
Language family
Language codes
ISO 639-3 nok

The Nooksack language (Lhéchalosem) is a Coast Salish language spoken by the Nooksack Indians of northwestern Washington State in the United States, centered in Whatcom County.

The Nooksack language belonged to the Coast Salishan family of Native American but became extinct around 1988. In the 1970s, the Salishan linguist Brent Galloway worked closely with the last remaining fluent speaker and is currently completing a dictionary of the language. George Adams, a Nooksack tribal member, is also working on the language.

Nooksack is most closely related to Squamish, Sháshíshálhem (Sechelt) and Halkomelem, which are all spoken in nearby parts of British Columbia, Canada.




The following table includes all the vowel sounds found in the Nooksack language.

Front Central Back
Close i
Mid ɵ, ə o
Open æ


The following table includes all the consonant sounds found in the Nooksack language.

Bilabial Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
central lateral plain rounded plain rounded
Stop plain p t k q ʔ
ejective kʷʼ qʷʼ
Affricate plain t͡s t͡ʃ
ejective t͡sʼ t͡ɬʼ t͡ʃʼ
Fricative plain s ɬ ʃ x χ χʷ h
ejective ɬʼ
Nasal m n
Approximant plain l j w


(di)graph sound (di)graph sound
a æ qw
ch qw’ qʷʼ
ch’ tʃʼ s s
e ə sh ʃ
h h t t
i i t’
k k ts t͡s
kw ts’ t͡sʼ
kw’ kʷʼ tl’ t͡ɬʼ
l l u ɵ
lh ɬ w w
lh’ ɬʼ x x
m m xw
n n χ
o o x̱w χʷ
p p y j
p’ y’
q q ʔ ʔ

In addition, the symbol "ː" is used to indicated elongated vowels and consonants (e.g., , ). An acute accent (´) is placed over the accented syllable.


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Nooksack people — Nooksack Noxws’áʔaq Clockwise from top: Koma Kulshan, bald eagle, Chinook salmon, Georgia Strait; supporters: sword ferns …   Wikipedia

  • Nooksack — (Nooksack: Noxwsʼáʔaq) or Nootsack may refer to: Nooksack (tribe), an American Indian tribe in Whatcom County, Washington Nooksack language, the language of this tribe Nooksack River, a river in Whatcom County, Washington Nooksack Valley, a… …   Wikipedia

  • Nooksack — Traditionelles Territorium der Nooksack und heutiges Reservat Die Nooksack nennen sich selbst Noxws’áʔaq (vollständig Nooksack Indian Tribe) und sind ein im Nordwesten des US Bundesstaats Washington lebender indianischer Stamm in der Nähe des im… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Nooksack (tribe) — ethnic group flag caption=Clockwise from top: Koma Kulshan, bald eagle, Chinook salmon, Georgia Strait; supporters: sword ferns group=Nooksack Noxws’áʔaq poptime=1,800 popplace=Whatcom County rels=American Indian panentheism, Christianity,… …   Wikipedia

  • Nooksack — Original name in latin Nooksack Name in other language State code US Continent/City America/Los Angeles longitude 48.92762 latitude 122.32155 altitude 27 Population 1338 Date 2011 05 14 …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • Nooksack — ISO 639 3 Code : nok ISO 639 2/B Code : ISO 639 2/T Code : ISO 639 1 Code : Scope : Individual Language Type : Extinct …   Names of Languages ISO 639-3

  • Halkomelem language — language name=Halkomelem nativename=Halq eméylem, Hul qumi num , unicode|Hǝn q ǝmin ǝm states=Canada, United States region=Southern British Columbia into northern Washington speakers=200 familycolor=American fam1=Salishan fam2=Coast Salish… …   Wikipedia

  • Sḵwx̱wú7mesh language — language name=Squamish nativename=Sḵwx̱wú7mesh snichim pronunciation=sqʷχʷuʔməʃ sniʧim familycolor=American states=Canada region=British Columbia speakers=≈12 15 [Dyck (2004: 5, n. 4), citing Peter Jacobs of the Squamish Nation, and Cook, Eung Do …   Wikipedia

  • Extinct language — An extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers.[1], or that is no longer in current use. Extinct languages are sometimes contrasted with dead languages, which are still known and used in special contexts in written form, but… …   Wikipedia

  • Sháshíshálh language — The Sháshíshálh language, also called Shashishalhem and the Sechelt language, is a Coast Salish language spoken by the Shishalh (Sechelt) people of southwestern British Columbia, Canada, centred on their reserve communities in the Sechelt… …   Wikipedia

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.