Nooksack language


Nooksack language
Nooksack
Lhéchalosem
Spoken in Whatcom County
Extinct 1988
Language family
Language codes
ISO 639-3 nok

The Nooksack language (Lhéchalosem) is a Coast Salish language spoken by the Nooksack Indians of northwestern Washington State in the United States, centered in Whatcom County.

The Nooksack language belonged to the Coast Salishan family of Native American but became extinct around 1988. In the 1970s, the Salishan linguist Brent Galloway worked closely with the last remaining fluent speaker and is currently completing a dictionary of the language. George Adams, a Nooksack tribal member, is also working on the language.

Nooksack is most closely related to Squamish, Sháshíshálhem (Sechelt) and Halkomelem, which are all spoken in nearby parts of British Columbia, Canada.

Contents

Phonology

Vowels

The following table includes all the vowel sounds found in the Nooksack language.

Front Central Back
Close i
Mid ɵ, ə o
Open æ

Consonants

The following table includes all the consonant sounds found in the Nooksack language.

Bilabial Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
central lateral plain rounded plain rounded
Stop plain p t k q ʔ
ejective kʷʼ qʷʼ
Affricate plain t͡s t͡ʃ
ejective t͡sʼ t͡ɬʼ t͡ʃʼ
Fricative plain s ɬ ʃ x χ χʷ h
ejective ɬʼ
Nasal m n
Approximant plain l j w
glottalized

Orthography

(di)graph sound (di)graph sound
a æ qw
ch qw’ qʷʼ
ch’ tʃʼ s s
e ə sh ʃ
h h t t
i i t’
k k ts t͡s
kw ts’ t͡sʼ
kw’ kʷʼ tl’ t͡ɬʼ
l l u ɵ
lh ɬ w w
lh’ ɬʼ x x
m m xw
n n χ
o o x̱w χʷ
p p y j
p’ y’
q q ʔ ʔ
q’

In addition, the symbol "ː" is used to indicated elongated vowels and consonants (e.g., , ). An acute accent (´) is placed over the accented syllable.

References




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