gigantes y cabezudosfor the giant figures of Spanish culture."
Greek mythology, the Gigantes (Γίγαντες; singular "Gigas") or, commonly, Giants, were a race of giants, children of Gaia or Gaea, who was fertilized by the blood of Ouranos when Cronuscastrated him. [A parallel to the Gigantes' birth is the birth of Aphroditefrom the similarly fertilized sea.]
Gaea, incensed by the imprisonment of the
Titansin Tartarusby the Olympians, incited the Gigantes to rise up in arms against them, end their reign, and restore the Titans' rule. Led on by Alcyoneusand Porphyrion, they tested the strength of the Olympians in what is known as the "Gigantomachia" or Gigantomachy. The Olympians called upon the aid of Heraclesafter a prophecy warned them that he was required to defeat the Gigantes. Heracles slew not only Alcyoneus, but dealt the death blow to the Gigantes who had been wounded by the Olympians. The Gigantes Otus and Ephialtes hoped to reach the top of Mount Olympus by stacking the mountain ranges of Thessaly, Pelion, and Ossa, on top of each other."Power is latent violence, which must have been manifested at least in some mythological once-upon-a-time. Superiority is guaranteed only by defeated inferiors," Walter Burkertremarked of the Gigantomachy. [Burkert, p. 128]
This battle parallels the
Titanomachy, a fierce struggle between the upstart Olympians and their older predecessors, the Titans (who lost the battle). In the Gigantomachia, however, the Olympians were already in power when the Gigantes rose to challenge them. With the aid of their powerful weapons and Heracles, the Olympians defeated the Gigantes and quelled the rebellion, confirming their reign over the earth, sea, and heaven, and confining the Gigantes to the Netherworld.
Whether the Gigantomachia was interpreted in ancient times as a kind of indirect "revenge of the Titans" upon the Olympians — as the Gigantes' reign would have been in some fashion a restoration of the age of the Titans — is not attested in any of the few literary references. Later
Hellenisticpoets and Latin ones tended to blur Titans and Giants. [In a surviving fragment of Naevius' poem on the Punic war, he describes the Gigantes Runcus and Purpureus (Porphyrion)::"Inerant signa expressa, quo modo Titani"
:"bicorpores Gigantes, magnique Atlantes":"Runcus ac Purpureus filii Terras".
Eduard Fraenkel remarks of these lines, with their highly unusual plural "Atlantes", "It does not surprise us to find the names "Titani" and "Gigantes" employed indiscriminately to denote the same mythological creatures, for we are used to the identification, or confusion, of these two types of monsters which, though not original, had probably become fairly common by the time of Naevius". (Fraenkel, "The Giants in the Poem of Naevius" "The Journal of Roman Studies" 44 (1954, pp. 14-17) p. 15 and note.] According to the Greeks of southern Italy, the Gigantes were buried by the gods beneath the earth, where their writhing caused volcanic activity and earthquakes.
In iconic representations the Gigantomachy was a favorite theme of the Greek vase-painters of the fifth century ("illustration above right").
More impressive depictions of the Gigantomachy can be found in classical sculptural relief, such as the great altar of Pergamon, where the serpent-tailed giants are locked in battle with a host of gods, or in Antiquity at the Temple of Olympian Zeus at Acragas. [A repertory of the theme in Greek arts is offered in Francis Vian, "Répertoire des gigantomachie figurées" (Paris) 1951 and his "La Guerre des Géants" (Paris) 1952.] The Gigantes identified by individual names were
Alcyoneusslain by Heracles, Porphyrionwounded by Zeuswith lightning bolts and finished off by Heracles, Enceladus and Pallas killed by Athena, Polybotescrushed by Poseidonbeneath the island of Nisyros, Hippolytus slain by Hermeswith his sword and wearing the cap of invisibility, Ephialtes of the Aloadaeshot by Apollowith arrows, Grationslain by the goddess Artemiswith her arrows, Eurytosslain by Dionysoswith his pine-cone tipped thyrsos, Agriosand Thoonclubbed to death by the Moiraewith clubs of bronze, Mimasslain by Hephaestuswith bolts of metal and Clytiusby Hecatewith flaming torches.
* [http://www.theoi.com/Gigante/Gigantes.html The Gigantes in Classical Literature and Art]
*Burkert, Walter. "Greek Religion" (1977) 1985.
* [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0062%3Aid%3Dgigantes "Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities" - "Gigantes"]
* [http://www.theoi.com/Gigante/Gigantes.html Theoi Project - Gigantes]
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