White Latin American


White Latin American

Infobox Ethnic group
group = White Latin American "Latinoamericano blanco" "Latino-Americano Branco"


caption = Gisele Bündchen·Fidel Castro·Shakira
Gael García Bernal·Gabriela Sabatini·Ricardo Maduro

pop = White People 190 million – 203 million
33% – 37% of Latin American population
region1 = flagcountry|Brazil
pop1 = 93M or 103M
region2 = flagcountry|Argentina
pop2 = 39M
region3 = flagcountry|Mexico
pop3 = 9.9M or 16.3M
region4 = flagcountry|Colombia
pop4 = 9M
region5 = flagcountry|Cuba
pop5 = 7.4M or 4.2M
region6 = flagcountry|Venezuela
pop6 = 5.5M
region7 = flagcountry|Chile
pop7 = 4.9M
region8 = flagcountry|Peru
pop8 = 4.4M
region10 = flagcountry|Puerto Rico
pop10 = 3.2M
region11 = flagcountry|Uruguay
pop11 = 3.1M
region12 = flagcountry|Dominican Republic
pop12 = 1.5M
region13 = flagcountry|Bolivia
pop13 = 1.4M
region14 = flagcountry|Nicaragua
pop14 = 1M
region15 = All other areas
pop15 = 1.1M
languages = Portuguese, Spanish, and other languages.
religions = Christianity (predominantly Roman Catholic, with a minority of Protestants); and other religions.

White Latin AmericansThe term "White Latin American" has been occasionally used for the commonalities of the different white groups in Latin America. For examples, see " [http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Latin_America/Torture_Repression_COTP.html Repression: the recognition of human rights] ", page 15 excerpted from the book "Cry of the People: The struggle for human rights in Latin America and the Catholic Church in conflict with US policy", by Penny Lernoux, Penguin Books, 1980, paper; or " [http://www.adelinotorres.com/americalatina/Mario%20Olivares%20e%20Cezar%20Guedes_Globaliza%C3%A7ao%20na%20America%20Latina_INGLES.pdf Globalization Dynamics in Latin America: South Cone and Iberian Investments] ", Mario Gómez Olivares, Department of Economy, ISEG/UTL, and Cezar Guedes, Departament of Economy, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro.] are the white population of Latin America. They are descendants of 16th to 19th century colonial-era settlers and of post-independence immigrants. The settlers were mostly Spanish and Portuguese, the post-independence immigrants were mostly Italian. Other large sources of immigrants were Spain, Portugal, Germany, Poland, France, Lebanon, and the British Isles. Smaller numbers came from various other European and Middle Eastern countries. The immigrants came principally in the late decades of the nineteenth and early decades of the twentieth centuries. Some twelve million people arrived in South America alone in this period, although many returned or re-migrated to other countries, including the United States and Canada. The largest group in the region,cite web | title=Field Listing - Ethnic groups | publisher=Central Intelligence Agency | url =https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2075.html | work =CIA World Factbook | accessdate = 2007-08-25] white Latin Americans number approximately 190 million, or one-third of the total population of nearly 580 million in 2008.

History

More than one and a half million Portuguese and Spaniards settled in their American colonies during the colonial period. [cite web | title=L’emigració dels europeus cap a Amèrica| url =http://www.edualter.org/material/vld/amlat13.pdf | accessdate = 2007-11-26] [cite web | url = http://www.ibge.gov.br/brasil500/portugueses.html | title=Presença portuguesa: de colonizadores a imigrantes | accessdate = 2007-11-26] Small numbers of other Europeans also settled, usually as a reward for military service to Spain or Portugal.

For the region as a whole, the number of post-independence immigrants far surpassed that of settlers during the colonial period. Argentina and Uruguay were "inundated" with European immigrants, so that in the early 20th century Buenos Aires had a larger proportion of European-born population than did New York City. Argentina received more than half of the 11-12 million immigrants to South America in this time.cite web | title=South America: Postindependence overseas immigrants | url =http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-41807/South-America | work =Encyclopædia Britannica | accessdate = 2007-11-26 | language = ] In Brazil, the most populous country in the region, the effect was consequently not as great, but the number of immigrants was large, at more than 4 million.

Admixture

Since the European colonization, the evolution of Latin America's population is embedded in a long and widespread history of intermixing, so that many White Latin Americans have Amerindian and/or sub-Saharan African and/or Asian ancestry. However, intermixing is not exclusive to the region, of course, and the white race is nowhere a "pure" race: pure races do not exist, and evidently never have. [cite web |url=http://www.physanth.org/positions/race.html |title=AAPA Statement on Biological Aspects of Race |accessdate=2008-01-25 |publisher=American Association of Physical Anthropologists |date=1996] For example, a 2004 study of White Americans showed that up to 30% of them have between 2% and 20% Sub–Saharan African and/or Native American admixture, similar to the ratio of white Latin Americans. [cite web |url=http://backintyme.com/essays/?p=5 |title=Backintyme Essays » Blog Archive » Afro-European Genetic Admixture in the United States]

Under the casta system of colonial Latin America, a person of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry would legally and automatically regain their "limpieza de sangre" (lit. "purity of blood") and be classified as criollo with others in that category (a designation denoting "pure" Spaniards born in the Americas), if they were of one-eighth or less Amerindian ancestry. These would be the offspring of a castizo (1/4 Amerindian and 3/4 Spanish) with a Spaniard or a criollo (who may himself have been mixed).cite web | first=María Elena | last=Martínez | title=The Black Blood of New Spain: Limpieza de Sangre, Racial Violence, and Gendered Power in Early Colonial Mexico | url =http://www.historycooperative.org/cgi-bin/justtop.cgi?act=justtop&url=http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/wm/61.3/martinez.html | work =History Cooperative | accessdate = 2007-08-25]

In practice, many castizos did themselves also subversively purchase their Whiteness all over Latin America, for a steep price, [cite book |author=Frank W. Sweet |title=Legal History of the Color Line: The Rise And Triumph of the One-drop Rule |publisher=Backintyme |location= |year= |pages=215-235 |isbn=0-939479-23-0 |oclc= |doi=] with relevant "probanzas de limpieza de sangre" records altered, consolidating themselves within the lawfully white population. Additionally, at least in the parts of Latin America under the jurisdiction of the Viceroyalty of New Spain (from the modern Southwest United States plus Florida, all of modern Mexico then down as far south as the southern border of modern Costa Rica, as well as Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Dominican Republic), officials in the late 16th century did actually decide "to grant limpieza certification to those who had no more than a fourth of native ancestry (called castizos)."

Populations

The largest White population in Latin America is found in Brazil, with 93.1 million whites out of 190 million total Brazilians, a ratio of 49.7%.cite web |title=PNAD |date=2006 |url=http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/populacao/trabalhoerendimento/pnad2006/brasilpnad2006.pdf |language=Portuguese |accessdate=2007-09-14 ] The CIA figure is 53.7%, or 102 million. Argentina, with a population of 40 million is 97% White, the largest percentage in Latin America, and indeed, in the Americas.

Authors

*Gioconda Belli - a Nicaraguan author, writer and poet of Italian descent.
*José Martí - a Cuban poet and writer.
*Mario Vargas Llosa - a Peruvian writer and politician.
*Jorge Luis Borges - Argentine writer.

Entertainers

Actors/Actresses

*Gael García Bernal - is a Mexican actor and director.
*Dolores del Río - was a Mexican film actress.
*Vera Fischer - is a Brazilian actress of long-standing reputation and works in cinema and for the small screen, particularly for telenovelas.
*Danna García - is a Colombian actress and singer.
*Carmen Villalobos - is a Colombian acress.
*Maria Luisa Gil - is a Cuban model and actress. She was chosen as Playboy's Playmate of the Month in June, 1998.
*Salma Hayek- is an Academy Award- Golden Globe- and Emmy-nominated Mexican actress.
*Luisana Lopilato - is a Argentine actress and model.
*Diego Luna - is a Mexican actor.
*Reynaldo Gianecchini - is a Brazilian actor.
*Ana Paula Arósio - is a Brazilian actress and model.
*Christian Meier - is a Peruvian actor and singer.
*Carmen Miranda - was a Portuguese-born [cite web |url=http://www.carmenmiranda.net/about/facts.htm |title=FAST FACTS] Braziliancite web |url=http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0000544/ |title=Carmen Miranda's Bio at the Internet Movie Database] samba singer and motion picture star, most active in the 1940s.
*Maria Montez - was a Dominican-born motion picture actress who gained fame and popularity in the 1940s as an exotic beauty starring in a series of filmed-in-Technicolor costume adventure films.
*Alinne Moraes - is a Brazilian actress who starred as Mônica Paiva (Nina) on the soap opera "Como Uma Onda".
*Lymari Nadal - Puerto Rican actress
*Ana de la Reguera - is a Mexican Telenovela and Hollywood actress.
*Raquel Torres - (1908-1987) was a Mexican film actress born in Hermosillo, Mexico.
*Benicio Del Toro - is an Academy Award-winning Puerto Rican actor and film producer.
*Leonor Varela - is a Chilean actress.
*Eduardo Verástegui - Mexican actor
*Sofia Vergara - is a Colombian actress, model, and television presenter.
*Xuxa Meneghel, Brazilian Grammy Award Winner, TV actress, singer and children's TV show host.

Musicians

*Charytin - is a singer, TV presenter and actress from the Dominican Republic.
*Chayanne is a Puerto Rican Latin pop singer.
*Kany Garcia - Puerto Rican singer.
*Chabuca Granda was a Peruvian singer and song writer especialized in costal Peruvian music of strong Spanish and African influence.
*Juan Diego Flórez - is a Peruvian operatic tenor, particularly known for his roles in bel canto operas.
*Ricky Martin - is a Grammy Award and Latin Grammy Award-winning Puerto Rican pop singer.
*Carmen Monarcha - is a Brazilian opera singer.
*Yolandita Monge - is a Puerto Rican Latin pop singer
*Carlos Ponce - is a Puerto Rican actor, singer, composer and TV personality
*Paulina Rubio- is a Latin Grammy-nominated Mexican singer and actress
*El Prodigio is a Dominican accordionist who specializes in jazz and rock-influenced merengue tipico, as well as performing merengue standards.
*Ivete Sangalo - is a Latin Grammy Award-winning Brazilian axé and MPB singer, songwriter, and occasional actress and television show host.
*Natalia Oreiro- is a popular Latin Grammy-nominated Uruguayan singer and actress of Galician origin.
*Sepultura - a Brazilian metal-band consisting out of mostly white musicians.
*Shakira - is a Colombian singer, songwriter, instrumentalist, record producer, dancer, philanthropist and occasional actress
*Thalía - is a successful Latin Grammy-awarded Mexican singer and actress.
*Juanes - Colombian singer.

Journalists

*Maria Celeste Arraras - is a famous Puerto Rican television reporter and actress.
*Patricia Janiot - is a Colombian news anchor.
*Eladio Lárez - is a Venezuelan former news anchor, now President of RCTV.
*Andrés Oppenheimer - is an Argentine news anchor, columnist, and author.
*Ana Paula Padrão - is a Brazilian news anchor.
*Pedro Sevcec - is an Uruguayan news anchor.
*Jacobo Zabludovsky - is a Mexican radio news announcer/commentator, and former news anchor.
*Jaime Bayly - is a Peruvian journalist and author.

Models, beauty queens

*Alicia Machado - Miss Universe 1996 from Venezuela.
*Astrid Muñoz - Puerto Rican model
*Alessandra Ambrósio - Brazilian supermodel.
*Ana Beatriz Barros - Brazilian supermodel. She is one of the most successful Brazilian supermodels.
*Cecilia Bolocco - Chilean television entertainer and Miss Universe 1991.
*Carolina Izsák - Venezuelan beauty queen, runner-up at the 1992 Miss Universe pageant.
*Catherine Fulop - Venezuelan-born Argentine model of Hungarian descent.
*Cynthia Olavarría - 1st runner-up of Miss Universe 2005.
*Dayana Mendoza- Venezuelan model and Miss Universe 2008.
*Gisele Bündchen - Brazilian supermodel.
*Ingrid Rivera - second runner-up of Miss World 2005.
*Isabeli Fontana - Brazilian supermodel.
*Leonora Jimenez - Costa Rican model.
*María Julia Mantilla García - Miss World 2004 from Peru.
*Mayra Verónica - Cuban model.
*Priscila Perales - Miss International 2007 from Mexico.

Presidents and Political figures

*Fernando Belaúnde Terry - was twice elected president of Peru, from 1963-1968 and from 1980-1985.
*Óscar Arias - is the current President of Costa Rica
*Michelle Bachelet - is a center-left politician and the current President of Chile—the first woman to hold this position in the country's history.
*Ingrid Betancourt - former Colombian senator, former presidential candidate, and ex-hostage of the FARC guerrillas.
*Álvaro Colom - is the President of Guatemala for the 2008–2012 term.
*Felipe Calderón - is the President of Mexico.
*Alan García - is the current President of Peru
*Fidel Castro - was the President of Cuba.
*Salvador Allende - former President of Chile, from 1970-1973. Died by his own hand on the Coup de état of September 11 of 1973
*Che Guevara - was an Argentine-born Marxist revolutionary, political figure, and leader of Cuban and internationalist guerrillas.
*Cristina Fernández de Kirchner - the first woman elected President of Argentina.
*Hipolito Mejia - former Dominican president, from 2000 to 2004
*Martín Torrijos - is a Panamanian politician and the current President of Panama.
*Alvaro Uribe - current President of Colombia
*Tabaré Vázquez - is the current President of Uruguay.
*Irene Sáez - a Venezuelan politician and former Miss Universe 1981.
*Aníbal Acevedo Vilá - is the eighth and current Governor of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.
*Augusto Pinochet - former President of Chile, during the period called Régimen Militar.
*Tony Saca is the current president of El Salvador, originally of Palestinian descent [ [http://www.wrmea.com/archives/April_2006/0604042.html "Schafik Giries Abdullah Handal"] ] .
*Schafik Handal, deceased leader of the FMLN (a Communist political party) is also of Palestinian descent [ [http://www.wrmea.com/archives/April_2006/0604042.html "Schafik Giries Abdullah Handal"] ] .

Religious figures

*Jorge Bergoglio - is an Argentine Roman Catholic cardinal and Archbishop of Buenos Aires.
*Francisco Javier Errázuriz Ossa - is a Chilean Roman Catholic cardinal and Archbishop of Santiago.
*Cláudio Hummes - is a Brazilian Roman Catholic cardinal and Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy.
*Javier Lozano Barragán - is a Mexican Roman Catholic cardinal and President of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Health Care Workers.
*Jorge Urosa - is a Venezuelan Roman Catholic cardinal and Archbishop of Caracas.

ports

*Antonio de Nigris - Mexican professional soccer player.
*Manu Ginóbili - Argentine professional basketball player.
*Sebastián Keitel - Chilean professional sprinter.
*Vicente Matias Vuoso - Argentine-born Mexican professional soccer player.
*Adrian Fernandez - Mexican professional Race Car driver.
*Andres Nocioni - Argentine-born Italian professional basketball player.
*Sofía Mulanovich - Peruvian professional surfer.
*Fabricio Oberto - Argentine-born Italian professional basketball player.
*David Nalbandian - Argentine professional tennis player.
*Gustavo Kuerten - Brazilian professional tennis player.
*Claudia Poll - Nicaraguan-born Costa Rican swimmer of German descent who won the gold medal at the 1996 Summer Olympics.
*Gabriela Sabatini - former Argentine professional tennis player.
*Ayrton Senna - Brazilian Grand Prix racing driver and triple Formula One world champion (d. May 1994).
*Ricardo Izecson dos Santos Leite Aka Kaká - Brazilian professional soccer player.

See also

columns
width=270px
col1 =
* Peninsulares
* White Hispanic
* White people
* Carcamano
* Criollo (people)
col2 =
* Castizo
* Casta
* Mestizo
* Mulatto
* Tejano

Notes and references


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