- The Catlins
The Catlins (sometimes referred to as The Catlins Coast) comprises an area in the southeastern corner of the
South Islandof New Zealand. The area lies between Balclutha and Invercargill, straddling the boundary between the Otagoand Southland regions. It includes the South Island's southernmost point, Slope Point.
The Catlins, a rugged, sparsely populated area, features a scenic coastal landscape and dense temperate rainforest, both of which harbour many
endangered speciesof birds. Its exposed location leads to its frequently wild weather and heavy ocean swells, which are an attraction to big-wave surfers. Ecotourismhas become of growing importance in the Catlins economy, which otherwise relies heavily on dairy farmingand fishing. The region's early whaling and forestry industries have long since died away, along with the coastal shipping that led to several tragic shipwrecks. Only some 1,200 people now live in the area, many of them in the settlement of Owaka.
The Catlins area covers some 1900 km² (730 sq mi) and forms a rough triangular shape, extending up to 50 km (30 mi) inland and along a stretch of coast 90 km (60 mi) in extent. The mouths of two large rivers, the
Clutha Riverin the northeast and the Mataura Riverin the west, mark its coastal limits. To the north and northwest, the rough bush-clad hills give way to rolling pastoral countryside drained and softened by the actions of tributaries of these two rivers such as the Pomahaka River.
The Catlins boasts a rugged, scenic coastline. Natural features include sandy beaches, blowholes, a petrified forest at
Curio Bay, and the Cathedral Caves, which visitors can reach at low tide. Much of the coastline consists of high cliffs, with several faces over 150 m (500 ft) in height, and the land rises sharply from the coast at most points. For this reason, many of the area's rivers cascade over waterfalls as they approach the ocean (notably the iconic Purakaunui Fallson the short Purakaunui River).
The South Island's southernmost point,
Slope Point, projects near the southwestern corner of the Catlins. To the west of this lies Waipapa Point, often considered the boundary of the Catlins region, beyond which lies the swampy land around the mouth of the Mataura River at the eastern end of Toetoes Bay. But various people place the western boundary of the Catlins region in various places, and some more stringent definitions exclude even Slope Point.Peat (1998), p. 7.]
Several parallel ranges of hills dominate the interior of the Catlins, separated by the valleys of the Owaka, Catlins and
Tahakopa Rivers, which all drain southeastwards into the Pacific Ocean. The most notable of these ranges is the Maclennan Range. Between them, these hills are often simply referred to as the Catlins Ranges. Their northwestern slopes are drained by several tributaries of the Clutha and Mataura Rivers, most notably the Mokoreta River, which flows mainly westwards, reaching the Mataura close to the town of Wyndham.
The highest point in the Catlins, Mount Pye — 720 m (2361 ft) — stands 25 km (15 mi) north-northeast of Waikawa and close to the source of the Mokoreta River, and marks part of the Otago-Southland border. Other prominent peaks above 600 m (2000 ft) include Mount Rosebery, Catlins Cone, Mount Tautuku, and Ajax Hill.
The Catlins has several small lakes, notably scenic
Lake Wilkieclose to the Tautuku Peninsula. Catlins Lake, near Owaka, actually consists of the tidal estuaryof the Catlins River.
Shipping has found the Catlins coast notoriously dangerous, and many
shipwrecks have occurred on the headlands that jut into the Pacific Ocean here. Two lighthouses stand at opposite ends of the Catlins to help prevent further mishaps. The Nugget Pointlighthouse stands 76 m (250 ft) above the water at the end of Nugget Point, casting its light across a series of eroded stacks (the "nuggets" which give the point its name). It was built in 1869–70. The Waipapa Point light, which stands only 21 m (70 ft) above sea level, was the last wooden lighthouse to be built in New Zealand, and was constructed in 1884 in response to the tragic 1881 wreck of the "Tararua". Both of these lighthouses are now fully automated."ibid.", pp. 24, 57.]
Due to its position at the southern tip of New Zealand, the Catlins coastline lies exposed to some of the country's largest ocean swells, often over 5 m (16 ft).Kirkpatrick (1999). The Natural Hazards map on plate 23 shows the Catlins gets 6 m (20 ft) waves twice as often as much of New Zealand, including notable surfing locations such as and
Piha.] Big wave surfinghas started developing into a regional attraction, [http://www.pkphotos.com/fourtysix.html Big Wave Surfing in New Zealand - 46 Deep South] . Retrieved 4 April 2006] with regular competitions and feats like Dunedin surfer Doug Young's award-winning 11 m (36 ft) wave in 2003 gathering publicity for the sport. [http://onenews.nzoom.com/onenews_detail/0,1227,176261-1-5,00.html Kiwi surfer makes it big] , ONE News, 18 March 2003. Retrieved 4 April 2006]
The Catlins has a cool maritime temperate climate, somewhat cooler than other parts of the South Island, and strongly modified by the effect of the Pacific Ocean. Winds can reach considerable strength, especially on the exposed coast; most of the South Island's storms develop to the south or southwest of the island, and thus the Catlins catches the brunt of many of these weather patterns.
The Catlins — and especially its central and southern areas — experiences considerably higher precipitation than most of the South Island's east coast; heavy rain occurs infrequently, but drizzle is common and 200 days of rain in a year is not unusual. Rain days are spread fairly evenly throughout the year; there is no particularly rainy season in the northern Catlins, and only a slight tendency towards more autumn rain in the southwest.Kirkpatrick (1999). The map of rainday seasons on plate 8 shows 27.5%-30% of raindays fall in autumn west of Tautuku or thereabouts, with no significant season north of that. The rainfall variability map on the same page shows that the
coefficient of variationof annual rainfall for the Catlins is between 10% and 15% (with variation being highest along the coast).] The average annual rainfall recorded at the Tautuku Outdoor Education Centre is about 1,300 mm (51 in),Peat (1998), p. 13.] with little variation from year to year.
Fine days can be sunny and warm, and daily maxima may exceed 30 °C (86 °F) in mid-summer (January/February). A more usual daily maximum in summer would be 18–20 °C (64–68 °F). Snow is rare except on the peaks even in the coldest part of winter, though frost is quite common during the months of June to September. Typical daily maximum temperatures in winter are 10–13 °C (50–55 °F).
The first people known to live in the Catlins,
Māoriof the Kāti Mamoe, Waitaha, and Kāi Tahu iwi, merged via marriage and conquest into the iwi now known as Kāi Tahu. Archaeological evidence of human presence dates back to AD 1000. [http://www.doc.govt.nz/Community/001~For-Schools/003~Field-Trips/012~Otago/001~The-Catlins-Coast.pdf Department of Conservation "The Catlins Coast" educational resource kit] , p. 7. Retrieved 28 March 2006] The area's inhabitants were semi-nomadic, travelling from Stewart Island/Rakiurain the south and inland to Central Otago. They generally dwelt near river mouths for easy access to the best food resources. In legend, the Catlins forests further inland were inhabited by "Maeroero" (wild giants).
The Catlins offered one of the last places where the giant flightless bird, the moa, could be readily hunted,Fact|date=July 2008 and the timber of the forest proved ideal for canoe construction (the name of the settlement "Owaka" means "Place of the canoe"). No formal Māori pa were located in the Catlins, but there were many hunting camps, notably at
Papatowai, near the mouth of the Tahakopa River.Buckingham and Hall-Jones (1985), p. 7.]
Europeans first sighted the area in 1770 when the crew of
James Cook's "Endeavour" sailed along the coast. Cook named a bay in the Catlins area "Molineux's Harbour" after his ship's master Robert Molineux. Although this was almost certainly the mouth of the Waikawa River, later visitors applied the name to a bay to the northeast, close to the mouth of the Clutha River, which itself was for many years known as the Molyneux River."ibid.", p. 9.]
Sealers and whalers founded the first European settlements in the early years of the 19th century, at which time the hunting of marine mammals dominated European economic activity in New Zealand. A whaling station was established on the
Tautuku Peninsulain 1839, with smaller stations at Waikawa and close to the mouth of the Clutha River.Dann and Peat (1989), p. 135.]
The Catlins take their name from the Catlins River, itself named for Captain Edward Cattlin (sometimes spelt Catlin), a whaler who purchased an extensive block of land along Catlins River on 15 February 1840 from Kāi Tahu chief Hone Tuhawaiki (also known as "Bloody Jack") for
muskets and £30 (roughly NZ$3000 in 2005 dollars). New Zealand's land commissioners declined to endorse the purchaseReed (1975), p. 71.] and the Māori received much of the land back after long negotiations ending over a decade after Cattlin's death.Buckingham and Hall-Jones (1985), p. 10.]
During the mid-19th century the area developed into a major saw-milling region, shipping much of the resultant timber north to the newly-developing town of
Dunedinfrom the ports of Waikawa and Fortrose. A 200 ft (60 m)-long jetty was built at Fortrose in 1875, although this has long since disappeared.
Several shipwrecks occurred along the treacherous coastline during this period. Most notably, one of New Zealand's worst shipping disasters occurred here: the wreck of the passenger-steamer "Tararua", en-route from Bluff to
Port Chalmers, which foundered off Waipapa Pointon 29 April 1881 with the loss of all but 20 of the 151 people aboard.Fraser (1986), p. 94.]
Another noted shipwreck, that of the "Surat", occurred on New Year's Day in 1874. This ship, holed on rocks near Chasland's Mistake eight kilometres southeast of
Tautuku Peninsula, limped as far as the mouth of the Catlins Riverbefore its 271 immigrants abandoned ship. A beach at the mouth of the Catlins River is named Surat Bay in commemoration of this wreck.Reed (1975), p. 392.] The schooner "Wallace" and steamer "Otago" were also both wrecked at or near Chasland's Mistake, in 1866 and 1876 respectively, and a 4600 tonne steamer, the "Manuka", ran aground at Long Point north of Tautuku in 1929.
From the time of the
Great Depressionuntil the formation of the New Zealand Rabbit Board in 1954, rabbits became a major pest in the area, and rabbiters were employed to keep the creatures under control. The trapping of rabbits and auctioning of their skins in Dunedin became a minor but important part of the Catlins area's economy during this time.Tyrrell (1989), p. 139–140.]
After a decline in the 1890s, the logging of native timber expanded into new areas made accessible by an extension of the railway, before petering out in the mid-20th century. One nail in the industry's coffin came with a series of
bushfires which destroyed several mills in 1935."ibid.", p. 137.] Much of the remaining forest is now protected by the New Zealand Department of Conservationas part of the Catlins Forest Park.
The Catlins coast often hosts New Zealand fur seals and Hooker's sealions, and Southern elephant seals can occasionally be seen. Several species of
penguinalso nest along the coast, notably the rare Yellow-eyed Penguin("Hoiho"), as do mollymawks and Australasian Gannets, and the estuaries of the rivers are home to herons, stilts, godwits and oystercatchers. Bitterns and the threatened Fernbird("Matata") can also occasionally be seen along the reedy riverbanks.
In the forests, endangered birds such as the yellowhead ("mohua") and
kakariki(New Zealand parakeet) occur, as do other birds such as the tui, fantail("piwakawaka"), and kererū(New Zealand pigeon). One of New Zealand's only two species of non-marine mammal, the long-tailed bat, lives in small numbers within the forests, and several species of lizardare also found locally, the most populous of which is the Common Gecko.
Many species of fish, shellfish, and crustaceans frequent both the local rivers and sea, notably
crayfishand paua. Nugget Pointin the northern Catlins hosts a particularly rich variety of marine wildlife. The proposed establishment of a marine reserveoff the coast here has, however, proved controversial. [http://www.forestandbird.org.nz/Marine/reserves/nuggets.asp "Marine Reserves - Nugget Point/Tokata Proposal"] (from the Royal Forest and Bird Protection Society) and [http://www.option4.co.nz/Marine_Protection/ngpa10305.htm "Wrong place, wrong reasons for marine reserve"] (originally from the " Otago Daily Times") give two opposing views for and against the reserve. Both retrieved 31 March 2006.] Hector's Dolphins can often be seen close to the Catlins coast, especially at Porpoise Bay near Waikawa.
The Catlins features dense temperate rainforest, dominated by podocarps (which cover some 600 km² or 230 sq mi of the Catlins). The forest is thick with trees such as Rimu, Totara, Silver Beech, Matai and Kahikatea. Of particular note are the virgin Rimu and Totara forest remaining in those areas which were too rugged or steep to have been milled by early settlers, and an extensive area of Silver Beech forest close to the Takahopa River. This is New Zealand's most southerly expanse of Beech forest.Buckingham and Hall-Jones (1985), p. 19.] Many native species of forest plant can be found in the undergrowth of the Catlins forest, including young Lancewoods, orchids such as the Spider Orchid and Perching Easter Orchid, and many different native
ferns."ibid". pp. 21–23.]
Settlers cleared much of the Catlins' coastal vegetation for farmland, but in some areas the original coastal plant life survives, primarily around cliff edges and some of the bays close to the
Tautuku Peninsula, these being furthest from the landward edges of the forest. Plant life here includes many native species adapted to the strong salt-laden winds found in this exposed region. The Catlins coastal daisy ("Celmisia lindsayii") is unique to the region, and is related to New Zealand's mountain daisies. Tussocks, hebes, and flaxes are a common sight, as are native gentians, though sadly the endangered native sedge pingaocan now rarely be found. [http://www.catlins.org.nz/natural_history.htm "Natural History", Catlins Promotions Association website] . Retrieved 29 March 2006.] In years when the Southern rātā flowers well, the coastal forest canopy turns bright red. The rātā also thrives in some inland areas. [http://www.projectcrimson.org.nz/uploads/SouthlandTrail.pdf Crimson Trail - Otago/Southland (pdf)] . Retrieved 17 May 2006.]
The parallel hill ranges of the Catlins form part of the Murihiku
terrane, an accretion which extends inland through the Hokonui Hillsas far west as Mossburn.Peat (1998), p. 8.] This itself forms part of a larger system known as the Southland Syncline, which links to similar formations in Nelson (offset by the Alpine Fault) and even in New Caledonia, 3,500 km (2,200 mi) away.Southland Syncline, [http://www.otago.ac.nz/geology/askus/previous.htm "Questions and answers"] , Geology Department, University of Otago, New Zealand. Retrieved 2 April 2006.] The Catlins ranges are strike ridges composed of Triassicand Jurassic sandstones, mudstones and other related sedimentary rocks, often with a high incidence of feldspar.Buckingham and Hall-Jones (1985), p. 14.] Fossils of the late and middle Triassic Warepan and Kaihikuan stages are found in the area.Bishop and Turnbull (1996), pp. 15, 21–23.] Curio Bayfeatures the petrified remains of a forest 160 million years old. This represents a remnant of the subtropical woodland that once covered the region, only to become submerged by the sea. The fossilised remnants of trees closely related to modern Kauriand Norfolk Pinecan be seen here.Buckingham and Hall-Jones (1985), p. 16.]
Population and demographics
The Catlins area has very few inhabitants; the region as a whole has a population of only some 1200 people. Almost all of the Catlins' population lies either close to the route of the former State Highway running from Balclutha to
Invercargill(which now forms part of the Southern Scenic Route), or in numerous tiny coastal settlements, most of which have only a few dozen inhabitants.
The largest town in the Catlins,
Owaka, has a population of about 400.Various sources list different populations for Owaka, ranging from under 200 to 500, due to the imprecise nature of the settlement's boundaries and to seasonal variations. The usually-resident population-count from the 2001 census [http://www2.stats.govt.nz/domino/external/web/CommProfiles.nsf/FindInfobyArea/607200-rl Owaka Rural Centre Community Profile] totalled 366. Retrieved 31 March 2006.] It is located 35 km (20 mi) southwest of Balclutha. The only other settlements of any great size are Kaka Point(population 150), Waikawa, Tokanui, and Fortrose, which lies at the western edge of the Catlins on the estuary of the Mataura River. Most of the area's other settlements are either little more than farming communities (such as Romahapa, Maclennan, and Glenomaru) or seasonally populated holiday communities with few permanent residents. An outdoor education centre, run by the Otago Youth Adventure Trust is located at Tautuku, almost exactly half way between Owaka and Waikawa.
The area's population has declined to its current level from around 2700 in 1926. At that time, the settlement of
Tahakopa— which now has a population of under 100 — almost rivalled Owaka in size, with a population of 461 compared with Owaka's 557. Only in the last twenty years has this decline halted, with today's population figures being very similar to those of 1986.Tyrrell (1989), p. 146.] Before his death in 2008, poet Hone Tuwharehad become the Catlins area's best-known inhabitant. Born in Northland, Tuwhare lived at Kaka Pointfor many years, and many of his poems refer to the Catlins.
The area's population has predominantly European ancestry, with 94.2% of Owaka's population belonging to the European ethnic group according to the 2001 Census, compared to 93.7% for the Otago region and 80.1% for New Zealand as a whole. The median income in the same census ranked considerably lower than for most of the country, although the unemployment rate was very low (3.2%, compared with 7.5% nationwide)."ibid". Retrieved 31 March 2006.]
The early European economy of the Catlins during the 1830s and 1840s centred on
whalingand sealing. The exploitation of the forests for timber started in the 1860s with the rapid growth of the city of Dunedinas a result of the goldrush of 1861–62. In the early 1870s more timber cargo was loaded at Owaka than at any other New Zealand port.Buckingham and Hall-Jones (1985), p. 11.] Forestry and sawmilling declined in the late 1880s once the easily accessible timber had been removed. The extension of the railway beyond Owaka breathed new life into these industries, however, with activity peaking during the 1920s. [http://www.doc.govt.nz/Community/001~For-Schools/003~Field-Trips/012~Otago/001~The-Catlins-Coast.pdf Department of Conservation "The Catlins Coast" educational resource kit] , p. 7. Retrieved 28 March 2006.]
The land cleared of trees largely became pasture. From the 1880s, clearing of land for
dairy farmingincreased, especially in the areas around Tahakopaand the Owaka Rivervalley. Considerable sheep and dairy farmingcontinues on the cleared hills on the periphery of the region, and this accounts for much of the Catlins' income. A rural polytechnic specialising in agricultural science (Telford Polytechnic) is located south of Balclutha close to the northeastern edge of the Catlins. Fishingand tourismalso now account for much of the area's economy. The rugged natural scenery, sense of isolation, and natural attractions such as Cathedral Cavesmakes the Catlins a popular destination for weekend trips by people from Dunedinand Invercargill, the two nearest cities. A large number of cribs (holiday cottages) occur at places such as Jack's Bayand Pounawea. Ecotourismis becoming increasingly important to the area's economy, with many of the visitors coming from overseas. Tourism resources grew from three motels and four camping grounds in 1990 to eight motels, four camping grounds and 12 backpackers hostels a decade later, along with at least ten regular guided tour operations.A [http://www.southlandnz.com/sites/southlandnz.com/_eco/profile_pages/PDFindustry_profiles/Tour_last_COL.pdf Report from Venture Southland and Southland Tourism] gives, on pp. 17–18, a case study of "Catlins Wildlife Trackers", a local tourist concern. This study indicates that only 20% of this company's visitors are from New Zealand, and that tourist numbers are steadily increasing, and are also moving from back-packers to more up-market tourists. Retrieved 4 April 2006.] Tourism added an estimated $2.4 million to the region's economy in 2003. [http://www.southlandnz.com/sites/southlandnz.com/images/venture/community/docs/DRAFT%20CATLINS%20TOURISM%20STRATEGY.pdf Catlins Tourism Strategy 2003] , Department of Tourism, University of Otago, p. 19. Retrieved 4 April 2006.]
Southern Scenic Routelinks Fiordlandand Dunedinvia the Catlins. Here it runs northeast to southwest as an alternative road to State Highway 1, which skirts the Catlins to the northwest. This section of the Southern Scenic Route — formerly designated State Highway 92 but now no longer listed as a state highway — winds through most of the small settlements in the area, and was only completely sealed during the late 1990s (a stretch of about 15 km (10 mi) southwest of Tautuku was surfaced with gravel prior to that time). The settlements of Romahapa, Owaka, Maclennan, Tokanui, and Fortroseall lie on this route. A coastal route also parallels the inland highway between Waikawa and Fortrose, but only about two thirds of this road is sealed.
The remaining small roads in the district, all of which link with the former State Highway, have gravel surfaces. These roads mainly link the main route with small coastal settlements, although gravel roads also extend along the valleys of the Owaka and
Tahakopa Rivers, linking the main Catlins route with the small towns of Clinton and Wyndham respectively. The gravelled Waikawa Valley Road crosses the hills to join the Tahakopa-Wyndham route.
A railway line, the
Catlins River Branch, linked the area with the South Island Main Trunk Linefrom the late 19th century. Construction of this line began in 1879, but it did not reach Owaka until 1896. Construction progressed slowly due to the difficult terrain, and the final terminus of the line at Tahakopawas not completed until 1915.Buckingham and Hall-Jones (1985), pp. 11–12.] The economic viability of the line declined with the sawmills that it was built to serve, and the line was eventually closed in 1971. Parts of the line's route are now accessible as walkways, among them a 250 m (830 ft) long tunnel ("Tunnel Hill") between Owaka and Glenomaru.
Several of the area's coastal settlements have facilities for small boats, but generally only fishing and holiday craft use them; no regular passenger or freight-boat service runs to the Catlins.
The Catlins area lies on the boundary of the administrative areas of the
Clutha Districtand Southland District. Most of the Catlins falls in the Clutha District, based in Balclutha, and one of the council's fourteen representatives is elected directly from a Catlins Ward which is roughly coterminous with this area. The Clutha District is itself part of the Otago Region, controlled administratively by the Otago Regional Council(ORC) in Dunedin, 80 km (50 mi) to the northeast of Balclutha. The Molyneux Constituency of the ORC, which covers roughly the same area as the Clutha District, elects two councillors to the 12-member Regional Council.
Approximately the westernmost one-third of the Catlins area lies in the Southland District, based in
Invercargill, 50 km (30 mi) to the west of Fortrose. One of the council's 14 elected members represents the Toetoes Ward, which contains this part of the Catlins, along with an area around Wyndham and extending along Toetoes Bayand across the Awarua Plain. The Southland District is itself part of the Southland Region, controlled administratively by the Southland Regional Council(SRC; also known as "Environment Southland"), which is also based in Invercargill. The Southern Constituency of the SRC, which covers the entire Toetoes Ward and extends across the Awarua Plain almost as far as Bluff in the west and Mataurain the north, elects one councillor to the 12-member Regional Council.
The Catlins forms part of the Clutha-Southland electorate in New Zealand's general elections. The electorate currently has as its representative in the
New Zealand Parliamentthe former Leader of the Opposition Bill Englishof the New Zealand National Party.
* Bishop, D.G., and Turnbull, I.M. (compilers) (1996). "Geology of the Dunedin Area". Lower Hutt, NZ: Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences. ISBN 0-478-09521-X.
* Buckingham, R., and Hall-Jones, J. (1985). "The Catlins". Invercargill: Department of Conservation. ISBN 0-477-05758-6.
* "Catlins Walks and Tracks Information" (1993). Owaka: Department of Conservation/Te Papa Atawhai.
* Dann, C., and Peat, N. (1989). "Dunedin, North and South Otago". Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01438-0.
* Fraser, B. (ed.) (1986). "The New Zealand Book of Events". Auckland: Reed Methuen. ISBN 0-474-00123-7.
* Kirkpatrick, R. (1999). "Bateman Contemporary Atlas of New Zealand: The Shapes of Our Nation". Auckland: David Bateman Ltd. ISBN 1-86953-408-5.
* Peat, N. (1998). "The Catlins and the Southern Scenic Route". Dunedin: University of Otago Press. ISBN 1-877133-42-6.
* Reed, A.W. (1975). "Place Names of New Zealand". Wellington: A.H. & A.W. Reed. ISBN 0-589-00933-8.
* Tyrrell, A.R. (1989). "Catlins Pioneering". Dunedin: Otago Heritage Books. ISBN 0-473-07935-6.
* [http://www.catlins.org.nz/ Catlins Promotions Association website]
* Southern Scenic Route [http://csl.doc.govt.nz/pdfs/southland/SSRoute/SSR-Catlins-Journey.pdf guide] and [http://csl.doc.govt.nz/pdfs/southland/SSRoute/SSR-Catlins-Map.pdf map] (Department of Conservation)
* [http://www.library.otago.ac.nz/pdf/hoc_fr_bulletins/18_bulletin.pdf Guide to the Hocken Collection's holdings on the Catlins]
* [http://www.angelfire.com/ok2/cbluff/surat.html The wreck of the "Surat"]
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