Masanobu Fukuoka

Masanobu Fukuoka
Masanobu Fukuoka

Fukuoka throwing a seedball at a 2002 workshop at Navdanya
Born 2 February 1913(1913-02-02)
Iyo, Japan
Died 16 August 2008(2008-08-16) (aged 95)
Nationality Japanese
Occupation Agricultural scientist, farmer, philosopher
Known for Natural farming methods
Notable works The One-Straw Revolution
Awards Ramon Magsaysay Award, Desikottam Award, Earth Council Award

Masanobu Fukuoka (福岡 正信 Fukuoka Masanobu?, 2 February 1913 – 16 August 2008) was a Japanese farmer and philosopher celebrated for his Natural Farming method and re-vegetation of desertified lands. He was a proponent of no-till, no-herbicide grain cultivation farming methods traditional to many indigenous cultures,[1] from which he created a particular method of farming, commonly referred to as "Natural Farming" or "Do-Nothing Farming".[2][3][4]

He was the author of several Japanese books, scientific papers and other publications, and was featured in television documentaries and interviews from the 1970s onwards.[5] His influences went beyond farming to inspire individuals within the natural food and lifestyle movements. He was an outspoken advocate of the value of observing nature's principles.[6]



Fukuoka was born on 2 February 1913 in Iyo, Ehime, Japan, the second son of Kameichi Fukuoka, an educated and wealthy land owner and local leader. He attended Gifu Prefecture Agricultural College and trained as a microbiologist and agricultural scientist, beginning a career as a research scientist specialising in plant pathology. He worked at the Plant Inspection Division of the Yokohama Customs Bureau in 1934 as an agricultural customs inspector. In 1937 he was hospitalised with pneumonia, and while recovering he stated that he had a profound spiritual experience that transformed his world view[7][8][9] and led him to doubt the practices of modern "Western" agricultural science. He immediately resigned from his post as a research scientist, returning to his family's farm on the island of Shikoku in southern Japan.

From 1938, Fukuoka began to practise and experiment with new techniques on organic citrus orchards and used the observations gained to develop the idea of "Natural Farming". Amongst other practices, he abandoned pruning an area of the citrus trees, which caused the trees to become affected by insects and tangled branches. He stated that the experience taught him the difference between nature and non-intervention.[10][11] His efforts were interrupted by World War II, during which he worked at the Kōchi Prefecture agricultural experiment station on subjects including farming research and food production.

Iyo, Ehime. Place of Fukuoka's family home seen middle right.

In 1940, Fukuoka married his wife Ayako and over his life they had five children together. After the war, his father lost most of the family lands due to forced redistribution by the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers and was left with only three-eighths of an acre of rice land and the hillside citrus orchards his son had taken over before the war. Despite these setbacks, in 1947 he took up natural farming again with success, using no-till farming methods to raise rice and barley. He wrote his first book Mu: The God Revolution, or Mu: Kami no Kakumei (無 神の革命) in Japanese, during the same year and worked to spread word of the benefits of his methods and philosophy. His later book, The One-Straw Revolution was published in 1975 and translated into English in 1978.

From 1979, Fukuoka travelled the world extensively, giving lectures, working directly to plant seeds and re-vegetate areas, and receiving a number of awards in various countries in recognition of his work and achievements. By the 1980s, Fukuoka recorded that he and his family shipped some 6,000 crates of citrus to Tokyo each year totalling about 90 tonnes.[9]

During his first journey overseas, Fukuoka was accompanied by his wife Ayako, met macrobiotic leaders Michi Kushi and Herman Aihara,[12]:63 and was guided by his leading supporter and translation editor Larry Korn. They sowed seeds in desertified land, visited the University of California in Berkley and Los Angeles, the Green Gulch Farm Zen Center, the Lundberg Family Farms, and met with United Nations UNCCD representatives including Maurice Strong, who encouraged Fukuoka's practical involvement in the "Plan of Action to Combat Desertification". He also travelled to New York and surrounding areas such as Boston and the Amherst College in Massachusetts.

In 1983, he travelled to Europe for fifty days holding workshops, educating farmers and sowing seeds. In 1985, he spent forty days in Somalia and Ethiopia, sowing seeds in areas of desert to re-vegetate them, including working in remote villages and a refugee camp. The following year he returned to the United States, speaking at three international conferences on natural farming[12]:343 in Washington state, San Francisco and at the Agriculture Department of the University of California, Santa Cruz. Fukuoka also took the opportunity to visit farms, forests and cities giving lectures and meeting people. In 1988, he lectured at the Indian Science Congress, state agricultural universities and other venues.

Fukuoka went to Thailand in 1990 and 1991, visiting farms and collecting seeds for re-vegetating deserts in India which he returned to during November and December of the same year to sow seeds in the deserts[where?] for two months in an attempt to re-vegetate them. The next year saw him participate in official meetings in Japan associated with the Rio Earth Summit being held in Brazil, and in 1996 he returned to Africa, sowing seeds in desert areas of Tanzania, observing Baobab trees and jungle country. He taught the making and sowing of clay seed balls in Vietnam during 1995 and attended the World Expo 2005 in Aichi Prefecture, Japan.[13]

He travelled to the Philippines in 1998, carrying out Natural Farming research, and visited Greece later that year to assist plans to re-vegetate 10,000 hectares around the Lake Vegoritis area in the Pella Prefecture and to produce a film of the major seed ball effort. The next year he returned to Europe, visiting Mallorca.

He visited China in 2001, and in 2002 he returned again to India to speak at the "Nature as Teacher" workshop at Navdanya Farm and at Bija Vidyapeeth Earth University in Dehra Dun, Uttarakhand in northern India. On Gandhi's Day, he gave the third annual Albert Howard Memorial Lecture to attendees from all six continents. That autumn he was to visit Afghanistan with Yuko Honma but was unable to attend, shipping eight tons of seed in his stead. In 2006 he appeared in an hour long interview on Japanese television network NHK.[14]

Masanobu Fukuoka died on 16 August 2008, at the age of 95, after a period of confinement in bed and in a wheelchair.

Natural Farming

Fukuoka called his agricultural philosophy shizen nōhō (自然農法?), most commonly translated into English as "Natural Farming".[15] It is also referred to as "the Fukuoka Method", "the natural way of farming" or "Do-Nothing Farming", despite being labor intensive.

The system is based on the recognition of the complexity of living organisms that shape an ecosystem and deliberately exploiting it. Fukuoka saw farming not just as a means of producing food but as an aesthetic and spiritual approach to life,[16] the ultimate goal of which was "the cultivation and perfection of human beings".[17]

The five principles of Natural Farming[18] are that:

  • human cultivation of soil, plowing or tilling are unnecessary, as is the use of powered machines
  • prepared fertilizers are unnecessary, as is the process of preparing compost
  • weeding, either by cultivation or by herbicides, is unnecessary. Instead only minimal weed suppression with minimal disturbance
  • applications of pesticides or herbicides are unnecessary
  • pruning of fruit trees is unnecessary[19]

Clay seed balls

Fukuoka re-invented and advanced the use of clay seed balls. Clay seeds balls were originally an ancient practice in which seeds for the next season's crops are mixed together, sometimes with humus or compost for microbial inoculants, and then are rolled within clay to form into small balls. This method is now commonly used in guerilla gardening to rapidly seed restricted or private areas.[20]


In 1988, Fukuoka received India's most prestigious award, the Desikottam Award [21] as well as the Ramon Magsaysay Award for Public Service in the Philippines',[22] often considered "Asia's Nobel Prize".[23]

In March 1997, the Earth Summit+5 forum in Rio de Janeiro elected to award him with the Earth Council Award,[citation needed] which he received in person at a ceremony in Tokyo on May 26 that year,[24] honoring him for his contributions to sustainable development.[21]

In 1998, Fukuoka received a grant of US$10,000 from the Rockefeller Brothers Fund but the grant was returned because his advanced age prevented him from completing the project.[25]


In the preface to The One Straw Revolution, Wendell Berry wrote that the Natural Farming system would not be directly applicable to most American farms. In fact, Fukuoka’s techniques have proved difficult to apply, even on most Japanese farms, and is too technically demanding for most people to follow.[26] Despite this, in the international development of the organic farming movement, Fukuoka is considered to be amongst the "five giant personalities who inspired the movement" [27] along with Austrian Rudolf Steiner, German-Swiss Hans Müller, Lady Eve Balfour in the United Kingdom and J.I. Rodale in the United States.

One Straw Revolution has been translated into over 20 languages and sold more than one million copies [28] and Fukuoka has been widely influential, inspiring an international movement of individuals investigating and applying his principles to varying degrees,[4] such as Akinori Kimura,[26][29] David Mas Masumoto,[30] Kawaguchi Yoshikazu, and has significantly influenced alternative movements in the West, such as permaculture.[31][32]

His books are considered both farming compendiums and guides to a way of life.[33] His influence likened to that of a "strict and authoritarian grandfather figure" having a tendency to "theorize in a grand way" but not always be practical.[26] Fukuoka theorized that any ecological system forms an extremely complex "network of relationality" and is "holistic system", and this included farms themselves. His ideology disregarded causal associations in farming systems, believing that attention should not be on the crops but on the system as a whole. For example, he did not focus on the idea of "harmful insects" requiring to be dealt with, in his system the crops in the farm had to become strong enough to resist insects.[34]

In Northern Thailand, his visit organized by a former student was influential in the rapid and widespread adoption of organic and chemical-free rice agriculture.[35]


In some applications, Fukuoka’s famous ‘do-nothing’ techniques have been criticized as “grow-nothing” techniques, leading to crop failures and requiring many years of adaption to make them work. Despite its simple appearance, his technique has been described as sophisticated [26] and in the initial years of transition from conventional, there is some loss in crop yield, estimated by Fukuoka himself to be about 10%.

Critics argue that he was too focused on the "inner world" and its connection with nature, and did not give attention to the realm of interpersonal relationships or society which are also an essential part of living, and his rejection of mechanization was not justifiable for modern agricultural production.[36] Fukuoka had few followers or associates in his own native country of Japan.[6]

Recent developments

Fukuoka's hill, Iyo, Ehime, now largely neglected

His farm in Shikoku changed hands to his son and daughter-in-law gradually during the late 1980s, as Fukuoka reached an advanced age [37] and his grandson now also farms. The family orchards of iyo-kan, amanatsu mikan and related varieties of citrus, and many more fruit and other trees remain.[28] Many of his iyo-kan and amanatsu mikan trees are still growing, although some old iyo-kan were replaced by new varieties of fruit due to old age. Woodlands remain along with orchards, including some areas of wild vegetables still growing amongst them. Some areas of straw-mulched cropping continue to produce grains and vegetables.

The farm now also features an orchard area of ginko trees, shiitake mushroom crops grow on tree logs in shady woodland, and recent new plantings of limes, grapefruits, feijoas, avocados and mangos exist.[38][39][40]

Some new experimentation is taking place but, for the most part, the family does not adhere strictly to Fukuoka's method.


Mu 1: The God Revolution (English translation).
  • (Japanese) 1947 Mu: Kami no Kakumei (無 神の革命?); First edition self-published in 1947 and re-published in 1973 as Mu I: Kami no Kakumei (無 I 神の革命?), 280pp., 21 cm; New publishing by Shunjūsha (春秋社?) in 1985 July ISBN 978-4-393-74111-5 and 2004 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74143-6; (Religion (volume) (宗教編 Shūkyō Hen?)).
  • (Japanese) 1958 Hyakushō Yawa・「fu*」Shizen Nōhō (百姓夜話・「付」自然農法?); Self-published in 1958.
  • (Japanese) 1972 Mu: Shizen Nōhō (無 自然農法?) - first edition self-published in 1972. Publication issued by Shunjūsha (春秋社?) in 1985 Oct as Mu III: Shizen Nōhō (無 III 自然農法?) ISBN 978-4-393-74113-9 and again in 2004 Sept ISBN 978-4-393-74145-0; (Doing-practise (volume) (実践編 Jissen Hen?)).
  • (Japanese) 1972 Midori no Tetsugaku - Shizen Nōhō to Riron to Jissai (緑の哲学 自然農法と理論と実際?); Self-published, 359 pp.
The One–Straw Revolution (English re-presentation).
  • (Japanese) 1975 Shizen Nōhō - Wara Ippon no Kakumei (自然農法 わら一本の革命?); Published by Hakujusha (柏樹社?) Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan ISBN?; New publishing by Shunjūsha (春秋社?) in 1983 May ISBN 978-4-393-74103-0 and again in 2004 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74141-2.
    • 1978 "The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming" translators Chris Pearce, Tsune Kurosawa & Larry Korn. Preface Wendell Berry. Rodale Press. 1984– Indian Eng. edns. 30 yr anniv. 2009 republishing NYRB.
  • (Japanese) 1975 Shizen Nōhō - Midori no Tetsugaku no Riron to Jissen (自然農法 緑の哲学の理論と実践?); Published by Jiji Tsūshinsha (時事通信社?, Jiji Press Co.), Tōkyō, in 1975 Dec, 310pp. ISBN 978-4-7887-7626-5.13-3.
    • 1985 "The Natural Way Of Farming - The Theory and Practice of Green Philosophy" translator Frederic P. Metreaud. Japan Publications. Out of print. ISBN 978-0-87040-613-3.
  • (Japanese) 1984 Shizen ni Kaeru (自然に還る?); Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社?), 362 pp., in 1984 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74104-7. An enlarged and revised edition, 458 pp., in 1993 April ISBN 978-4-393-74114-6. Re-published in 2004 Sept ISBN 978-4-393-74146-7.
    • 1987 "The Road Back to Nature - Regaining the Paradise Lost" translator Frederic P. Metreaud. Japan Publications. Out of print. ISBN 978-0-87040-673-7.
  • (Japanese) 1985 Mu II: Mu no Tetsugaku (無 II 無の哲学?); Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社?) in 1985 July ISBN 978-4-393-74112-2 and again in 2004 Sept ISBN 978-4-393-74144-3; (Philosophy (volume) (哲学編 Tetsugaku Hen?)).
  • (Japanese) 1992 Wara Ippon no Kakumei・Sōkatsuhen「Kami to Shizen to Hito no Kakumei」 (わら一本の革命・総括編「神と自然と人の革命」?); Self-published by Shizenjuen (Shou Shin Sha) (自然樹園 (小心舎)?, One of Fukuoka Masanobu's own self-publishing publisher names) in 1992 Dec, 230 pp., 26×26 cm ISBN 978-4-938743-01-7; ISBN 4-938743-01-9.
    • 1996 "The Ultimatium [sic] of God Nature The One-Straw Revolution A Recapitulation" - English retranslation, less than 100 copies, no ISBN. Publisher: "Shou Shin Sha (小心舎)".
  • (Japanese) 1997 "Shizen" o Ikiru (「自然」を生きる?), includes an interview with Kanamitsu Toshio (金光寿郎?); Published by Shunjūsha (春秋社?) in 1997 Feb ISBN 978-4-393-74115-3 and again in 2004 Aug ISBN 978-4-393-74147-4.
  • (Japanese) 2001 Wara Ippon no Kakumei Sōkatsuhen -Nendo Dango no Tabi- (わら一本の革命 総括編 —粘土団子の旅—?); Self-published by Shizenjuen (Shou Shin Sha) (自然樹園 (小心舎)?, Self-published), 2001 May. ISBN 978-4-938743-02-4; ISBN 4-938743-02-7; Re-published in 2010 April by Shunjūsha (春秋社?) ISBN 978-4-393-74151-1.
  • 2009 Iroha Kakumei Uta (いろは革命歌?, Iroha Revolutionary Verses), Fukuoka, Masanobu's hand-written classical song-verses and drawings. Bilingual Japanese and English ISBN 978-4-938743-03-1; ISBN 4-938743-03-5.

Journals and papers


  • 'To Live on Earth - Fukuoka Masanobu visits India'. Director: Imaizumi, Koji. SALBONG発行, Japan 1997.

See also


  1. ^ Gammage, Bill (2005), "'...far more happier than we Europeans': Aborigines and farmers" (PDF), London Papers in Australian Studies (formerly Working Papers in Australian Studies) (Menzies Centre for Australian Studies. King's College.) (12): 1–27, ISSN 1746-1774,, retrieved 23 November 2010 
  2. ^ Sustainable Agriculture: Definition and Terms. Special Reference Briefs Series no. SRB 99-02, September 1999. Compiled by: Mary V. Gold, Alternative Farming Systems Information Center, US Department of Agriculture
  3. ^ Setboonsarng, S. and Gilman, J. 1999. Alternative Agriculture in Thailand and Japan. HORIZON Communications, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. Online review version (Retrieved 8 March 2011).
  4. ^ a b What does Natural Farming mean? by Toyoda, Natsuko. Japan Spotlight, Nov. Dec. 2008.
  5. ^ (Japanese) NHK TV station appearances', 1976 earliest search result (Japanese only; Retrieved 30 November 2010)
  6. ^ a b Nurturing the soil, feeding the people: an introduction to sustainable agriculture, Scheewe W., Crust Foundation, INC, Phillipines.
  7. ^ 1992 (Japanese) わら一本の革命・総括編「神と自然と人の革命」 (English) 1996 translation The Ultimatum of God Nature The One-Straw Revolution A Recapitulation -page 2, quoting:
    In an instant I had become a different person. I sensed that, with the clearing of the dawn mist, I had been transformed completely, body and soul.
  8. ^ 2001 (Japanese) わら一本の革命 総括編 —粘土団子の旅— [(a title translate:) The One Straw Revolution: Recapitulation -Journeying [around Earth] with clay seed balls-] -biographical notes on page 271 -quoting:
    15 May 1937 Awakening in Yokohama city (昭和12年 5月 15日 横浜に於て開悟 自然農法の道一筋?)
    開悟 (Kaigo? To uncover enlightenment. Awakening.)
  9. ^ a b The 1988 Ramon Magsaysay Award for Public Service - "BIOGRAPHY of Masanobu Fukuoka"
  10. ^ 1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-緑の哲学の理論と実践 (English) 1985 translation -updated 1987 The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green Philosophy -pages 132 and 190-216 - page 132 quoting:
    There is a fundamental difference between nature and the doctrine of laissez-faire or non-intervention. Laissez-faire is the abandoning of nature by man after he has altered it, such as leaving a pine tree untended after it has been transplanted in a garden and pruned, or suddenly letting a calf out to pasture in a mountain meadow after raising it on formula milk.
  11. ^ 1992 (Japanese) わら一本の革命・総括編「神と自然と人の革命」 (English) 1996 translation The Ultimatum of God Nature The One-Straw Revolution A Recapitulation -pages 5, 50, 97-8, 206-208 - page 98 quoting:
    To put it very briefly, my theory is that human knowledge and actions have destroyed nature, and thus, if we abandon them and leave nature to nature, nature will recover on its own. This does not, however, mean nonintervention.
  12. ^ a b 1984 (Japanese) 自然に還る (English) 1987 translation The Road Back to Nature: Regaining the Paradise Lost
  13. ^ (Japanese) World Expo Aichi Japan 2005 appearance - official web page for his session in 2005 Aug 4. (Japanese only; Retrieved 30 November 2010)
  14. ^ (Japanese) A translation: 'Mind-times' ~ Religion・Life こころの時代~宗教・人生 television interview between Fukuoka Masanobu and Kanamitsu Toshio (金光寿郎?) on the topic: Journey around the world with Clay seed balls
  15. ^ 1975 (Japanese) 自然農法-わら一本の革命 (English) 1978 re-presentation The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming –"Translator's Notes" page xxvii, quoting example part:
    The translation of The One-Straw Revolution was begun at Mr. Fukuoka's farm, and under his supervision in Spring, 1976. It is not a verbatim translation. Sections of other works by Mr. Fukuoka, as well as parts of conversations with him, have been included in the text.
  16. ^ Linking foresight and sustainability: An integral approach Joshua Floyd, Kipling Zubevich Strategic Foresight Program and National Centre for Sustainability, Swinburne University of Technology
  17. ^ Agriculture: A Fundamental Principle, Hanley Paul. Journal of Bahá’í Studies Vol. 3, number 1, 1990.
  18. ^ From the ground up: rethinking industrial agriculture By Helena Norberg-Hodge, Peter Goering, John Page, International Society for Ecology and Culture
  19. ^ Sustainable Agriculture: A Vision for Future by Desai, B.K. and B.T.Pujari. New India Publishing, 2007
  20. ^ "Seed Bombs: A Guide to Their Various Forms and Functions. On Guerilla (English) (Retrieved 25 may 2011)
  21. ^ a b "Japanese Farmer-Philosopher Masanobu Fukuoka: Natural Farming Greening the Deserts" Japan for Sustainability Newsletter 2006 May. (English) –Japanese page. (Retrieved 5 January 2011)
  22. ^ "The 1988 Ramon Magsaysay Award for Public Service - CITATION for Masanobu Fukuoka
  23. ^ The 1988 Ramon Magsaysay Award for Public Service. "RESPONSE of Masanobu Fukuoka 31 August 1988". The Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation website. (Retrieved 15 December 2010)."In electing Masanobu Fukuoka to receive the 1988 Ramon Magsaysay Award for Public Service, the Board of Trustees recognizes his demonstration to small farmers everywhere that natural farming offers a practical, environmentally safe, and bountiful alternative to modern commercial practices and their harmful consequences".
  24. ^ (Japanese) Earth Council Awards 1997 Japan - Japanese Government Environment department website press release (Japanese only; Retrieved 30 November 2010)
  25. ^ "Rockefeller Brothers Fund - 1998 Grants made in 1998"" (2003 archive). "As a contribution toward the publication of a textbook, 'Natural Farming - How to Make Clayballs'."
  26. ^ a b c d Kato, Sadamichi (2003), "'Body and Earth Are Not Two' : Kawaguchi Yoshikazu's NATURAL FARMING and American Agriculture Writers" (PDF), 言語文化論集 (名古屋大学大学院国際言語文化研究科) 25 (1): 23–30, ISSN 0388-6824,, retrieved 9 May 2011 
  27. ^ The Economics of Organic Farming: An International Perspective, edited by N. H. Lampkin, S. Padel, p. 12. University of California. CAB International, 1994. ISBN 085198911X
  28. ^ a b Farmer Philosopher Masanobu Fukuoka (1) Humans must Strive to Know the Unknown
  29. ^ Akinori Kimura's "Miracle Apples"(Retrieved 30 November 2010)
  30. ^ Pruning the past, shaping the future: David Mas Masumoto and organic nothingness Chou, Shiuh-huah Serena. MELUS, June 22, 2009
  31. ^ Mollison, Bill (15–21 September 1978). "The One-Straw Revolution by Masanobu Fukuoka - book review". Nation Review: p. 18. 
  32. ^ The Earth Care Manual: A Permaculture Handbook For Britain & Other Temperate Climates. Whitefield, Patrick, Permanent Publications, July 2004. 'The work of the Japanese farmer, scientist and sage Masanobu Fukuoka has been very infliential in the permaculture movement worldwide.'
  33. ^ Natsuko, Toyoda. 'Humans must strive to know the unknown'
  34. ^ Katai, Minamizono; Shiose; Kawakami, Takayuki (2007), "System design of "Ba"-like stages for improvisational acts via Leibnizian space–time and Peirce’s existential graph concept." (PDF), AI & SOCIETY (Springer-Verlag London Ltd) 22 (2): 101–112, doi:10.1007/s00146-007-0125-2,, retrieved 9 May 2011 
  35. ^ The Power to Change: Rebuilding Sustainable Livelihoods in North-East Thailand. Parnwell, Michael J.G. Department of East Asian Studies, University of Leeds, UK
  36. ^ Conservation Agriculture: Impact on farmers’ livelihoods, labour, mechanization and equipment. FRIEDRICH, THEODOR and KIENZLE, JOSEF
  37. ^ (Japanese) Esu Coop Osaka exchange visit to Fukuoka Masanobu's son's family's nature farm (blog page posted 2004 Dec)
  38. ^ a b c (Japanese) A translation: Forest's Philosophy - Toward a new philosophy of religion. Quarterly Buddhism, No. 28, 1994 July. ISBN 9784831802286
  39. ^ (Japanese) Japan's nature model farming for more than 30 years. TERRE issue No. 12 2007
  40. ^ (Japanese) Elder Mr. Fukuoka meeting again with owner of Mahoroba Natural Foods store (Japanese only; Retrieved 30 November 2010)
  41. ^ Picture of: Fukuoka, Masanobu 1964 Mu 1-The God Revolution translated by Alfred Birnbaum. Japan. -from

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