- Turtle (robot)
Turtles are a class of educational
robots designed originally in the late 1940s (largely under the auspices of researcher William Grey Walter) and used in computer scienceand mechanical engineeringtraining. These devices are traditionally built low to the ground with a roughly hemispheric (sometimes transparent) shell and a power train capable of a very small turning radius. The robots are often equipped with sensordevices which aid in avoiding obstacles and, if the robot is sufficiently sophisticated, allow it some perception of its environment. Turtle robots are commercially available and are common projects for robotics hobbyists.
Turtle robots are closely associated with the work of
Seymour Papertand the common use of the Logo programming languagein computer education of the 1980s. Turtles specifically designed for use with Logo systems often come with pen mechanisms allowing the programmer to create a design on a large sheet of paper. The original Logo turtle, built by Paul Wexelblat at BBN, was named "Irving" and was demonstrated at the former Muzzey Junior High in Lexington, Massachusetts. [http://www.erzwiss.uni-hamburg.de/Sonstiges/Logo/logofaqx.htm#FAQ2] "Irving" contained bumpsensors and could give audio feedback with a bell. The development of the robotic Logo turtle led to the use of the term to describe the cursorin video screen implementations of the language and its turtle graphicspackage.
BEAM robotics, the branch of robotics pioneered in part by William Grey Walter, specializing in autonomous devices using simple analog control systems
iRobot Createand its predecessor Roomba, turtle-like robots originally designed for domestic use
Player Project, a free robotics suite.
Curses (computer game), an interactive fictiongame by Graham Nelsonthat includes a voice-operated turtle in one of its more difficult puzzles
Unicycle cart, for a mathematical model of the dynamics of a turtle robot
* [http://www.extremenxt.com/walter.htm Photo gallery of Walter's original turtles and a Lego-based replica]
* [http://www.ias.uwe.ac.uk/Robots/gwonline/gwonline.html Pictures and information] about early UK analog turtle designs from the
Bristol Robotics Laboratory
* [http://el.media.mit.edu/logo-foundation/logo/turtle.html] [http://llk.media.mit.edu/projects/circles/turtles.html] Some histories of the Logo turtle and its transition from robot to screen object
* [http://www.terrapinlogo.com Terrapin Logo] , a company that specializes in the Logo language, including turtle robots integrated with the language
* [http://www.restena.lu/convict/Jeunes/logi.htm Example homebrew turtle design controlled by a very small onboard subset of Logo]
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