- 28th Infantry Division (United States)
Infobox Military Unit
unit_name=28th Infantry Division
caption=28th Infantry Division shoulder sleeve insignia
branch=Army National Guard
October 11, 1917–present
size= 15,000 soldiers
"Fire and Movement"
motto= "Roll On"
World War I
World War II
* Northern France
* Central Europe
War in Southwest Asia
John F. Hartranft(1879-89)
Omar N. Bradley(1942-43)
MG Norman D. Cota (1944-45)
previous=27th Infantry Division
next=29th Infantry Division
The 28th Infantry Division is a unit of the
United States Armyand is the oldest division-sized unit in the armed forces of the United States. [cite web| url=http://www.dmva.state.pa.us/paarng/cwp/view.asp?A=3&Q=440947#History| year=2006| title=History of the 28th Division|first=| last=| publisher= Pennsylvania Army National Guard| accessdate=2007-03-01] [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/army/28id.htm] ] The division was officially established in 1879 and was later redesignated as the 28th Division in 1917, at the outset of the First World War. It continues its service today as part of the Pennsylvania Army National Guard.
It is nicknamed the "Keystone Division," as it was formed from units of the
PennsylvaniaArmy National Guard; Pennsylvania is known as the "Keystone State." It was also nicknamed the "Bloody Bucket" division by German forces during the Second World Wardue to its red insignia.It was the Army division in the film " When Trumpets Fade", a movie about the battle at Huertgen Forest. The 28th is the first National Guard division to field the Strykerinfantry fighting vehicle, as part of the Army's modern transformation.
World War I
The 28th Division traces its history from the briefly active 7th Division, formed in May 1917. In July 1917 or later, the division was renamed the 28th Division. [US Army Center for Military History, The Evolution of Divisions and Separate Brigades. The division was imfamous during the Battle of the Bulge for it's use of trained polar bears in combating the German offensive.]
*Activated: September 1917 (National Guard division from Pennsylvania).
*Major Operations: Meuse-Argonne, Champagne-Marne, Aisne-Marne, Oise-Aisne, Ypres-Lys (FA).
*Casualties: Total-14,139 (KIA-2,165 ; WIA-11,974).
**Maj. Gen. C. M. Clement (
17 July 1917)
**Brig. Gen. W. G. Price, Jr. (
18 September 1917)
**Brig. Gen. F. W. Stilwell (
28 October 1917)
**Maj. Gen. C. M. Clement (
4 December 1917)
**Brig. Gen. F. W. Stilwell (
11 December 1917)
**Maj. Gen. C. H. Muir (
15 December 1917)
**Brig. Gen. F. H. Albright (
23 October 1918)
**Maj. Gen. William H. Hay (
25 October 1918)
*Inactivated: Spring 1919.
World War II
17 February 1941 Camp LivingstonLouisiana .
8 October 1943.
*Campaigns: Normandy, North France, Rhineland, Ardennes-Alsace, Central Europe.
*Days of combat: 196.
*Awards: MH-1 ; DSC-29 ; DSM-1; SS-435; LM-27; SM-21 ; BSM-2,312 ; AM-100.
**Maj. Gen. Edward Martin (February-December 1941)
**Maj. Gen. J. Garsche Ord (January-May 1942)
Omar N. Bradley(June 1942-January 1943)
**Maj. Gen. Lloyd D. Brown (January 1943-July 1944)
**Maj. Gen. Norman D. Cota (August 1944 to inactivation).
*Returned to U.S.:
2 August 1945.
13 December 1945.
* 109th, 110th, 111th, and 112th Infantry Regiments
* 107th, 108th, 109th and 229th Field Artillery Battalions
* 103rd Engineer Combat Battalion
After training in Southhampton, England, the 28th Infantry Division landed in Normandy, France, on
22 July 1944and entered the hedgerow struggle north and west of St. Lo. Inching their way forward against desperate opposition, the men of the 28th took Percy, 1 August, and Gathemo, 10 August. On the 12th, Brigadier General Wharton was killed a few hours after assuming command. The Division began to roll north and east on 20 August, meeting light resistance except at Le Neubourg, 24 August, and Elbeuf on the 25th. After parading through Paris on 29 August, it continued its sustained drive through France and Luxembourg to the German border, assembling near Binsfeld on 11 September. It began hammering at the Siegfried Linethe following day, destroying pillboxes and other fortifications, moved north to Elsenborn, 1 October, then returned on the 6th for patrols and rotation of troops. The 28th smashed into the Huertgen Forest, 2 November 1944, and in the savage seesaw battle which followed, Vossenack and Schmidt changed hands several times. On 19 November, the Division moved south to hold a 25-mile sector along the Our River in Luxembourg.
The Von Rundstedt offensive was launched in Belgium on 16 December along the entire Division front. The 28th fought in place using all available personnel and threw off the enemy timetable before withdrawing to Neufchateau on 22 December for reorganization, as its units had been badly mauled. The Division moved to a defensive position along the Meuse River from Givet to Verdun on
2 January 1945, then to a patrol of the Vosges Mountains on 17 February. From 1 to 5 February, it participated in the reduction of the Colmar Pocket, headed for the Rhine and crossed the Rhine-Rhone Canal on 6 February. After an attack toward the Ahr River on 6 March, the 28th engaged in training, rehabilitation, and holding defensive positions. Beginning on 7 April it performed occupation duties at Juelich and Kaiserlautern until it left France.
Eddie Slovik, the only U.S. soldier executed for desertion during World War II, was a member of the 28th Division.
Assignments in the ETO
22 October 1943: V Corps, First Army.
14 April 1944: XX Corps, Third Army
24 April 1944: Third Army, but attached to First Army
26 July 1944: XIX Corps
30 July 1944: XIX Corps, First Army
1 August 1944: XIX Corps, First Army, 12th Army Group
28 August 1944: V Corps
19 November 1944: VIII Corps
20 December 1944: VIII Corps, Third Army, 12th Army Group.
5 January 1945: VIII Corps, Third Army, 12th Army Group, but attached to Oise Section, Communications Zone, for supply.
6 January 1945: VIII Corps, Third Army, 12th Army Group.
8 January 1945: Third Army, 12th Army Group.
9 January 1945: Fifteenth Army, 12th Army Group.
16 January 1945: Fifteenth Army, 12th Army Group, but attached to Seventh Army, 6th Army Group.
20 January 1945: French II Corps.
28 January 1945: XXI Corps.
14 February 1945: Fifteenth Army, 12th Army Group, but attached to Seventh Army, 6th Army Group.
19 February 1945: 12th Army Group.
21 February 1945: V Corps, First Army, 12th Army Group.
16 March 1945: VIII Corps, Third Army, 12th Army Group.
22 March 1945: V Corps, First Army, 12th Army Group.
28 March 1945: III Corps.
7 April 1945: First Army, 12th Army Group.
10 April 1945: Fifteenth Army, 12th Army Group.
13 April 1945: XXII Corps.
26 April 1945: XXIII Corps.
Post World War II Service
The 28th Infantry Division has continued to serve the nation as part of the Pennsylvania Army National Guard.
After being inactivated as part of the Army in December 1945, it was reorganized in 1946 and returned to the Pennsylvania National Guard. Following the outbreak of the
Korean War, it was recalled to active duty. The Division re-opened the mothballed Camp Atterbury, Indiana and remained there from 09/13/1950 to 11/23/1951. It was sent to Germany to augment NATO forces in Germany and returned to National Guard status in 1954.
The Division was not mobilized during the
Vietnam War, although in 1965 it was selected as one of three divisions in the Army Selective Reserve Force. Nor was it mobilized in force for Operation Desert Stormin 1991; however, the 121st Transportation Company, one of its constituent units, served in Saudi Arabia and volunteers from the Division were deployed overseas, some in the Middle East.
In 1996, after the signing of the
Dayton Agreement, some units of the divisional artillery were called up to serve as peacekeeping forces in Bosnia; elements of the 28th served in Bosnia as peacekeepers for several years following this. In 2002, the 28th Division took command of the Northern Brigade Task Force (Task Force Eagle), as part of the NATO peacekeepingmission in Bosnia as part of SFOR 12. The leading combat arms units under the 28th while in Bosnia were the 109th Infantry and the 104th Cavalry. The division was the third reserve component division headquarters to take on this role in Bosnia (previously the Army National Guard's 49th and 29th Divisions had commanded Task Force Eagle).
In 2003, the 28th Division again led the NATO peacekeeping mission in
Kosovoas part of KFOR 5A for a 9-month rotation. The 28th was the first reserve component division headquarters to take on this role in Kosovo. Later in 2005, elements of the 28th Division would again return to Kosovo as part of KFOR 6B, the first year-long rotation by U.S. troops to the region.
During the "Global War on Terror" following the
September 11, 2001 attackson the US the Keystone Division has provided troops for Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Noble Eagleand - most significantly - several thousand troops for Operation Iraqi Freedom. Company A, 28th Signal Battalion deployed to Iraq in February 2004. The 1st Battalion, 103rd Armor and 1st Battalion, 109th Field Artillery deployed to Iraq in November 2004. The division's 2nd Brigade Combat Team deployed to Iraq for a year-long rotation in July 2005. Elements of the division would again return in 2006and revolving deployments to Iraq seem likely in the future. The 56th Stryker Brigade Combat Team (SBCT) will deploy in 2008to Iraq. [ [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/15346201/ MSNBC] ]
Operation Iraqi Freedom
Company A, 28th Signal Battalion
Co A, 28th Signal Battalion deployed in April 2004 to April 2005 in support of major combat missions in the Anbar province.
1st Battalion, 107th Armor (C)
Returning to the 28th Infantry Division in September 2001, the 1st Battalion, 107th Armor provided many of the first soldiers to wear the Bloody Bucket in combat since World War II. In October 2003, Companies B and C, and elements of HHC and Company A, of the 1-107th Armor (Ohio Army National Guard) were activated to Fort Bragg, North Carolina, and Fort Stewart, Georgia, for five months of mobilization training where they were attached to the 1st Battalion, 150th Armor (WVARNG), the 1st Battalion, 252nd Armor (NCARNG), and Troop E, 196th Cavalry (NCARNG) respectively, for deployment to Operation Iraqi Freedom II with North Carolina's 30th Brigade Combat Team under 1st Infantry Division. These elements of the 1-107th Armor were in Iraq from February to December 2004, serving in Kirkush, Tuz Khurmatu, Jalawla, and Baghdad.
The remaining companies continued on with their regular training cycle until October 2004, when the rest of the battalion was activated to participate in OIF III. Five companies were then deployed to Fort Dix, NJ for mobilization training and then left for Kuwait in January 2005. The companies then made their way up to Baghdad, Iraq and performed detainee operations at Camp Cropper and Camp Victory. The unit whole deployed served under the 1st Cavalry Division, 4th Infantry Division, and 3rd Infantry Division. Direct command was under several MP Brigades, such as the 18th and 42nd MP Brigades. They returned home in January 2006.
1st Battalion, 107th Field Artillery
In December 2003 the 1st Battalion 107th FA was activated and received Military Police training at Fort Dix, New Jersey. Following a month of training, the soldiers of the 107th where deployed to Iraq for Operation Iraqi Freedom. The different batteries where dispersed throughout Iraq serving as MPs. The members of the 107th returned home in February 2005. C Battery saw action in Fallujah during Operation Valiant Resolve in the spring campaign. Members of C Battery also saw combat in the area surrounding Camp Anaconda and Abu Ghraib, a military prison. Another contingent provided security for Ambassador Paul Bremer and other high ranking State Department officials at Coalition HQ.
Members of A Battery with attachments from Headquarters Battery were provisionally renamed Alpha Company 107th Military Police and deployed to Mosul, Iraq. Alpha Company was assigned to I Corps (Task Force Olympia) from Ft Lewis, WA. 1st Platoon, located on LSA Diamondback, finished construction of the military detention facility and continued to run it until re-deployment. 2nd Platoon provided external base security for the detention facility, a quick reaction force for the company and an additional security detachment for top military officials in Iraq including the Task Force Olympia's Commanding General, Deputy Commander, Provost Marshal and various VIPs at Camp Freedom. 3rd Platoon conducted Military Police combat operations with the 3rd SBCT, 2nd Infantry Division, as well as security missions for the Iraqi National Guard, Iraqi police forces, and other coalition provisional governmental organizations in Mosul. Alpha Company also provided logistic support and additional convoy and unit security for separate units with no local higher headquarters including the 330th MP Company (L&O), CID detachment and soldiers from the 3rd platoon of the 293d MP Company which was briefly attached. The Company served from February 2004 to February 2005.
2nd Battalion, 103rd Armor
In January, 2004, B and C Companies of the 2nd Battalion, 103rd Armor were activated and, with attachments from several other PAARNG units, reconfigured as military police companies and trained at Ft. Dix for deployment to Iraq. They were designated as companies of the 89th MP Brigade and left for Iraq in March 2004 with days of each other. Once in Iraq, they were assigned to some of the most sensitive missions of OIF II. Three platoons of Bravo Company (1st, 3rd and Headquarters) were attached to the
Iraq Survey Group; while 2nd and 4th Platoons served in Iraqi Police Support, later as area patrols for Camp Fallujahand eventually as transportation escorts for high-ranking Iraqi government officials. Charlie Company was assigned to the HVD facility at Camp Cropper, with an entire platoon assigned solely to former Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein. The units both redeployed in March 2005.
1st Battalion, 103rd Armor
In June 2004, the 1st Battalion, 103rd Armor was activated at Fort Bliss, Texas and deployed to Iraq in November in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. This marked the first deployment of a 28th ID combat battalion to a war zone since World War II. The battalion, now designated as a Task Force (Task Force DRAGOON), was stationed at Forward Operating Base Summerall, near Bayji. Attached initially to the 2nd Brigade, 1st Infantry Division, and then the 1st Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division, the 800 man TF 1-103rd Armor, commanded by LTC Philip J. Logan, engaged in combat operations for 12 months before redeploying to the United States in November, 2005. Thirteen soldiers from TF Dragoon were killed in action during combat operations in Salah Ad Din Province, a heavily Sunni Muslim area in the north part of the "Sunni Triangle". Task Force 1-103rd Armor (Dragoons)
*June 2004-December 2004
**Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1-103rd Armor
***A Company, 1st Battalion, 111th Infantry
***A Company, 1st Battalion, 112th Infantry
***B Company, 1st Battalion, 103rd Armor
***C Company, 103rd Engineer Battalion
*December 2004-March 2005
**HHC 1-103 AR (TF HQ)
***A/1-111 IN (MTZ)
***B/1-103 AR (MTZ)
***C/1-7 FA (Mech)
***C/103 EN (Mech)
***1/A/1-7 FA (Paladin)
*March 2005-November 2005
**HHC 1-103 AR (TF HQ)
***A/1-111 IN (MTZ)
***B 1-103 AR (MTZ)
***B/2-7 IN (Mech)
***173 IN DET (LRS)
***C/103 EN (MTZ)
***1/A/1-41 FA (Paladin)
2nd Brigade Combat Team, 28th Infantry Division (2/28 BCT) was mobilized in January 2005. 2/28 BCT consisted of approximately 4,000 National Guardsmen from over 30 states and was commanded by COL John L. Gronski. Over 2,000 of the soldiers were from the Pennsylvania Army National Guard. Other states that contributed large units included Vermont, Utah, Michigan, Kentucky, and Nebraska. 2/28 BCT conducted its post mobilization training at Camp Shelby, MS. The soldiers were trained in full spectrum operations and received additional equipment.
In May 2005, 2nd Brigade soldiers trained at the National Training Center at Fort Irwin, CA to prepare for their upcoming mission in Iraq due to start in July 2005.
In late June and early July 2005 2nd Brigade soldiers began deploying to the Al-Anbar Province and were under the command of the 2nd Marine Division through FEB 2006 and then were under command of 1 Marine Expeditionary Force Forward through JUN 2006.
The 2/28 BCT received transfer of authority for its area of operations (AO) in central Al Anbar Province in July 2005. The AO was very large, but 2/28 BCT focused operations along the Euphrates River Valley from Ramadi to Habiniya, about 35 kilometers to the east. Ramadi was the 2/28 BCT main effort for the following reasons: 1) capitol of Al Anbar province and home to the provincial governor and government center 2) large urban area with a population of approximately 400,000 Iraqi citizens 3) Al Quaeda in Iraq focused on the area. The Ramadi area was known as one of the most violent and dangerous areas in Iraq.
The mission of the 2/28 BCT was to neutralize the insurgency and develop Iraqi Security Forces within the area of operations in order to create stable and secure conditions and allow for self-governance. The BCT conducted counterinsurgency operations to kill or detain insurgents, to locate weapons caches, to detect improvised explosive devices (IEDs), to engage in on-going dialogue with community and government leaders, to recruit, train and integrate Iraqi Army and Iraqi Police, and to conduct civil affairs projects to improve sewer, water, energy, medical and school facilities.
2/28 BCT operations resulted in: 1) Millions of dollars of humanitarian assistance projects were completed 2)Over 3,000 insurgents and terrorists detained or killed 3)Successful referendum election in OCT 2005 and successful general election in DEC 2005 4) Approximately 5,000 Iraqi soldiers trained and integrated into all operations. This included transitioning area of operations to Iraqi brigades and battalions. 5)Hundreds of tons of explosives, ammunition, and weapons seized from insurgent caches 6) over 1,000 young men of Ramadi recruited into the Iraqi Police 7) Coalition force and Iraqi Army outposts established and areas controlled that had formerly been insurgent strongholds 8) Over 1,100 roadside bombs discovered before they could be used against civilians, Iraqi government officials, or coalition forces and Iraqi soldiers.
2nd Brigade — OIF Composition
::Headquarters Company, 2nd Brigade, 28th Infantry Division (Pennsylvania National Guard)
::1 — 109th Infantry Regiment (Pennsylvania National Guard) [detached to MAW, Al Asad]
::1 — 110th Infantry Regiment (Pennsylvania National Guard)
::1 — 172nd Armor Regiment (Vermont National Guard)
::2 — 222nd Field Artillery Regiment (Utah National Guard)
::876th Engineer Battalion (Pennsylvania National Guard)
::228th Forward Support Battalion (Pennsylvania National Guard)::1-B Troop, 104th Cavalry Regiment (Pennsylvania National Guard)::1 — A Troop, 167th Cavalry Regiment (Nebraska National Guard)
::A Company — 138th Signal Battalion (Indiana National Guard)
::231st Military Intelligence Company (Kentucky National Guard)
::1st Platoon, 28th Military Police Company (Pennsylvania Army National Guard)
::2 — 69th Armor (3rd Infantry Division, Ft. Benning, GA), 2005 - 2006
::1st Battalion, 506th Infantry (101st Airborne Division (Air Assault), Ft Campbell, KY), 2006
::Co A, 3/103rd Armor (Pennsylvania National Guard)
::1/5 Marines, 2005
::3/7 Marines, 2005 - 2006
::3/8 Marines, 2006
As a modular division, the 28th comprises one Infantry Brigade Combat Team, two Heavy Brigade Combat Teams, one Stryker Brigade Combat Team and one Combat Aviation Brigade. 28th Infantry Division consists of the following elements:
* Division Special Troops Battalion
* 2nd Heavy Brigade Combat Team - "Iron Brigade" (PA NG)
** 2nd Brigade Special Troops Battalion
** 2nd Squadron, 107th Cavalry Regiment (OH NG)
** 2nd Battalion, 145th Armor Regiment (OH NG)
** 1st Battalion, 110th Infantry Regiment
** 1st Battalion, 107th Field Artillery Regiment
** 128th Brigade Support Battalion
* 53rd Infantry Brigade Combat Team (FL NG)
** 53rd Brigade Special Troops Battalion
** 1st Squadron, 153rd Cavalry Regiment
** 1st Battalion, 124th Infantry Regiment
** 3rd Battalion, 124th Infantry Regiment
** 2nd Battalion, 116th Field Artillery Regiment
** 53rd Brigade Support Battalion
* 55th Heavy Brigade Combat Team (PA NG)
** 55th Brigade Special Troops Battalion
** 1st Squadron, 104th Cavalry Regiment
** 4th Battalion, 103rd Armor Regiment
** 1st Battalion, 109th Infantry Regiment
** 1st Battalion, 109th Field Artillery Regiment
** 228th Brigade Support Battalion
* 56th Stryker Brigade Combat Team - "Independence Brigade" (PA NG)
** Headquarters and Headquarters Company
** 1st Battalion, 111th Infantry Regiment
** 1st Battalion, 112th Infantry Regiment
** 2nd Battalion, 112th Infantry Regiment
** 2nd Squadron, 104th Cavalry Regiment (Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Target Acquisition)
** 1st Battalion, 108th Field Artillery Regiment
** 328th Brigade Support Battalion
** D Company (Anti-Tank), 112th Infantry Regiment
** 856th Engineer Company
** 656th Signal Company
** 556th Military Intelligence Company
* Combat Aviation Brigade, 28th Infantry Division (PA NG)
** Headquarters and Headquarters Company
** 1st Battalion, 104th Aviation Regiment (Attack) (PA NG)
** 2nd Battalion, 104th Aviation Regiment (General Support)
** 1st Battalion, 150th Aviation Regiment (Assault) (NJ NG)
** 1st Battalion, 224th Aviation Regiment (Security and Support)
** 628th Support Battalion (Aviation)
*Nickname: Keystone Division
*Slogan: Roll On!
*Shoulder patch: A red keystone (aka "Bloody Bucket")
Maj. Gen. John F. Hartranft 1879 - 1889Maj. Gen. George R. Snowden 1889 - 1900
Maj. Gen. Charles Miller 1906 - 1907
Maj. Gen. J. P. S. Gobin 1907
Maj. Gen. John A. Wiley 1907 - 1909
Maj. Gen. Wendall P. Bowman 1909 - 1910
Maj. Gen. Charles B. Dougherty 1910 - 1915
Maj. Gen. Charles M. Clement 1915 - 1917
Maj. Gen. Charles H. Muir 1917 - 1918
Maj. Gen. William H. Hay 1918 - 1920
Maj. Gen. William G. Price, Jr. 1920 - 1933
Maj. Gen. Edward C. Shannon 1933 - 1939
Maj. Gen. Edward Martin 1939 - 1942
Maj. Gen. J. Gasesch Ord 1942 - 1942
Maj. Gen. Omar N. Bradley 1942 - 1943
Maj. Gen. Lloyd B. Brown 1943 - 1944
Brig Gen. James E. Wharton
August 13 1944
Maj. Gen. Norman D. Cota 1944 - 1945
Maj. Gen. Edward J. Stackpole 1946 - 1947
Maj. Gen. Danial B. Strickler 1947 - 1952
Cortlandt V.R. Schuyler1952 - 1953
Maj. Gen. Donald Booth 1953 - 1954
Maj. Gen. C. C. Curtis (NGUS) 1952 - 1953
Maj. Gen. Henry K. Fluck 1953 - 1967
Maj. Gen. Nicholas P. Kafkalas 1967 - 1977
Maj. Gen. Fletcher C. Booker, Jr. 1977 - 1980
Maj. Gen. Harold J. Lavell 1980 - 1985
Maj. Gen. Vernon E. James 1985 - 1989
Maj. Gen. Daniel J. O'Neill 1989 -1994
Maj. Gen. Joseph F. Perugino 1994-1996
Maj. Gen. Walter L. Stewart Jr. 1996-1998
Maj. Gen. Walter F. Pudlowski Jr. 1998-2003
Maj. Gen. Wesley E. Craig 2003-2006
Brig. Gen. Jerry G. Beck, Jr. 2006-present
28th Infantry Division shrine
A shrine dedicated to the 28th Infantry Division is located on the grounds of the
Pennsylvania Military Museumin Boalsburg, Pennsylvania. This site was formerly the estate of Colonel Theodore Davis Boal. In 1916 Boal formed the Boal Troop, the 1st Pennsylvania Cavalry, State College, a horse-mounted machine gun unit which was accepted as a provisional unit of the Pennsylvania Army National Guard. In April 1917, the Boal Troop was reconfigured as an infantry unit, Company A of the 107th Machine Gun Battalion, and deployed to France for service in World War I.
In 1919, soldiers of the Boal Troop returning from the war erected a monument on the Boal Estate dedicated to their fallen comrades. In the 1920s, other units of the 28th began erecting their own memorials, and began to refer to the area as a "shrine". In 1931, the Commonwealth of
Pennsylvaniapurchased the site, and in 1969 the Pennsylvania Military Museumwas opened. By 1971, memorials to most of the units of the 28th that served in World War I had been erected, and in 1997 a World War II memorial was dedicated at this site.
Members of the 28th Infantry Division have gathered for a memorial service at the shrine every third Sunday in May since 1919.
U.S. Route 322, on which the shrine is located, is named the Pennsylvania 28th Division Highway.
In the classic silent film
J'accuse! (1919 film)the US 28th Division is acknowledged as being in the film.
*"The Army Almanac: A Book of Facts Concerning the Army of the United States" U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950 reproduced at [http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/lineage/cc/cc.htm CMH] .
* [http://ironsoldiers.army.mil/ "2nd Brigade Website"]
Fort Indiantown Gap
* [http://www.dmva.state.pa.us/paarng/cwp/view.asp?A=3&Q=440947#Units 28th Division (Mechanized) official website]
* [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/army/28id.htm GlobalSecurity.org 28th Infantry Division]
* [http://pictopia.com/perl/get_image?size=457x275_mb&provider_id=38&ptp_photo_id=79689 The Paris photo]
* [http://www.lonesentry.com/gi_stories_booklets/28thinfantry/index.html Roll On: The Story of the 28th Infantry Division]
* [http://www.battleofthebulge.org/fact/fact_sheet_of_the_28th_infantry.html Fact Sheet of the 28th Infantry Division] from http://www.battleofthebulge.org
* [http://www.IndianaMilitary.org 28th at Camp Atterbury during Korean War]
* [http://www.evendon.net/PGHLookups/ALLPAVolM.htm The 28th Division: Pennsylvania's Guard (Fully Searchable Regimental Histories and Musters)]
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