- Lamian War
Infobox Military Conflict
Alexander the Greatdied.
combatant1= Athens and her allies
strength2=Greater than 30,000 men
The Lamian war (323–
322 BC) also called the Greek War, was a warin Greecebetween Athens, along with her allied city-states in mainland Greece, against Macedonian supreme rule and Antipater, regent in Macedonia and Greece. It was the last war in which the Athenians played a central part, and after they were defeated, Athenians lost their independence.
The revolt started after the news of
Alexander the Great’s death in Babylonreached Greece. Athens was incited to begin this war by the speeches of Leosthenesand Hyperides. Joined by cities in central and northern Greece, the Athenians defeated Antipaterin battle. They forced him to take refuge in Lamia, where he was besieged for several months by the Greek allies.
After being relieved by forces led by
Leonnatus, Antipater was eventually able to move from Lamia and return to Macedonia. There, reinforced by the arrival by sea of Craterus’ troops, he engaged the allies at the Battle of Crannon( 5 September 322 BC) in Thessaly.
That battle was a complete victory for Antipater. Soon after,
Demosthenescommitted suicide by poison and Hyperides was killed on Antipater’s orders. The outcome of the war was the suppression, for the moment, of Greek resistance to Macedonian domination. The Lamian War was concurrent with revolts in Cappadocia and the eastern domains of the empire, put down by Perdiccasand Eumenes, and Peithon, respectively.
In October 323, Athens and the Aetolian League fielded 30,000 men and seized Thermopylae, also managing to keep Antipater's army bottled up at Lamia; however, after the Aetolian League deserted the cause, the Athenians lost a major sea battle in 323 BCE, then suffered defeat on land, at the Battle of Crannon, Macedonia, in September 322. This left Athens no choice but to surrender unconditionally.
The cost to Athens was heavy: some of its most important leaders were executed, and the great orator-philosopher Demosthenes (ca. 385–322 BCE) committed suicide. Athens was saddled with a crippling indemnity and lost its democratic status, becoming an oligarchy. Piraeus, its principal port, was relinquished to Macedonian occupation.
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