Aboriginal peoples in Quebec

Aboriginal peoples in Quebec

Aboriginal peoples in Quebec total 11 distinct nations. The 10 Amerindian nations and the Inuit nations number 71,415 people and account for approximately 1% of the total population of Quebec, Canada.



The Inuit communities of Quebec are located in the northern most part of the province, in an area known as Nunavik. There are Inuit communities at:




The Abenakis comprise two First Nations communities named the Odanak First Nation (in Odanak, near Trois-Rivières) and the Wolinak First Nation (in Wôlinak, near Sorel). They number approximately 1,900 people.


The Algonquins, who refer to themselves as Anishinaabeg, comprise 9 First Nations who live in communities located in the Outaouais and Abitibi-Témiscamingue regions of Quebec. These First Nations communities are:

  • Abitibiwinni First Nation in Pikogan
  • Algonquins of Barriere Lake in Lac-Rapide
  • Eagle Village First Nation - Kipawa in Kebaowek
  • Kitcisakik First Nation in Grand-Lac-Victoria
  • Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg First Nation in Kitigan Zibi
  • Long Point First Nation in Winneway
  • Nation Anishinabe du Lac Simon in Lac-Simon
  • Timiskaming First Nation in Témiscamingue
  • Wolf Lake First Nation in Hunter's Point

The Algonquins number approximately 8,600 people.


The 3 Atikameks (sometimes Atikamekws) bands live in 4 communities located in the Mauricie region of Quebec. These First Nations are:

The Atikamek number approximately 4,900 people.


The Crees are the most populous nation in the Algonquian family. The majority live in Quebec and Ontario, but they are also found in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. There are 9 Cree First Nations communities in northern Quebec. They are the:

The Crees of Quebec number approximately 16,000 people.


The Malecites comprise one First Nation, the Première Nation Malecite de Viger, whose members live in 2 communities located in the Bas-St-Laurent region of Quebec. The communities are Cacouna and Whitworth. They number approximately 570 people.


The Micmac live in the Canadian maritimes and the Quebec region of Gaspesia. In Quebec, they number approximately 4,300 people and comprise 3 First Nations communities:

  • Gaspe First Nation in Gaspé
  • Gesgapegiag First Nation in Gesgapegiag
  • Listuguj Mi'kmaq First Nation in Listuguj


The Innus (formerly referred to as the Montagnais) comprise 9 First Nations in the Côte-Nord region of Quebec. These First Nations are:

  • Bande des Innus de Pessamit (also known as ‘Pessamit Innu Band’ or Betsiamites First Nation) in Betsiamites
  • La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John (also known as ‘Innu Nation of Matimekush-Lac John’) in Lac-John and Matimekosh
  • Innue Essipit (known also as Essipit First Nation or ‘Montagnais Essipit’) in Essipit
  • Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam in Maliotenam and Uashat
  • Les Innus de Ekuanitshit in Mingan
  • Montagnais du Lac St.-Jean (also known as ‘Première nation des Pekuakamiulnuatsh’ or ‘Ilnuatsh du Pekuakami’) in Mashteuiatsh
  • Montagnais de Natashquan in Natashquan
  • Montagnais de Pakua Shipi in Pakuashipi
  • Montagnais de Unamen Shipu in La Romaine

The Innus number 13,800 people.


The Naskapis live in northern Quebec. They comprise one First Nation, the Naskapi Nation of Kawawachikamach, based in Kawawachikamach. They number approximately 570 people.

The Naskapis are recognized as a distinct nation by the governments of Quebec and Canada; however, they are often considered to be Innus living in a remote area.

Their main language is Naskapis and their second language is English. The Naskapi committee is known as the NLMB (The Naskapi Local Management Board)



The members of the Huron-Wendat Nation in Wendake, a reserve enclosed within Quebec City. Their original homeland was in Ontario. They number about 2,800 people.


The Mohawks of Quebec number approximately 13,000 people. They comprise the three following First Nations:

Recognized rights

See also

External links

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