Heinrich Geißler


Heinrich Geißler

Infobox Scientist
name = Heinrich Geißler
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caption = Heinrich Geißler
birth_date = May 26 1814
birth_place = Igelshieb, Thuringia, Saxe-Meiningen
death_date = January 24 1879
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nationality = German
ethnicity =
field = physics
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known_for =Geissler tubes
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Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Geißler (May 26 1814 - January 24 1879) was a German physicist and inventor of the Geissler tube, a low pressure gas-discharge tube made of glass. He worked in his parent's business and worked later in different German universities.

Biography

Geißler was born 1814 in Igelshieb, Thuringia, Saxe-Meiningen (Germany). Educated by his father, he was a gifted glassblower (Glasbläserhandwerk)as well as an engineer. In 1850 he established a residence in Bonn. He opened a physics and chemistry apparatus workshop in 1852. By 1855 he had already participated in the world exhibition in Paris and received a gold medal (for what?). Particularly his instruments were praised; such as his thermometer, hypsometer (altimeter), vaporimeter as well as a hygrometer. Many orders came from the Bonn university and Geissler became a respected man. Together with the physicist Julius Plücker, he published a scientific paper in 1852 "studies in thermometry and related articles“. Geissler became famous for his inventions, which among other things, include the first glass thermometer capillary thermometer, the Geissler tube and the Geissler pump. His inventions are forerunners of modern fluorescent tube lightsphosphor lamps x-ray tubes and ultimately the cathode ray tube (TV). With his invention of low pressure gas-discharge tubes, he created the basis from which phosphor, X-ray, and spectral tubes could be investigated. It was universally recognized that he was the inventor of the Geissler tube and was, with Julius Plücker, a pioneer of electrical and vacuum engineering.He was called to the University of Bonn in 1868 where he taught until his death January 24, 1879..

Geissler tubes

Geißler is most remembered for the invention of sealed glass tubes (called "Geissler tubes") from which he demonstrated with Julius Plucker emission of a bluish glow by exciting the gas with an induction coil. It was not uncommon for these tubes to display elaborate and artistic shapes, adding much to the optical effect. The device can be regarded as an ancestor of the fluorescent lamp. It was improved by Sir William Crookes and is thus commonly called a "Crookes tube".

References and articles

;Publications
*Miller, H. A. (1945). "Luminous tube lighting, dealing with the principles of the luminous tube, with a summary of the materials and equipment involved, and technical data concerning discharge-tube light sources". London: G. Newnes.
*Kassabian, M. K. (1910). "Roentgen rays and electro-therapeutics: with chapters on radium and phototherapy". Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company.
* Davis, H. B. O. (1981). "Electrical and electronic technologies: a chronology of events and inventors to 1900". Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press.
* Phillips, C. E. S. (1897). "Bibliography of X-ray literature and research, 1896-1897: being a ready reference index to the literature on the subject of roentgen or X-rays". London: The Electrician Print. and Pub. Co.;General information
* [http://members.chello.nl/~h.dijkstra19/page6.html The Cathode Ray Tube site]

Persondata
NAME=Geißler, Heinrich
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=Geissler
SHORT DESCRIPTION=Physicist
DATE OF BIRTH=May 26, 1814
PLACE OF BIRTH=
DATE OF DEATH=January 24, 1879
PLACE OF DEATH=


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