- Hurricane Dora (1999)
Image location=Hurricane Dora 1999.gif
Formed=August 6, 1999
Dissipated=August 23, 1999
Hawaii, Johnston Atoll
1999 Pacific hurricane season
Hurricane Dora was the longest-lasting
tropical cycloneof the 1999 Pacific hurricane season. The fourth named storm, third hurricane, and second major hurricane of the season, Dora developed on August 6 from a tropical waveto the south of Mexico. It maintained a steady westward track for much of its lifetime, reaching peak winds of 140 mph (220 km/h) on August 12 and August 13. Dora lasted for a total of 17 days before dissipating on August 23 to the north of Wake Islandin the western Pacific Ocean.cite web|author=Miles B. Larwence|year=1999|title=NHC Report on Dora|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-11-27|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1999dora.html]
Although it never made landfall, Dora produced high surf, gale force winds and light rain across southeastern
Hawaiiand Johnston Island. There was no reported deaths or injuries from the hurricane.
The precursor of Dora was a
tropical wavethat moved off the coast of Africaon July 23. The system moved across the Atlantic Oceanwithout development, and on August 4 it crossed Central Americainto the eastern Pacific Oceanwith some disorganized convection. A low-level circulation developed the next day as banding features increased, and early on August 6 it became Tropical Depression Four-E while located about 335 miles (540 km) south of Acapulco. Despite some initial vertical wind shear, the depression steadily intensified, and received the name " Dora" by the National Hurricane Centerafter attaining tropical storm status late on August 6.cite web|author=Miles B. Larwence|year=1999|title=NHC Report on Dora|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-11-27|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1999dora.html]
Moving westward along a decaying
subtropical ridge, Dora steadily increased to hurricane status on August 8, based on estimates through the Dvorak technique. Weak wind shearahead of the storm and warm waters allowed continued strengthening as a small, well-defined eye formed. On August 12, Dora reached its peak intensity of 140 mph (220 km/h) as the barometric pressure dropped to a minimum of 943 mbar. Shortly after its peak intensity, Dora underwent an eyewall replacement cycle, resulting in a brief weakening before again restrengthening to winds of 140 mph (220 km/h) late on August 13. Dora never strengthened any further as the storm encountered cooler waters and light wind shear.cite web|author=Gary Padgett|title=Gary Padgett's report on Hurricane Dora|accessdate=2006-11-28|url=http://australiasevereweather.com/cyclones/2000/summ9908.txt] cite web|author=Beven|title=Hurricane Dora Tropical Discussion Archive #29|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-11-28|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/1999/dis/NEP0799.029.html]
Subsequent to peaking in intensity, Dora encountered cooler waters and increased wind shear. On August 14 it crossed into the central Pacific Ocean as a Category 2 hurricane on the
Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale; the duty of hurricane warnings were transferred from the National Hurricane Center to the Central Pacific Hurricane Center. Dora again encountered favorable conditions, and on August 15 re-intensified to major hurricane status as it passed 200 miles (320 km) south of Big Island, Hawaii. The secondary peak intensity was brief, as weakening occurred after the forward speed increased. Dora passed 65 miles (105 km) south of Johnston Islandon August 18 before turning west-northwest, and on August 19 it crossed the International Date Lineas a 70 mph (115 km/h) tropical storm; the Joint Typhoon Warning Centertracked the remainder of the duration of Dora. The storm encountered stronger wind shear, and by August 21 winds decreased to below tropical storm force. On August 23, the circulation became exposed from the main convection, and at 1800 UTCTropical Depression Dora dissipated about 450 miles (725 km) northeast of Wake Island.cite web|author=Beven|title=Hurricane Dora Tropical Discussion Archive #33|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-11-28|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/1999/dis/NEP0799.033.html]
Impact and records
On August 16, forecast models predicted Dora would bypass
Johnston Islanda short distance to the south, with some concerns of a direct hit on the island.cite web|author=Habuzel|title=Hurricane Dora Tropical Discussion Archive #44|publisher=Central Pacific Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-11-29|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/1999/dis/NEP0799.044.html] cite web|author=Habuzel|title=Hurricane Dora Tropical Discussion Archive #45|publisher=Central Pacific Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-11-29|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/1999/dis/NEP0799.045.html] cite web|author=Habuzel|title=Hurricane Dora Tropical Discussion Archive #46|publisher=Central Pacific Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-11-29|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/1999/dis/NEP0799.046.html] cite web|author=Habuzel|title=Hurricane Dora Tropical Discussion Archive #48|publisher=Central Pacific Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-11-29|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/1999/dis/NEP0799.048.html] As a result of the threat, about 1,200 workers and residents evacuated Johnston Atollto Hawaii. Prior to leaving, workers secured construction equipment and other loose items. Some biologists on Johnston Atollwere concerned that the hurricane would severely impact the reproductive cyclone of over 150,000 birds in the Johnston Atoll Wildlife Refuge, a concern expressed after Hurricane John in 1994 killed 80% of the bird population during its impact on Johnston Atoll. [cite web|author=Mary Adamski|year=1999|title=Hurricane evacuees start arriving in Hawaii|publisher=Star-Bulletin|accessdate=2007-04-20|url=http://starbulletin.com/1999/08/17/news/story3.html] Additionally, the Central Pacific Hurricane Center predicted Dora would strike Wake Islandas a minimal typhoon, though it did not occur.
An ocean swell from Dora produced 8 — 20 foot (2 — 6 m) waves along the east and southern shores of the island of Hawaii. This prompted local officials to close all beaches, campsites and
nature trails in the Puna and Kau districts due to the deteriorating conditions.cite web|author=National Climatic Data Center|year=1999|title=Event Report for Hawaii|accessdate=2007-07-17|url=http://www4.ncdc.noaa.gov/cgi-win/wwcgi.dll?wwevent~ShowEvent~354203] The outer rainbands produced produced winds of up to 60 mph (95 km/h) at some high elevations, and also resulted in some light rainfall.cite web|author=Central Pacific Hurricane Center|year=1999|title=The 1999 Central Pacific Hurricane Season|accessdate=2007-07-17|url=http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1999.php#dora] Hurricane Dora also produced rough surf on Johnston Island, with one forecaster remarking the surf was the most severe aspect of the storm. [cite web|author=Rosendal|title=Hurricane Dora Tropical Discussion Archive #50|publisher=Central Pacific Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-11-30|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/1999/dis/NEP0799.050.html] The automatic station at Johnston Atoll reported wind gusts between 40 — 45 mph (75 — 85 km/h) for two hours. Overall effects were minimal, and there were no reports of damage or injuries.
With a total track of 6,500 miles (10,500 km), Hurricane Dora had the second longest track of a
Pacific hurricane, behind only Hurricane John of 1994; the length of the track of Dora was more than four times the basin average. [cite web|author=Neal Dorst|year=2004|title=FAQ: What is the farthest a tropical cyclone has traveled|publisher=NOAA|accessdate=2007-04-23|url=http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/E7.html] Dora was also the first Pacific hurricaneto come close enough to be detected by radar. [cite web|author=Andy Nash|year=2003|title=Hurricane Jimema report|publisher=NOAA|accessdate=2007-04-23|url=http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/2003/jimena/jimena.php] In addition, the hurricane was the first tropical cyclone to move across all three Pacific basins since John in 1994.The name Dora was not retired, and was used again in 2005.
List of Pacific hurricanes
* [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1999dora.html Hurricane Dora Tropical Cyclone Report]
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