- ANZAC War Memorial
Infobox Military Memorial
name=ANZAC War Memorial
caption=ANZAC War Memorial, Hyde Park, Sydney
commemorates=the AIF dead of
World War I
24 November 1934
designer=C. Bruce Dellit
inscription=The ANZAC War Memorial, completed in 1934, is the main commemorative military monument of
Sydney, Australia. Designed by C. Bruce Dellit and with its exterior adorned with monumental figural reliefs and sculptures by Rayner Hoff, it is arguably the finest Art Decostructure in Australia.
The memorial is located at the southern extremity of Hyde Park on the eastern edge of Sydney's
central business district, and it is the focus of commemoration ceremonies on Anzac Day, Armistice Dayand other important occasions.
It was built as a memorial to the Australian Imperial Force of
World War I. Fund raising for a memorial began on 25 April 1916, the first anniversary of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) landing at Anzac Covefor the Battle of Gallipoli. [" [http://www.anzacday.org.au/education/tff/memorials/nsw.html ANZAC Memorial, Sydney] ", ANZAC Day Commemoration Committee (Qld) Incorporated, 1998.]
The building is constructed of concrete, with an exterior cladding of pink
granite, and consists of a massed square superstructurewith typically Art Deco set-backs and buttresses, punctuated on each side by a large arched window of yellow stained glass, and crowned with a ziggurat-inspired stepped roof. It is positioned atop a cruciformpedestal within which are located administrative offices and a small museum.
The interior is largely faced in white marble, and features a domed ceiling adorned with 120,000 gold stars - one for each of
New South Wales' military volunteers during World War I. Access to the main hall is provided via broad stairways on each side of the building's north-south axis, while ground-level doorways on the east and west sides offer entry to the lower section.
The main focus of the interior is Rayner Hoff's monumental
bronzesculpture of a deceased youth, representing a soldier, held aloft on his shield by a caryatid- three female figures, representing his mother, sister and wife. The male figure's nudity was considered shocking at the time of the monument's opening, and it is said to be the only such representation of a naked male form within any war memorial. Two other even more controversial figural sculptures designed by Hoff - one featuring a naked female figure - were never installed on the eastern and western faces of the structure as intended, partly as a result of opposition from high ranking, reactionary local Catholic Churchrepresentatives.
The building's exterior is adorned with several bronze friezes, carved granite relief panels and twenty monumental stone figural sculptures symbolising military personnel, also by Hoff.
Immediately to the north of the ANZAC Memorial is a large rectangular "Lake of Reflections" flanked by rows of
poplars. The poplars, not native to Australia, symbolise the areas of France in which Australian troops fought. Original plans called for the construction of similar pools on each of the other sides of the building, but these were never built. There is currently a proposal by the City of Sydney to complete the second Lake of Reflection in time for the 75th anniversary of the ANZAC Memorial.
Australian War Memorial- Australia's national war memorial and museum in Canberra
Shrine of Remembrance- Melbourne's main war memorial
Shrine of Remembrance, Brisbane- Brisbane's main war memorial
Hobart Cenotaph- Hobart's main war memorial
* Bayer, Patricia, "Art Deco Architecture: Design, Decoration and Detail fro the Twenties and Thirties", Thames & Hudson, London, 1992
* Edwards, Deborah, "This Vital Flesh: The Sculpture of Rayner Hoff and His School", Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, 1999
* Hedger, Michael, "Public Sculpture in Australia", Craftsman House, Sydney, NSW, 1995
* Inglis, K.S., "Sacred Places: War Memorials in the Australian Landscape", Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, 1998
* Sturgeon, Graeme, "The Development of Australian Sculpture: 1788 - 1975", Thames & Hudson, London, 1978
* Van Daele, Patrick and Roy Lumly, "A Spirit of Progress: Art Deco Architecture in Australia", Craftsman House, Sydney, NSW, 1997
* [http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/AboutSydney/HistoryAndArchives/SydneyHistory/HistoricBuildings/AnzacWarMemorial.asp ANZAC War Memorial] - Description of the memorial from the
City of Sydneywebsite. (Last accessed Oct 29, 2005)
* [http://www.anzacday.org.au/education/tff/memorials/nsw.html ANZAC Memorial] - A site that features a good aerial photograph of the memorial and its immediate surrounds.
* [http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2004/04/18/1082226632478.html?from=storyrhs Peace Offering that Shocked the Church] - A newspaper article that discusses the controversy surrounding the never-installed sculptures Rayner Hoff designed for the ANZAC Memorial.
* [http://www.sydneymedia.com.au/html/3327-national-salute-needed-for-aussie-diggers.asp] Information on a proposal by the City of Sydney to install the second pond of reflection on the southern side of the memorial as originally intended.
* [http://www.artdecosydney.com/Warmemorial.html] - 45 related to the Art Deco design of the memorial.
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