Endurantism or endurance theory is a philosophical theory of persistence and identity. According to the endurantist view material objects are persisting three-dimensional individuals wholly present at every moment of their existence. This conception of an individual as always present, is opposed to
perdurantismor four dimensionalismwhich maintains that an object is a series of temporal partsor stages, like the frames of a movie. Some philosophers argue that perdurantism better accommodates the theory of special relativity. The use of "endure" and "perdure" to distinguish two ways in which an object can be thought to persist can be traced to Lewis (1986).
Identity and change
* David Lewis
* Lewis, D.K.. 1986. "On the Plurality of Worlds" Oxford: Blackwell
* McKinnon, N. 2002. "The Endurance/Perdurance Distinction", "The Australasian Journal of Philosophy" 80:3 p. 288-306.
* Merricks, T. 1999. "Persistence, Parts and Presentism", "Nous" 33 p. 421-38.
* Sider, T. 2001. "Four-Dimensionalism" Oxford: Clarendon Press.
* Zimmerman, D. 1996. "Persistence and Presentism", "Philosophical Papers" 25:2.
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