Amateur wrestling


Amateur wrestling

Amateur wrestling is the most widespread form of sport wrestling. There are two "international wrestling styles" performed in the Olympic Games under the supervision of FILA (Fédération Internationale des Luttes Associées or International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles): Greco-Roman and freestyle. Freestyle is possibly derived from the English Lancashire style. A similar style, commonly called collegiate (also known as scholastic or folkstyle), is practiced in colleges and universities, secondary schools, middle schools, and among younger age groups in the United States. Where the style is not specified, this article refers to the international styles played on a mat.

coring

Greco-Roman and freestyle differ in what holds are permitted; in Greco-Roman, the wrestlers are permitted to hold and attack only above the waist. In both Greco-Roman and freestyle, points can be scored in the following ways:
* Takedown: A wrestler gaining control over his opponent from a neutral position.
* Reversal: A wrestler gaining control over his opponent from a defensive position.
* Exposure or the Danger Position: A wrestler exposing his opponent's back to the mat for several seconds, also awarded if one's back is to the mat but the wrestler is not pinned.
* Penalty: Various infractions (e.g. striking the opponent, acting with brutality or intent to injure, using illegal holds, etc.). (Under the 2004-2005 changes to the international styles, a wrestler whose opponent takes an injury time-out receives one point unless the injured wrestler is bleeding.) [ cite web
last = International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling
work = p. 36
publisher = FILA
date = 2006-12-01
url = http://www.fila-wrestling.com/images/documents/lutte/wr230107.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-08-09
] Any wrestler stepping out of bounds while standing in the neutral position during a match is penalized by giving his opponent a point. [ cite web
last = International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling
work = p. 36
publisher = FILA
date = 2006-12-01
url = http://www.fila-wrestling.com/images/documents/lutte/wr230107.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-08-09
]

cores no longer awarded in Greco-Roman and freestyle wrestling

In 2004, FILA radically changed the format and scoring of the international styles. Part of this involved eliminating two ways of scoring which are possible from the par terre, or 'on the mat,' position.
* Escape: A wrestler getting from a defensive position to a neutral position.
* Lifting: A wrestler successfully lifting an opponent in the defensive position without exposing his back. Prior to this rule change a wrestler could score 1 point simply by lifting his opponent off the mat into the air.

cores only awarded in collegiate wrestling

As in the international styles, collegiate wrestling awards points for takedowns and reversals. It also awards points for escapes. Penalty points are awarded in collegiate wrestling according to the current rules, which basically penalize moves that would impair the life or limb of the opponent. However, the manner in which infractions are penalized and points awarded to the offended wrestler differ in some aspects from the international styles. Collegiate wrestling also awards points for:
* Near Fall: This is similar to the exposure (or danger position) points given in Greco-Roman and freestyle. A wrestler scores points for holding his opponent's shoulders or scapulae to the mat for several seconds while his opponent is still not pinned.
* Time Advantage or Riding Time: On the college level, the wrestler who controlled his opponent on the mat for the most time is awarded a point; provided that the difference of the two wrestlers' time advantage is at least one minute.

Period Format

In the international styles, the format is now three two-minute periods. A wrestler wins the match when he has won two out of three periods. For example, if one competitor were to win the first period 1-0 and the second period 1-0, the match would be over. However, if the other competitor were to win the second period, then a third and deciding period would result. Only a fall, injury default, or disqualification terminates the match; all other modes of victory result only in period termination. [ cite web
last = International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling
work = pp. 27, 30
publisher = FILA
date = 2006-12-01
url = http://www.fila-wrestling.com/images/documents/lutte/wr230107.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-08-09
]

One side effect of this format is that it is possible for the losing wrestler to outscore the winner. For example, periods may be scored 3-2, 0-4, 1-0, leading to a total score of 4-6 but a win for the wrestler scoring fewer points.

In collegiate wrestling, the period structure is different. A college match consists of one three-minute period, followed by two two-minute periods, with an overtime round if necessary. [ cite web
last = National Collegiate Athletic Association
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2008 NCAA Wrestling Rules and Interpretations
work = pp. WR-10, WR-40-WR-42
publisher = NCAA
date = 2007-08-31
url = http://www.ncaa.org/library/rules/2008/2008_wrestling_rules.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-09-06
] A high school match typically consists of three two-minute periods, with an overtime round if necessary. [cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = pp. 31, 34-35
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
] Under the standard rules for collegiate wrestling, draws are not possible; this rule is sometimes modified for young wrestlers.

Victory Conditions in the International Styles

A match can be won in the following ways:
* Win by Fall: A fall, also known as a pin, occurs when one wrestler holds both his opponents' shoulders on the mat simultaneously. [ cite web
last = International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling
work = p. 41
publisher = FILA
date = 2006-12-01
url = http://www.fila-wrestling.com/images/documents/lutte/wr230107.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-08-09
]
* Win by Technical Superiority: If one wrestler gains a 15-point lead over his opponent at any point in the period, the current period is declared over, and he is the winner of that period. Also, if a wrestler executes one 5-point throw or two 3-point throws in a single period, the current period is declared over, and he is the winner of that period. [ cite web
last = International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling
work = p. 55
publisher = FILA
date = 2006-12-01
url = http://www.fila-wrestling.com/images/documents/lutte/wr230107.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-08-09
]
* Win by Decision: If neither wrestler achieves either a fall or technical superiority, the wrestler who scored more points during the period is declared the winner of that period. If the wrestlers have gained the same number of points at the period's end, then the winner is determined in the following order: 1. Fewest caution points awarded to opponent 2. Most 3-point throws 3. Most 2-point throws 4. Last point scored. 5. If neither wrestler has scored a point in the period then a clinch is used to decide the winner. The referee flips a disc with a blue side and a red side. This determined which wrestler will take the opponents leg while kneeling in front of his opponent. Once the referee blows his whistle, the kneeling wrestler has 30 seconds to score a point and win the period. If he does not score or his opponent scores first, then the wrestler whose leg was taken to start the period is declared the winner. [ cite web
last = International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling
work = pp. 30, 43-46
publisher = FILA
date = 2006-12-01
url = http://www.fila-wrestling.com/images/documents/lutte/wr230107.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-08-09
]
* Win by Default: If one wrestler is unable to continue participating for any reason or fails to show up on the mat after his name was called three times before the match begins [ cite web
last = International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling
work = p. 27
publisher = FILA
date = 2006-12-01
url = http://www.fila-wrestling.com/images/documents/lutte/wr230107.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-08-09
] , his opponent is declared the winner of the match by default, forfeit, or withdrawal.
* Win by Injury: If one wrestler is injured and unable to continue, the other wrestler is declared the winner. This is also referred to as a medical forfeit or injury default. The term also encompasses situations where wrestlers become ill, take too many injury time-outs, or bleed uncontrollably. If a wrestler is injured by his opponent's illegal maneuver and cannot continue, the wrestler at fault is disqualified. [ cite web
last = International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling
work = pp. 30, 52-53
publisher = FILA
date = 2006-12-01
url = http://www.fila-wrestling.com/images/documents/lutte/wr230107.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-08-09
]
* Win by Disqualification: Normally, if a wrestler is assessed three Cautions for breaking the rules, he is disqualified. Under other circumstances, such as flagrant brutality, the match may be ended immediately and the wrestler disqualified and removed from the tournament. [ cite web
last = International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling
work = pp. 31, 50
publisher = FILA
date = 2006-12-01
url = http://www.fila-wrestling.com/images/documents/lutte/wr230107.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-08-09
]

Victory Conditions in Collegiate Wrestling

While having similar victory conditions with Greco-Roman and freestyle, such as wins by fall, decision, injury, and disqualification, victory conditions in collegiate wrestling differ on some points from the international styles:
* Win by Fall: A pin or fall (when a wrestler holds his opponent's shoulders or shoulder blades (scapulae) to the mat) in collegiate wrestling must be held for two seconds for high school wrestlers [cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = p. 22
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
] or one second for college wrestlers. [ cite web
last = National Collegiate Athletic Association
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2008 NCAA Wrestling Rules and Interpretations
work = pp. WR-23-WR-24
publisher = NCAA
date = 2007-08-31
url = http://www.ncaa.org/library/rules/2008/2008_wrestling_rules.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-09-06
] A victory by pin is worth six team points in a dual meet. [ cite web
last = National Collegiate Athletic Association
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2008 NCAA Wrestling Rules and Interpretations
work = p. WR-60
publisher = NCAA
date = 2007-08-31
url = http://www.ncaa.org/library/rules/2008/2008_wrestling_rules.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-09-06
]
* Win by Technical Fall: If, at any break in action, one wrestler leads the other by 15 points and a pinning situation is not imminent, the match ends. [ cite web
last = National Collegiate Athletic Association
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2008 NCAA Wrestling Rules and Interpretations
work = p. WR-24
publisher = NCAA
date = 2007-08-31
url = http://www.ncaa.org/library/rules/2008/2008_wrestling_rules.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-09-06
] The winning team is then awarded five team points. On the college level, five team points are awarded if the winner received points for a near fall; four team points are awarded if the wrestler did not score near fall points. [ cite web
last = National Collegiate Athletic Association
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2008 NCAA Wrestling Rules and Interpretations
work = p. WR-60
publisher = NCAA
date = 2007-08-31
url = http://www.ncaa.org/library/rules/2008/2008_wrestling_rules.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-09-06
]
* Win By Major Decision: In collegiate (scholastic or folkstyle) wrestling, a decision in which the winner outscores his opponent by eight or more points is a "major decision" and is rewarded with four team points in a dual meet. [ cite web
last = National Collegiate Athletic Association
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2008 NCAA Wrestling Rules and Interpretations
work = pp. WR-25, WR-60
publisher = NCAA
date = 2007-08-31
url = http://www.ncaa.org/library/rules/2008/2008_wrestling_rules.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-09-06
]
* Win By Decision: After the three wrestling periods have expired and the winning wrestler possesses a difference of one to seven in points, the wrestler is given a "decision", and the team is awarded three team points in a dual meet. [ cite web
last = National Collegiate Athletic Association
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2008 NCAA Wrestling Rules and Interpretations
work = pp. WR-25, WR-60
publisher = NCAA
date = 2007-08-31
url = http://www.ncaa.org/library/rules/2008/2008_wrestling_rules.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-09-06
]
* Win By Default: If a participant cannot continue wrestling for any reason during the course of the match (e.g. illness, injury, etc.), his opponent wins by default [ cite web
last = National Collegiate Athletic Association
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2008 NCAA Wrestling Rules and Interpretations
work = p. WR-25
publisher = NCAA
date = 2007-08-31
url = http://www.ncaa.org/library/rules/2008/2008_wrestling_rules.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-09-06
] , worth six team points in a dual meet. [ cite web
last = National Collegiate Athletic Association
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2008 NCAA Wrestling Rules and Interpretations
work = p. WR-60
publisher = NCAA
date = 2007-08-31
url = http://www.ncaa.org/library/rules/2008/2008_wrestling_rules.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-09-06
]
* Win By Forfeit: If one wrestler fails to appear on the mat at the start of the match for some reason, and the other wrestler appears on the mat, the wrestler on the mat at the start of the match is automatically declared the winner. [ cite web
last = National Collegiate Athletic Association
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2008 NCAA Wrestling Rules and Interpretations
work = p. WR-25
publisher = NCAA
date = 2007-08-31
url = http://www.ncaa.org/library/rules/2008/2008_wrestling_rules.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-09-06
] The winning team in a dual meet is then awarded six team points. [ cite web
last = National Collegiate Athletic Association
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2008 NCAA Wrestling Rules and Interpretations
work = p. WR-60
publisher = NCAA
date = 2007-08-31
url = http://www.ncaa.org/library/rules/2008/2008_wrestling_rules.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-09-06
] If during the course of a tournament, a wrestler wishes to no longer participate because of illness or injury, then his opponent wins by medical forfeit [ cite web
last = National Collegiate Athletic Association
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2008 NCAA Wrestling Rules and Interpretations
work = p. WR-25
publisher = NCAA
date = 2007-08-31
url = http://www.ncaa.org/library/rules/2008/2008_wrestling_rules.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-09-06
] , worth the same number of individual and team tournament placement points as a forfeit. [ cite web
last = National Collegiate Athletic Association
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2008 NCAA Wrestling Rules and Interpretations
work = pp. WR-61-WR-62
publisher = NCAA
date = 2007-08-31
url = http://www.ncaa.org/library/rules/2008/2008_wrestling_rules.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-09-06
]
* Win By Disqualification: For flagrant misconduct or for a certain number of penalties assessed, a wrestler is disqualified from the match, and his opponent is declared the winner. [ cite web
last = National Collegiate Athletic Association
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2008 NCAA Wrestling Rules and Interpretations
work = p. WR-25
publisher = NCAA
date = 2007-08-31
url = http://www.ncaa.org/library/rules/2008/2008_wrestling_rules.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-09-06
] In a dual meet, this victory is worth six team points. [ cite web
last = National Collegiate Athletic Association
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2008 NCAA Wrestling Rules and Interpretations
work = p. WR-60
publisher = NCAA
date = 2007-08-31
url = http://www.ncaa.org/library/rules/2008/2008_wrestling_rules.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-09-06
] Rules for how penalties and disqualifications are determined vary somewhat in collegiate (scholastic or folkstyle) wrestling from the international styles.

Dual meet scoring is very similar on the high school level. [cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = p. 47
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
]

Illegal moves

Amateur wrestling is a positionally-based form of grappling, and thus generally prohibits the following:

* Biting
* Pinching or poking with the fingers, toes, or nails, including fish-hooking the nose or mouth
* Gouging or intentionally scratching the opponent – eye-gouges especially are grounds for disqualification and banned status in most amateur wrestling competitions
* Strikes using the hands, fists, elbows, feet, knees, or head
* Joint locks, including armlocks, leglocks, spinal locks, wristlocks, and small joint manipulation.
* Chokeholds, strangling, suffocating, or "'smothering
* Spiking, or lifting and slamming the opponent head-first to the mat (though other forms of slamming are generally allowed in the international styles; in collegiate, slamming "per se" is illegal)
* Grasping or holding the opponent's genitals
* Using a figure-four (grappling hold) scissors (where one knee is bent at a 90º (degree) angle and placed behind the other knee) on the torso or the head in the neutral position (It is, however, legal to figure-four the head if both wrestlers are not in the neutral position; this rule exists primarily to prevent people from using a figure-four head scissors to prevent a single leg takedown; this is considered a form of stalling .)
* Most types of amateur wrestling also discourage or prohibit the use of one's own or the opponent's clothing for grasping or performing any type of hold.

No modern sport allows biting, finger-poking, eye-gouging, or genital shots. But many other grappling-based sports permit some or all of the other tactics listed above, including shoot wrestling, judo, jujutsu, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, professional wrestling, mixed martial arts, and catch wrestling. Different styles of amateur wrestling may also prohibit specific types of illegal holds (e.g. Greco-Roman wrestling prohibiting holds below the waist).

Equipment

While there is not much equipment that a wrestler wears, it is still highly specialized. A wrestling singlet is a one-piece, tight-fitting, colored, lycra uniform. The uniform is tight-fitting so as not to get grasped accidentally by the opponent and allows the referee to see each wrestler's body clearly when awarding points or a pin. Women wrestlers wear a higher cut singlet usually with a sports-bra underneath.

Wrestling shoes are light, flexible, thin-soled, ankle-high sneakers that allow maximum speed and traction on the mat without giving up ankle support. The current rules call for laces (if any) to be covered so that they do not come untied during competition.

In American high school and college wrestling especially (Although under current FILA rules, it is optionable. [ cite web
last = International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling
work = p. 10
publisher = FILA
date = 2006-12-01
url = http://www.fila-wrestling.com/images/documents/lutte/wr230107.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-08-10
] ), headgear is mandatorily used [ cite web
last = National Collegiate Athletic Association
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2008 NCAA Wrestling Rules and Interpretations
work = p. WR-14
publisher = NCAA
date = 2007-08-31
url = http://www.ncaa.org/library/rules/2008/2008_wrestling_rules.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-09-06
] [cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages = p. 17
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =
] to protect the ears from cauliflower ear and other injuries. Headgear is made from molded plastic polymer or vinyl coated energy absorbing foam over a rigid hard liner and strapped to the head tightly.

Wrestling is conducted on a padded mat that must have excellent shock absorption, tear resistance, and compression qualities. Most mats are made of PVC rubber nitrile foam. Recent advances in technology have brought about new mats made using closed cell, cross-linked polyethylene foam covered in vinyl backed with non-woven polyester.

World participation

The countries with the leading wrestlers in the Olympic Games and World Championships are Iran, the United States, Russia (and some of the former Soviet Union republics, especially Georgia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, and Kazakhstan), Bulgaria, Turkey, Hungary, Cuba, Japan, South and North Korea, Germany, and historically Sweden and Finland.

In the United States currently there is a decline in men's wrestling programs in colleges and universities that some attribute to Title IX. It is believed by some that when schools cannot add enough opportunities for women they choose to scrap their wrestling programs (Other programs that have a primary target of men, such as golf and men's swimming, are believed to be similarly affected.). Also, colleges' and universities' budget decisions for athletic departments are also suspected to play a role in such cuts. This has caused controversy in recent years.

Women's amateur wrestling (a modified form of freestyle) is gaining popularity around the world, and has recently been added as an Olympic sport.

In some countries, especially in the United States, people engage in simulated wrestling matches as a performance ("sports entertainment"). See professional wrestling.

*Amateur wrestling in Australia
*Amateur wrestling in Europe
*Amaresu (Japan)
*Amateur wrestling in the United States

See also

* Greco-Roman wrestling
* Freestyle wrestling
* Collegiate wrestling
* Wrestling weight classes
* List of famous amateur wrestlers

Notes

References

*cite web
last = International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = International Wrestling Rules: Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Women's Wrestling
work =
publisher = FILA
date = 2006-12-01

authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2008 NCAA Wrestling Rules and Interpretations
work =
publisher = NCAA
date = 2007-08-31
url = http://www.ncaa.org/library/rules/2008/2008_wrestling_rules.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-09-06

*cite book
last = National Federation of State High School Associations
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 2007-08 NFHS Wrestling Rules Book
publisher = NFHS
date = 2007-09-15
location =
pages =
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =

External links

* [http://www.fila-wrestling.com/ International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (FILA)]
* [http://www.thewrestlingtalk.com/ The Wrestling Talk]
* [http://www.themat.com/ TheMat.com - The Official Site of USA Wrestling]
* [http://www.intermatwrestle.com InterMat]
* [http://illinoiswrestling.blog.com/Photos/ IllinoisWrestling.Com - Amateur Wrestling Photos]


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