- Holy Week (Catholic Church)
Holy Week in the Catholic liturgical calendar is the week from
Palm Sunday(also called Passion Sunday) through Holy Saturday.
What occurs during Holy Week
Each of the days of Holy Week has its own traditions of services in the West. Believers are encouraged to follow in their prayers with readings from the
Gospelthe account of each of the actions from the time of the entry of Jesusinto Jerusalemon Palm Sundayto the crucifixionand death of Jesus on Good Fridayand the resurrectionon EasterSunday. While each day has special mass celebrations in the Western churches, the week's most elaborate services are during Triduum( Holy Thursday, Good Friday, ( Holy Saturday), and Easter). In the Reformation, emphasis was taken away from the Passion and Placed upon the resurrection of Jesus, but contemporary ProtestantChurches, as well as the Roman Catholic Church, hold the three days between Good Friday and Easter to be the holiest days of the calendar.
Holy Week Liturgies in the
Palm Sunday (Passion Sunday)
*Beginning of the holy week.
*Dual Liturgy of the Word one beginning the Procession of Palms and the other recounting the Passion of the Lord.:*Procession of Palms is a comemoration of the triumphal entry of Christ into Jerusalem.:*Reading of the Passion – narrative of Jesus’ capture, sufferings and death.
While every celebration of the Eucharist is a commemoration of the paschal mystery, the Holy Thursday liturgy is a commemoration of the events of the Last Supper in particular. It is viewed as the celebration of the institution of both the Eucharist and the priesthood. Holy Thursday liturgy is distinctive for several elements including a re-enactment of Jesus' washing of the feet of the Apostles before the meal, as recounted in the
Gospel of Johnand the Gospel account of the Last Supper, which includes Christ's taking bread and wine and, declaring them to be his body and blood, and giving them to the Apostles. At services on this day, a minister, priest, or lay leader(s) may wash the feet of some members of the congregation to commemorate Christ's actions and command. Following the celebration of the Eucharist, the sanctuary is stripped of all images, candles and the reserved Eucharist which is carried in the procession of the Blessed Sacramentto the Altar of Repose.
Roman Catholic Christians treat Good Friday as a fast day, which is defined as only having one full meal or two small ones.
The Catholic Good Friday in the
Roman Riteafternoon service involves a series of readings and meditations, as well as the (sung) reading of the Passion account from the Gospel of Johnwhich is often read dramatically, with the priest, one or more readers, and the congregation all taking part. In the traditional Latin liturgy, the Passion is read by the priest facing the altar, with three deacons chanting in the sanctuary facing the people. Unlike Roman Catholic services on other days, the Good Friday service is not a Mass, and in fact, celebration of Catholic Mass on Good Friday is forbidden. Eucharistconsecrated the night before ( Holy Thursday) may be distributed. The crossis presented, with the people given an opportunity to venerate it. The services also include a long series of formal intercessions. The solemnity and somberness of the occasion has led to a phenomenon whereby in the course of history the liturgical provisions have a tendency to persist without substantial modification, even over the centuries . Some churches hold a three-hour mediation from midday, the Three Hours' Agony. In some countries, such as Malta, Italyand Spain, processions with statues representing the Passion of Christ are held.
The Holy Week commemorations reach their paramount on Good Friday as the Catholic Church celebrates the passion of Jesus. Solemn celebrations take place in all churches together with processions in different villages around
Maltaand Gozo. During the celebration, the narrative of the passion is read in some localities. The Cross follows a significant Way of Jesus. Good Friday processions take place in Birgu, Bormla, Ghaxaq, Luqa, Mosta, Naxxar, Paola, Qormi, Rabat, Senglea, Valletta, Żebbuġ and Żejtun. Processions in Gozo will be in Nadur, Victoria, XaghraXewkija, and Żebbuġ.
In the predominantly Catholic
Philippines, the day is commemorated with street processions, the Way of the Cross, and a Passion playcalled the Sinakulo. The Church keeps the day solemn by not tolling the church bells, and no mass will be celebrated. In some communities (most famously in San Fernando, Pampanga), the processions include devotees who self-flagellate and sometimes even have themselves nailed to crosses as expressions of penance. After three o'clock in the afternoon of Good Friday (the time at which Jesus is traditionally believed to have died), noise is discouraged, some radio stations and television stations sign off (while others remain signed-on, broadcasting Religious Programming), businesses automatically close, and the faithful are urged to keep a solemn and prayerful disposition through to EasterSunday.
*No Mass is celebrated. In cases of the danger of death, Eucharistic Hosts remaining from the Liturgies of the two previous days are used for
*The Tabernacle is left empty and open. The lamp or candle usually situated next to the Tabernacle denoting the Presence of Christ is not used, and the
Eucharistis kept elsewhere, usually the sacristy.
Roman Catholictradition, the Easter Vigil consists of four parts:
# The Service of Light
# The Liturgy of the Word
# The Liturgy of Baptism: The sacraments of Baptism and Confirmation for new members of the Church and the Renewal of Baptismal Promises by the entire congregation.
The Liturgy begins after sundown on
Holy Saturdayas the crowd gathers inside the unlit church. In the darkness (often in a side chapel of the church building or, preferably, outside the church), a new fire is kindled and blessed by the priest. This new fire symbolizes the light of salvation and hope that God brought into the world through Christ's Resurrection, dispelling the darkness of sin and death. From this fire is lit the Paschal candle, symbolizing the Light of Christ. This Paschal candle will be used throughout the season of Easter, remaining in the sanctuary of the Church or near the lectern, and throughout the coming year at baptisms and funerals, reminding all that that Christ is "light and life."
All baptized Catholics present (i.e. those who have received the "Light of Christ") receive candles which are lit from the Paschal candle. As this symbolic "Light of Christ" spreads throughout those gathered, the darkness is decreased. A deacon, or the priest if there is no deacon, carries the Paschal Candle at the head of the entrance procession and, at three points, stops and chants the proclamation "Light of Christ" or "Christ our Light," to which the people respond "Thanks be to God." Once the procession concludes, the deacon or a cantor chants the
Exultet(also called the "Easter Proclamation"), and, the church remaining lit only by the people's candles and the Paschal candle, the people take their seats for the Liturgy of the Word.
The Liturgy of the Word consists of between two and seven readings from the
Old Testament. The account of the Exodus is given particular attention in the readings since it is considered to be the Old Testament antetype of Christian salvation. Each reading is followed by a psalm and a prayer relating what has been read in the Old Testament to the Mystery of Christ. After these readings conclude, a fanfare may sound on the organ and additional musical instruments and the Gloria in Excelsis Deois sung. During this outburst of musical jubilation the congregation's candles are extinguished, the church lights are turned on, and bells rung while the church's decorative furnishings — altar frontals, the reredos, lectern hangings, processional banners, statues and paintings — which had been stripped or covered during Holy Week, are ceremonially replaced and unveiled and flowers are placed on altars and elsewhere. (In the pre-Vatican II rite, the statues, which have been covered during Passion Time, are unveiled at this time.) Members of the congregation may have been encouraged to bring flowers which are also brought forward and placed about the sanctuary and side altars. A reading from the Epistle to the Romansis proclaimed. The Alleluiais sung for the first time since the beginning of Lent (or, in the pre-Vatican II rite, since Septuagesima). The Gospelof the Resurrection then follows, along with a homily.
After the conclusion of the Liturgy of the Word, the water of the
baptismal fontis consecrated and any catechumens or candidates for full communion are initated into the church, by baptismand/or confirmation, respectively. After the celebration of these sacraments of initiation, the congregation renews their baptismal vows and receive the sprinkling of baptismal water. The general intercessions follow.
After the Liturgy of Baptism, the Liturgy of the
Eucharistcontinues as usual. This is the first Mass of Easter Day. During the Eucharist, the newly baptised receive Holy Communion for the first time. According to the rubrics of the Missal, the Eucharist should finish before dawn.
*The Feast of the Resurrection.
*The Church’s greatest feast
Eastern Catholic Churches
In Eastern Catholicism as in
Eastern Orthodoxy, during Holy Week, Orthros ( Matins) services for each day are held on the preceding evening. Thus, the Matins service of Monday is sung on Palm Sunday evening, and so on. (The services of Sunday through Tuesday evenings are often called Bridegroom Matins, because of their theme of Christ-as-Bridegroom.)
In many churches, especially those of the
Byzantine Rite, a service of Anointing(Holy Unction) is held on Wednesday evening.
Divine Liturgyof the Last Supperis held on the morning of Holy Thursday. Matins of Holy Friday, with its Twelve Gospel Readings, is held on the evening of Holy Thursday; Vespers of Holy Friday (Vespers of the Unnailing) is held in the morning or afternoon of Holy Friday. The figure of Christ is taken down from the Cross, and a richly-embroidered cloth iconcalled the " epitaphios", depicting Jesus prepared for burial, is laid in a "tomb" decorated with flowers. Matins of Holy Saturday is held on the evening of Holy Friday; the clergy and people gather around the tomb and chant a set of hymns called "The Lamentations", during which the tomb is censed and sprinkled with rose petals and rose water. Near the end of the service, it is carried in a candlelit procession around the outside of the church.
Divine Liturgy is held Saturday morning. This is the "Proti Anastasi" (First Resurrection) service, and the
vestments and church hangings are changed from dark to light.
Saturday night at midnight, the
Paschal Vigilbegins in darkness. A single candle is lighted by the priest, from a light on the altar which is never extinguished. The light spreads from person to person until everyone holds a lighted candle. Everyone goes in procession around the outside of the church, symbolizing the journey of the Myrrhbearersto the tomb of Christ on that first Easter morning. Paschal Matins and Divine Liturgy follow. A joyful breakfast usually follows, sometimes lasting till dawn. Slavs bring Easter basketsfilled with Easter eggs, meat, butter, and cheese—foods from which the faithful have abstained during Great Lent—to be blessed.
Agape Vespers, during which the Gospel is read in as many different languages as possible, is usually held on Easter Day. It is often combined with an
Easter egg huntand other activities for children, but there is no regular Sunday morning Liturgy, since it was already at the midnight service.
Holy Week throughout the world
In this largely Roman Catholic nation, Holy Week, known as Semana Santa, is treated as one of the most important religious festivals of the entire year. At
Masson Palm Sunday, Catholics carry "palaspas" or palm leaves to be blessed by the priest. Many Filipinos bring home the palm leaves after the Mass and place these above their front doors or their windows, believing that doing so can ward off evil spirits. Holy Monday marks the beginning of the Pabasa (literally, reading) or Pasyon, the marathon chanting of the story of Jesus' life, passion, and death, which continues day and night, for as long as two straight days. A popular Holy Thursdaytradition is the "Bisita Iglesia" (Church Visit), which involves visiting several Churches at which the faithful would pray the Stations of the Cross. The last Mass before Easteris also celebrated on Holy Thursday, usually including a reenactment of the Washing of the Feetof the Apostles; this Mass is followed by the procession of the Blessed Sacramentbefore it is taken to the Altar of Repose. Good Fridayin the Philippines is commemorated with street processions, the Way of the Cross, the commemoration of Jesus' Seven last words(Siete Palabras) and a Passion play called the Sinakulo. In some communities (most famously in the province of Pampanga), the processions include devotees who self-flagellate and sometimes even have themselves nailed to crosses as expressions of penance. After three o'clock in the afternoon of Good Friday (the time at which Jesus is traditionally believed to have died), noise is discouraged, bathing is proscribed and the faithful are urged to keep a solemn and prayerful disposition through Black Saturday. Easter morning is marked with joyous celebration, the first being the dawn Salubong, wherein large statues of Jesus and Mary are brought in procession together to meet, imagining the first reunion of Jesus and his mother Mary after Jesus' Resurrection. This is followed by the joyous Easter Mass.
Sevillearguably holds the most elaborate processions for Holy Week anywhere in the world. A tradition that dates from medieval times which has spread to other cities in Andalusia, the "Semana Santa en Sevilla" is notable for featuring the procession of "pasos", lifelike wood or plaster sculptures of individual scenes of the events that happened between Jesus' arrest and his burial, or images of the Virgin Mary showing grief for the torture and killing of her son. These pasos are physically carried in the shoulders of "costaleros" (literally "sack men", usually bodybuildertypes who are used to carrying extreme weights), and can weight up to five metric tonnes. The pasos are set up and maintained by "hermandades" and "cofradías", religious brotherhoods that are common to a specific area of the city, whose precede the paso dressed in Roman military costumes or penitential robes. Those members who wish to do so wear these penitential robes with conical hats, or "capirotes", used to conceal the face of the wearer (these robes intentionally served as the basis for the traditional uniform for members of the Ku Klux Klan in the United States). These "Nazarenos" carry processional candles, may walk the city streets barefoot, and may carry shackles and chains in their feet as penance. A brass band may accompany the group, playing funereal religious hymns or "marchas" written for the occasion.
Other countries around the world
Cities famous for their Holy Week processions include:
**San Pablo City
Málaga, declared of international touristic interest
Seville, declared of international touristic interest [http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semana_Santa_en_Sevilla]
Castile and Leon
***León, declared of international touristic interest [http://www.turismocastillayleon.com/cm/turcyl/tkContent?pgseed=1142412675459&idContent=1815&locale=es_ES&textOnly=false]
Valladolid, declared of international touristic interest
***Zamora, declared of international touristic interest
Tobarra, declared of national touristic interest [http://www.semanasantatobarra.com]
Hellin, declared of national touristic interest
Murcia, declared of national touristic interest [http://www.semana-santa.de/start_e.htm]
Holy Week procession.
* [http://www.cresourcei.org/cyholyweek.html The Days of Holy Week] at The Christian Resource Institute
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
См. также в других словарях:
Holy Trinity Brompton Church — Infobox church name = Holy Trinity, Brompton fullname = color = imagesize = caption = landscape = denomination = Church of England diocese = parish = division = subdivision = founded date = founder = architect = style = constructed date = 1826… … Wikipedia
Holy Week — (Latin: Hebdomada Sancta or Maior Hebdomada , Greater Week ) in Christianity is the last week before Easter. It includes the religious holidays of Palm Sunday, Maundy Thursday (Holy Thursday) and Good Friday, and lasts from Palm Sunday (or in the … Wikipedia
Holy Week — • The week which precedes the great festival of the Resurrection on Easter Sunday, and which consequently is used to commemorate the Passion of Christ, and the event which immediately led up to it Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Holy… … Catholic encyclopedia
Holy Week in Seville — ( Semana Santa en Sevilla ) is one of the most important traditional events of the city. It is celebrated in the week leading up to Easter, one to two weeks before the city s other great celebration, the Feria, and is amongst the largest… … Wikipedia
Holy Cross Roman Catholic Church — is a parish church in Latonia, a neighborhood of Covington, Kentucky. The parish, part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Covington, Kentucky, was founded in 1891. The parish currently maintains a school for grades K 12, and holds Mass throughout… … Wikipedia
Catholic Church and ecumenism — The Roman Catholic Church has been heavily involved in the ecumenical movement since the Second Vatican Council (1961 1965).Definition and practices of ecumenism Before the Second Vatican Council The Catholic Church sees itself as the One, Holy,… … Wikipedia
Saint Donatus Catholic Church — is a parish of the Roman Catholic Church that is located in the Jackson County, Iowa community of Saint Donatus, Iowa. The patron of the parish and the town is Saint Donatus of Muenstereifel, whose cultus is popular in Luxembourg and the… … Wikipedia
Fasting and abstinence in the Roman Catholic Church — For Roman Catholics, fasting is the reduction of one s intake of food to one full meal a day. This may or may not be accompanied by abstinence from meat when eating. The Roman Catholic Church teaches that all people are obliged by God to perform… … Wikipedia
Eucharist in the Catholic Church — The institution of the Eucharist has been a key theme in the depictions of the Last Supper in Christian art, as in this 16th century Juan de Juanes painting. At the Last Supper, on the night he was betrayed, our Savior instituted the Eucharistic… … Wikipedia
Roman Catholic Church — The Roman Catholic Church, officially known as the Catholic Church,  ] Norman, p. 12] Pope Benedict XVI summarized this mission as a threefold responsibility to proclaim the word of God, celebrate the sacraments, and exercise the ministry of… … Wikipedia