- Tirumala Deva Raya
Tirumala Deva Raya (1565-1572 CE)was the first Coronated King of the
Vijayanagara Empirefrom the Aravidu Dynasty. He was the brother of the Aliya Rama Rayaand son-in-law of Krishna Deva Raya.
When Rama Raya was killed in the Talikonda battle in 1565 he immediately emptied the
treasuryand fled the capital to taking with him the Royal family and the minor crown prince Sadasiva Raya.
He, after a few years of hardships, reestablished the Vijaynagar rule in
Penukonda, in present day Andhra Pradesh. During this time the Southern Nayakas of Maduraiand Gingeedeclared partial independence, while some others rebelled over Tirumala Deva Raya’s authority.
In 1567 he encountered another attack by the
Bijapur Sultan; this time the Sultan was defeated, but also lost some territories. Tirumala Deva Raya later tactfully approved the new status of Southern Nayaks, who still paid some tributes and held him as their emperor. Tanjore and Mysore rulers still paid the annual tributes while Madurai and Gingee rulers grudgingly followed.
Tirumala Deva Raya also retained most of the Vijaynagar territories and assumed the title “Reviver of the Decadent Karnataka Empire”. In 1570 he split the Viceroyalty among his three sons:
Sriranga Iin Penukondain charge of Telugu country, Rama (father of Sriranga II) in Sritrangapatnain charge of the Kannadacountry and Venkatapathi (a.k.a. Venkata II) in Chandragiriin charge of Tamil country. Penukondawas the Capital of the empire. The King retired in 1572 after feeling too old to rule and retired to a religious life of living till 1578.
* Rao, Velcheru Narayana, and David Shulman, Sanjay Subrahmanyam. "Symbols of substance : court and state in Nayaka period Tamilnadu" (Delhi ; Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1998) ; xix, 349 p.,  p. of plates : ill., maps ; 22 cm. ; Oxford India paperbacks ; Includes bibliographical references and index ; ISBN 0-19-564399-2.
* Sathianathaier, R. "History of the Nayaks of Madura" [microform] by R. Sathyanatha Aiyar ; edited for the University, with introduction and notes by S. Krishnaswami Aiyangar ( [Madras] : Oxford University Press, 1924) ; see also ( [London] : H. Milford, Oxford university press, 1924) ; xvi, 403 p. ; 21 cm. ; SAMP early 20th-century Indian books project item 10819.
*K.A. Nilakanta Sastry, History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, 1955, OUP, (Reprinted 2002) ISBN 019560686-8.
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