Tissaphernes

Tissaphernes

Tissaphernes (Ancient Greek: Τισσαφέρνης; Old Persian Čiθrafarnah > Mod. Persian Čehrfar) (d. 395 BC) was a Persian soldier and statesman, grandson of Hydarnes.

In 413 BC he was satrap of Lydia and Caria, and commander in chief of the Persian army in Asia Minor. When Darius II ordered the collection of the outstanding tribute of the Greek cities, he entered into an alliance with Sparta against Athens, which in 412 BC led to the conquest of the greater part of Ionia. But Tissaphernes was unwilling to take action and tried to achieve his aim by astute and often perfidious negotiations; Alcibiades persuaded him that Persia's best policy was to keep the balance between Athens and Sparta, and rivalry with his neighbour Pharnabazus[disambiguation needed ] of Hellespontic Phrygia still further lessened his energy. When, therefore, in 408 BC the king decided to support Sparta strenuously, Tissaphernes was removed from the generalship and limited to the satrapy of Caria, whereas Lydia and the conduct of the war were entrusted to Cyrus the Younger.

On the downfall of Athens, Cyrus and Tissaphernes both claimed jurisdiction over the Ionian cities, most of which acknowledged Cyrus as their ruler; but Tissaphernes took possession of Miletus, where he was attacked by Cyrus, who gathered an army under this pretence with the purpose of using it against his brother Artaxerxes II. The king was warned by Tissaphernes, who took part in the battle of Cunaxa, and afterwards tried to destroy the Greek mercenaries of Cyrus by treachery.

He was then sent back to Asia Minor to his old position as general in chief and satrap of Lydia and Caria. He now attacked the Greek cities, to punish them for their allegiance to Cyrus. This led to the war with Sparta in 399 BC. Tissaphernes, who once again had recourse to subtle diplomacy, was beaten by Agesilaus II on the Pactolus near Sardis in 395 BC; and at last the king yielded to the representations of Pharnabazus, strongly supported by the chiliarch (vizier) Tithraustes and by the queen-mother Parysatis, who hated Tissaphernes as the principal cause of the death of her favourite son Cyrus. Tithraustes was sent to execute Tissaphernes, who was lured to Ariaeus' residence in Colossae and slain in 395 BC.[1]

Etymology

Chithrafarna (čiθra + farnah) "Shining Fortune": čiθra is from the Proto-Indo-European adjective (s)koitrós 'bright'[2]; farnah is equivalent to Avestan xvarənah 'fortune'.

References

  1. ^  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  2. ^ J. P. Mallory and D. Q. Adams, The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World (USA: Oxford University Press, 2006: ISBN 0199296682), p. 329.

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • Tissaphernes — [tɪsaˈfɛrnɛs] (persisch: تیسافرن Tīsāfern [tiːsɔːˈfern]; † nach 395 v. Chr.) war im Ionisch Dekeleischen Teilkrieg (413 404 v. Chr.) des Peloponnesischen Krieges (431 404 v. Chr.) der Statthalter (Satrap) und Militärbefehlshaber des Perserreiches …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Tissaphernes — Tissaphernes, Perser, unterwarf um 420 v. Chr. den rebellirenden Statthalter von Lydien u. wurde dessen Nachfolger; dort ließ er sich seit 413 mit den Spartanern in Unterhandlungen ein, welche die Unterstützung derselben gegen die Athener u.… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Tissaphérnes — Tissaphérnes, pers. Magnat, schloß als Satrap von Lydien 413 v. Chr. mit den Spartanern ein Bündnis, stand im Streite zwischen Artaxerxes Mnemon und seinem Bruder Kyros auf des Königs Seite und erhielt deshalb eine Königstochter zur Ehe und die… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Tissaphernes — Tissaphernes, unter Darius Nothus pers. Statthalter der kleinasiatischen Küstenländer, ein schlauer und treuloser Pascha, unterstützte im peloponnes. Kriege die Spartaner, aber nur insoweit, daß sie nach seiner Berechnung sich mit den Athenern… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • TISSAPHERNES — praecipuus Persarum Satraparum, qui, vulneratô a Cyro Artaxerxe, proelium sustentavit, donec Cyri copiae funderentur; et cuius industriae ac fortitudini illa victoria soli propemodum adscribitur. Navatae operae praemium Babylone a Rege consecutus …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Tissaphernes — ▪ Persian satrap Old Persian  Chithrafarna   died 395 BC, Colossae, Phrygia [now in Turkey]       Persian satrap (governor) who played a leading part in Persia s struggle to reconquer the Ionian Greek cities of Asia Minor that had been held by… …   Universalium

  • Tissaphernes — Tissaphẹrnes,   persisch Tschissafạrnah, persisch Satrap von Sardes unter Dareios I. und Artaxerxes II., * um 450 v. Chr., ✝ (hingerichtet) 395 v. Chr.; griff während des Peloponnesischen Krieges in die Kämpfe zwischen Athen und Sparta ein.… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • ТИССАФЕРН —    • Tissaphernes,          Τισσαφέρνης, перс, был послан между 423 и 413 гг. до Р. X. против отделившегося сардского сатрапа Писсуфна и скоро потом получил его сатрапию. С 413 г. он вступил в сношения со спартанцами, надеясь, если окажет им… …   Реальный словарь классических древностей

  • Alcibiades — Infobox Military Person name= Alcibiades Ἀλκιβιάδης Alkibiádēs caption= Alcibiades allegiance= Athens (415–412 BC Sparta) rank= general (strategos) commands= nickname= lived= 450–404 BC placeofbirth= Athens placeofdeath=… …   Wikipedia

  • Menon of Thessaly — For other Menons or Menos see Meno (disambiguation) Menon (423? 400BC), son of Alexidemus, was a Thessalian, probably from Pharsalus [Diodorus incorrectly identifies him as from Larissa (Bigwood, Ancient Accounts of the Battle of Cunaxa p 350 fn… …   Wikipedia


Поделиться ссылкой на выделенное

Прямая ссылка:
Нажмите правой клавишей мыши и выберите «Копировать ссылку»