- Actions in Inner Mongolia (1933–1936)
conflict=Inner Mongolia (1933-36)
Second Sino-Japanese War
date=April 1933 to December 1936
place= Chahar and
result= 1933 Japanese victory, 1936 Chinese victory
combatant1= 1933 flagicon|Japan
Imperial Japanese Army, Empire of Japan
Manchukuo Imperial Army, Manchukuo
flagicon|Republic of China collaborationist Chinese armies
combatant2= 1933 flagicon|Republic of China
Chahar People's Anti-Japanese Army, Republic of China
1936 flagicon|Republic of China
National Revolutionary Army, Republic of China
commander1= 1933 flagicon|Republic of China
Liu Guitang, Shang Zhen
commander2= 1933 flagicon|Republic of China
Feng Yuxiang, Fang Zhenwu
1936 flagicon|Republic of China
Imperial Japanese Army2,000 + 6,000 collaborationists
Inner Mongolian Army16,000
strength2= 1933: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Order_of_Battle_Anti-Japanese_Allied_Army_Campaign_of_1933#Order_of_Battle_Chahar_People.27s_Anti-Japanese_Allied_Army Anti Japanese Army] ~ 100,000
1936: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Order_of_Battle_Suiyuan_Campaign%281936%29#China Suiyuan Provincial Army] ~15,000
casualties2= ? |The Campaigns in Inner Mongolia from 1933-1936 were part of the ongoing invasion of
northern Chinaby the Empire of Japanprior to the official start of hostilities in the Second Sino-Japanese War. In 1931, the invasion of Manchuriasecured the creation of the puppet stateof Manchukuoand in 1933, Operation Nekkadetached the province of Jeholfrom the Republic of China. Blocked from further advance south by the Tanggu Truce, the Imperial Japanese Armyturned its attention west, towards the Inner Mongolian provinces of Chahar and Suiyuan, with the goal of establishing a northern China buffer state. [http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/PTO/IMTFE/IMTFE-5a.html International Military Tribunal for the Far East, Chapter 5: Japanese Aggression Against China ] In order to avoid overt violation of the Truce, both Japanese and Chinese government used proxy armies in this campaign.
In February 1933 following the successful Japanese invasion of Jehol, the
Kwantung Armyleft a small Japanese detachment and the much larger Manchukuo Imperial Armyto watch the eastern Jehol border, while the balance of the Japanese forces moved south to engage the Chinese on the Great Wall. In April 1933, collaborationist General Liu Guitang, under Japanese orders, crossed into southeastern Chahar province in the Dolonor region, as a diversionary feint to draw off Chinese reinforcements to the Great Wall. Finding resistance minimum, Liu then lead his 3,000 troops further east toward Changpei. Although reported at the time as a Japanese operation [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,847239,00.html Heaven-Sent Army, From the May. 1, 1933 issue of TIME Magazine] , Liu's further advance may have been carried out without Japan's explicit approval.
The Kuomingtang military committee in
Pekingappointed General Fu Zuoyias commander of Chinese 7th Army Group, and tasked him with providing Jehol border security. At the end of April, when the advancing Japanese forces approached Miyun, He Yingqinanxiously redeployed Fu Zuoyi's troops to strengthen the Peking's defenses eastwards to Changpingleaving the defense of the Chahar border empty. The Japanese and Manchukuo armies seized the opportunity on May 11, and quickly following up on Liu Guitang's advance, seizing the Dolonnur region, and subsequently taking Guyuan, just prior to the signing of the Tanggu Truce of May 31 1933.
The Chahar People's Anti-Japanese Army
The terms of the Tunggu Truce enraged public opinion particularly in urban China. Groups of Chinese patriots opposed to
Chiang Kai-Shek's policies, both within the Kuomintangand the Chinese Communist Party, as well as overseas Chinesecooperated in organizing and supporting an irregular force, or Anti-Japanese Allied Army to resist further Japanese encroachment.
Feng Yuxiangand his former subordinate Ji Hongchang, were able to recruit many units of former Guominjunsoldiers. Fang Zhenwuraised volunteers from the rest of China. Added to this were the local militias driven out of Jehol by the Japanese and Manchurian Anti-Japanese guerrilla forces under Feng Zhanhai, the local Chahar militia, and a Mongol army under Demchugdongrub. Even the Japanese collaborator Liu Guitang switched sides, joining the Anti-Japanese Allied Army as did the Suiyuan bandit leader Wang Ying.
After a meeting of the various commanding officers, on
May 26 1933, the Chahar People's Anti-Japanese Armywas formally proclaimed with General Feng Yuxiang was made commander-in-chief, Fang Zhenwu became vice-commander-in-chief and Ji Hongchang the front-line commander. The army was estimated in strength to be between 60,000 to 120,000 men by various sources, with the figure of 100,000 men claimed by Feng Yuxiang. Despite its numbers, most of the volunteers in the army lacked guns or other modern weapons. Order of Battle Anti-Japanese Allied Army Campaign of 1933
Campaign of the Anti-Japanese Allied Army
By the time the Anti-Japanese Allied Army had been established, the
Kwangtung Armystrengthened its defenses at Dolonnur. The city was garrisoned by over 2,000 men of the Japanese 4th Cavalry Brigade and an artilleryunit. Outside the city, the Japanese erected 32 blockhouses connected with trenches, a wire communications network, and multiple lines of obstacles. These outer defenses were guarded by Manchukuo troops under the command of Li Shou-hsin. To the south the Japanese 8th Regiment was stationed in Fengning, for mutual support with the forces in Dolonnur. [Guo Rugui, 第二部分：从“九一八”事变到西安事变抗日同盟军的抗日行动 ]
The Anti-Japanese Allied Army found its situation worsening day-by-day. On
June 1, Japanese airplanes bombed Dushikou, on June 4, Baochangfell to the Japanese, as did Kangbaoon June 5. On June 21, Feng Yuxiang ordered the Anti-Japanese Allied Army to launch a counteroffensive in three columns to regain the lost territory. On the June 22its vanguard approached Kangbao, and after several hours of fighting, the Manchukuo force under General Cui Xingwufled, allowing the Chinese forces to re-occupy the town.
In late June, a force under Ji Hongchang pushed northeast against Dolonnur with two corps. The Northern corps recaptured Baochang from the now-demoralized Manchukuo force under Cui Xingwu. The Southern corps under Fang Zhenwu advanced on Guyuan, held by the collaborationist General Liu Guitang. Liu was persuaded to change sides, and surrendered Guyuan and other places on the
Bashang Plateauwithout battle.
July 8, before dawn, Ji Hongchang began an assault on Dolonnur, capturing the two outer defense lines outside the city before being driven back with heavy casualties. Later some of Ji's soldiers were sent in disguise into the city as covert operatives to gather intelligence for a second attack. This second attack re-captured Dolonnur on July 12, effectively driving the Japanese-Manchukuo armies out of Chahar province. In late July, Feng Yuxiang and Ji Hongchang established the "Committee For Recovering the Four Provinces of the Northeast" at Kalgan, directly challenging threatening Japan's hold on the recently established puppet state of Manchukuo.
The end of the Anti-Japanese Allied Army
Chiang Kai-shek believed that communists dominated the Anti-Japanese Allied Army, and felt that it was a threat to his authority. [Guo Rugui, http://www.wehoo.net/book/wlwh/a30012/04577.htm 第二部分：从“九一八”事变到西安事变抗日同盟军的解体和] When the Anti-Japanese Allied Army was proclaimed, the Kuomintang military committee in Peking issued an order to cut off passenger train service to Kalgan. Later they sent an armored train close to Kalgan, and directed Yan Xishan to station troops on the
Shanxiborder with Chahar, including the 42nd Division under Feng Qinzai, Chinese 35th Armyunder Fu Zuoyiand Chinese 3rd Army under Pang Bingxun. In July the Chinese 17th Armyunder Xu Tingyaoand 87th Division under Wang Jingjiurelieved the forces of Sun Dianyingand took control of the Peiking - Suiyuan rail line, preventing outside supply and reinforcement to the Anti-Japanese Allied Army.
Chiang Kai-shek also used the Anti-Japanese Armies internal disunity against it, sending spies in to gather intelligence, create rumors, sow dissension, and buy or win over some of the leaders. Generals Gang Bao,
Feng Zhanhai, Li Zhongyi, Tan Zixin eventually defected to Chiang. Deng Wen was assassinated.
Japan seized the opportunity provided by this disunity to invade Chahar again in August. On
August 8, the Japanese bombed Guyuan and again attacked Guyuan and Dolonnur. Ji Hongchang temporarily stopped the Japanese forces, but the effects of Chiang's blockade meant that food, clothing, ammunition and money were all in short supply. Feng Yuxiang was not able to bring these in from outside Chahar, and the province itself lacked thee resources to support the army.
Feng Yuxiang sent a telegram on
August 5, announcing that he was going to officially disband the Anti-Japanese Allied Army and asked the national government to let Song Zheyuanreturn to oversee the process. Many officers and men in the Anti-Japanese Allied Army, now unpaid, suffering starvation, disease and lacking the means to fight were now easily persuaded to join the Chinese Army or submit to being disbanded. Feng Yuxiang resigned his post on August 18, and left Chahar; Dolonnur was re-captured by the Japanese immediately afterwards.
Song Zheyuan made Ruan Xuanwu (former commander of 5th Corps) Shandu garrison commander, overseeing two regiments and Fu Chun (former commander of 24th Division) commander of another regiment under Ruan's command. Zhang Lingyun (former commander of 6th Corps) became Baochang Garrison Commander; Mie Yuling (former commander of Guerrilla Division) was his deputy, commanding two regiments. Huang Shouzhong (former commander of 18th Corps) oversaw the two battalions of the provincial guerrilla detachment. Sun Liangcheng (former commander of Herald Corps), Liu Zhendong and guerilla leader Tang Juwu were each given command of regiments. Zhang Lisheng accepted the post of provincial government consultant in return for disbanding the Chahar Self-Defense Army. Tan Zixin, Zhang Renjie, Li Zhongyi were put under the command of the Peiking Branch Military Committee. The units of Yao Jingchuan, Song Kebin, and others were reduced and reorganized.
With the Anti-Japanese Allied Army under Fang Zhenwu and Ji Hongchang considerably reduced by Song's activities, Fang Zhenwu as the new commander-in-chief ordered the army east to Dushikou. Some of the subordinates of Ji Hongchang attempted to move west to
Ningxiavia Suiyuan. However Fu Zuoyi and Zhang Lingyunpursued and blocked them east of Ertaizi, forcing them east to join Fang Zhenwu at Dushikou.
September 10, Ji Hongchang went to Yunzhou(north of Chicheng) to meet with Fang Zhenwu, Tang Yulin, and Liu Guitang in a military conference, together they decided to reorganize their troops and changed their name to the 抗日讨贼军 "Resist Japan Thief Punitive Expeditionary Army", Fang Zhenwu was to be commander-in-chief, Tang Yulin deputy commander-in-chief, Liu Guitang Right Route commander, Ji Hongchang Left Route commander. Surrounded by Nationalist forces to the south and Japanese to the north the decision was taken to leave from Dushikou and advance southward toward Peiking.
After the meeting, Ji's Left Route troops pushed southward via the Hei River toward
Huairoueast of the Great Wall and the Right Route troops under Fang Zhenwu moved west of the Great Wall along the Bai Riverto the southeast. Both forces crossed the Great Wall on September 20and on September 21, Ji attacked Huairou and Fang Zhenwu attacked and occupied Miyunin the same day.
Meanwhile Liu Guitang, after talks with Sung Che-yuan, defected back to the Japanese side again. Liu was given the title of "Bandit Suppression Commander of Eastern Chahar", commanding three regiments stationed at Chicheng [Jowett pg.40] , Dushikou and Yunzhou. Liu's force blocked Tang's troops from following the rest of the Anti-Japanese Allied Army south, leaving Fang Zhenwu and Ji Hongchang to continue alone. [Guo Rugui 第二部分：从“九一八”事变到西安事变察哈尔民众抗日同盟军 1]
September 25, Fang Zhenwu attacked and occupied Gaoliying. A Japanese reconnaissance aircraftdropped a warning to withdraw from the Tanggu Treaty demilitarized zone the following day, and when he failed to do so on September 27, Japanese aircraft bombed his position. Feng and Ji decided to continue the advance with their remaining 6,000 men, (approximately half unarmed), divided in three groups. At the beginning of October, Ji’s forces encountered the forces of Shang Zhen, Guan Linzhengand Pang Bingxunat Changping, blocking their further advance. In a few days they had surrounded the Anti-Japanese Allied Army. Although short of food and ammunition, after several days of heavy fighting Fang and Ji’s forces were able to break out to the east at Xiaotangshanbut with heavy losses and were again trapped. The remaining 4,500 men were forced to capitulate. Ji was able to slip away during the confusion, going to Tianjinto continue to carry on his opposition to Japan. Fang Zhenwu was forced into exile in Hong Kong. [Guo Rugui, 第二部分：从“九一八”事变到西安事变抗日同盟军的解体和]
Demchugdongrub and the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Government
During September 1933, the Mongolian princes of Chahar and
SuiyuanProvinces traveled to Bathahalak, north of Kweihwaand gathered in a council with Prince Demchugdongrub, who for months had been trying to found a Pan-Mongolian Self-rule Movement. In mid October, despite their traditional suspicions of one another the princes agreed to draw up a “Confederation of Inner Mongolian States”. They sent word to Nankingthat unless Inner Mongolian autonomy was formally acknowledged; assistance would be sought from Japan.
Jirō Minami, commander of the Kwangtung Army and Colonel Seishiro Itagakigave support to the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Government. However when General Minami sent Major Ryukichi Tanakaand another officer to interview Prince Demchugdongrub in April 1935, an agreement could not be reached at that time.
In June 1935 the
North Chahar Incidentand the resulting Chin-Doihara Agreement, substantially affected events. The Agreement forced all units of the Chinese 29th Armyto be withdrawn from north of Changpei, which amounted to near total evacuation of Chinese forces from Chahar province. Public orderwas to be entrusted to a “Peace Preservation Corps”, a policeorganization armed with only light weapons. No Chinese settlers were to be permitted to relocate to northern part of Chahar, and the activities of the Kuomintang were banned, as were all other anti-Japanese institutions. In August 1935, General Minami met with Prince Demchugdongrub where the Prince promised close cooperation with Japan, and Minami promised financial assistance.
24 December 1935, General Minami sent two battalions of irregular Manchurian cavalry under Li Shou-hsin, a squadron of Japanese planes, and a few tanks to assist Prince Demchugdongrub in occupying the northern part of Chahar province. The six hsien's of northern Chahar, were defended by only a few thousand men of the Peace Preservation Corps. With Li's assistance the Inner Mongolian forces soon overran the area.
Suiyuan Campaign 1936 - 1937
For some time before the capture of northern Chahar, Japanese
secret agents had been operating in Suiyuan, setting up radio stations with operators disguised as Buddhist priests. Following the promotion of General Seishiro Itagaki to Chief of Staff of the Kwantung Army, plans for the establishment of the invasion of Suiyuan went forward.
In late April 1936, Prince Demchugdongrub and Li Shou-Hsin met with the Japanese Special Service Chief Captain
Takayoshi Tanaka, at West Wuchumuhsin. Representatives from Inner Mongolia, Tsinghaiand Outer Mongoliaalso attended the meeting, which was called the “State-Founding Conference”. A plan was made to create a new Mongolian Empire, which would encompass all of Inner and Outer Mongolia and Tsinghai province. As a result of this conference, the Mongol Military Government (蒙古軍政府), was formed on May 12, 1936. A mutual assistance agreement with Manchukuo was concluded in July 1936, and Japan agreed to provide both military and economic aid.
Prince Demchugdongrub set out to enlarge and equip his army, increasing from three
cavalrydivisions to nine divisions with the aid of his Japanese advisors. The Japanese provided arms captured from the Northeastern Armybut Tanaka ignored the advice of the Mongolian leaders and also recruited poorly-armed levies and ex-bandits from various regions. Having no unity, poor training and poorly armed, this irregular force of around 10,000 men had poor morale and cohesion and proved to be a liability rather than an asset. Additionally a collaborationist Chinese army of questionable loyalty, the Grand Han Righteous Armyunder Wang Ying was attached to the new Inner Mongolian Army[Jowett pg.57]
The Japanese also created a "Mengjiang Air Force" with 28
combat aircraft, with Japanese air and ground crews based in Changpei, to assist the army in close air support. The Japanese also provided artillerypieces and armoured cars, (and also reportedly up to thirty tanks or tankettes), also crewed by Japanese. The South Manchurian Railway Companysent 150 trucks to form a transportation regiment, and Manchukuo government sent communications equipment.
General Fu Zuoyi prepared for the expected Japanese-Inner Mongolian assault by seeking reinforcements for his provincial forces from the governor of
Shanxiprovince Yan Xishan, as well as Chiang Kai-shek, who had moved his Central Army forces into Shaanxiprovince to attack People's Liberation Armyunits arriving there after the Long March. On August 9, Yan sent the Chinese 19th Armyunder Wang Jingguoconsisting of the 68th Division, 7th and 8th Independent Brigades and four artillery regiments, and on September 18, the Central Army sent one anti-aircraft artillerybattalion.
October 14, Chiang Kai-Shek sent a telegram to Yan Xishan, advising that he was sending Tang Enboand the Chinese 13th Army(with 2 divisions) and Men Bingyue's 7th Cavalry Division to reinforce Suiyuan. On October 30, Yan Xishan and Fu Zuoyi met with Chiang Kai-Shek, to assess the military situation and determine troop dispositions. On November 11, Yan Xishan divided his forces into three Route Armies, a Cavalry Army and a Reserve Army, with troop dispositions to be completed as soon as Tang Enbo's forces arrived. However, the Japanese struck first on November 15, 1936. Order of Battle Suiyuan Campaign(1936)
The invasion of Suiyuan began on
November 14, 1936when a coalition of the Inner Mongolian Army's 7th and 8th Cavalry Divisions, Wang Ying's Grand Han Righteous Army, and Mongol mercenaries from Jehol, Chahar and other areas, supported by 30 Japanese advisors, attacked the Chinese garrison at Hongort.
After several days of fighting the attackers failed to capture the town. On
November 17a Chinese counterattack surprised the invaders and led to a disorganized retreat. Taking advantage of the Mongolian disorder General Fu Tso-yimade a flanking movement to the west of the Mongolian headquarters at Pai-ling-miao and attacked, capturing it and routing the Mongolian forces. Wang and his Grand Han Righteous Army were trucked into a location near Pai-ling-miao and launched a counterattack, which failed dismally on December 19, with most of the attackers either taken prisoner or annihilated. [Guo Rugui, 第二部分：从“九一八”事变到西安事变 日本侵绥的战备企图和中日]
The defeat of Japan's proxy forces encouraged many Chinese into pushing for a more active resistance against the Japanese. The
Xi'an Incidentwhich occurred immediately after the successful outcome of this campaign was possibly triggered by this event.
Small scale combat continued in Suiyuan until the beginning of open hostilities following the
Marco Polo Bridge Incidentthe following year. Following his defeat in Suiyuan, Prince Demchugdongrub was forced to rebuild his army. With Japanese help by the time war broke out in July 1937, his army consisted of 20,000 men in eight cavalry divisions. These forces participated in Operation Chaharand the Battle of Taiyuanduring which Japanese regular and allied Inner Mongol forces finally captured eastern Suiyuan province.
Second Sino-Japanese War
* Jowett, Phillip S. , Rays of The Rising Sun, Armed Forces of Japan’s Asian Allies 1931-45, Volume I: China & Manchuria, 2004. Helion & Co. Ltd., 26 Willow Rd., Solihul, West Midlands, England.
* 中国抗日战争正面战场作战记 (China's Anti-Japanese War Combat Operations)
** Guo Rugui, editor-in-chief Huang Yuzhang
** Jiangsu People's Publishing House
** Date published : 2005-7-1
** ISBN 7214030349
* [http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/PTO/IMTFE/IMTFE-5a.html International Military Tribunal for the Far East, Chapter 5: Japanese Aggression Against China]
* [http://www.republicanchina.org/war.html RESISTANCE WARS: Battles of the Great Wall, Feng Yuxiang's Anti-Japanese Allied Army 1933-34]
* [http://www.republicanchina.org/war.html RESISTANCE WARS: Campaigns against Communist Strongholds, Interruptions by Actions of Anti-Japanese Allied Army & Mutiny of 19th Route Army]
* [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,847239,00.html TIME, May 1, 1933, Heaven-Sent Army]
* [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,745627,00.html TIME Jun. 05, 1933 Truce v. Salvation]
* [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,745796,00.html TIME July 24, 1933 , Private Slice]
* [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,753847,00.html TIME July 31, 1933 "Toward Righteousness!"]
* [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,745912,00.html TIME Aug. 14, 1933 Arm Band Profits]
* [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,930097,00.html TIME Aug. 28, 1933 Triumphant Bumpkin]
* [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,745968,00.html TIME Magazine, Sep. 04, 1933 Soong Comes Home]
* [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,753960,00.html TIME Oct. 23, 1933, Inner Mongolia for Inner Mongolians]
* [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,746478,00.html TIME, Dec. 11, 1933 Generalissimo’s Last Straw]
* [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,746922,00.html TIME Magazine, Feb. 12, 1934 The Word is Out]
* [http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/ams/manchuria/txu-oclc-6614368-nk50-7.jpgChang-pei nk50-7] Chang-pei, K’ang–pao(Kangbao), Pao-ch’ang(Baochang), Ku-yuan(Guyuan), Chahar Province
* [http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/ams/manchuria/txu-oclc-6614368-nk50-5.jpgTolun nk50-5] Tolun(Dolonnur), E. Chahar Province, W. Jehol Province
* [http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/ams/manchuria/txu-oclc-6614368-nk50-8.jpgLung-hua nk50-8] W. Jehol Province
* [http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/ams/china/txu-oclc-10552568-nk50-10.jpgChiang Chia Kou nk50-10] Chiang Chia Kou (Kalgan), Chahar Province
* [http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/ams/manchuria/txu-oclc-6614368-nk50-11.jpgCheng-te nk50-11] SW Jehol Province, SE Chahar Province, NW Hebei Province (north of Beijing, covering the area of the march of the Anti-Japanese Army)
* [http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/ams/china/txu-oclc-10552568-nk49-8.jpgWu Chuan nk49-8] Pai-ling-miao, Wu Chuan, Suiyuan Province
* [http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/ams/china/txu-oclc-10552568-nk49-9.jpgChi-Ning nk49-9] T'ao-Lin(Hongge'ertu), Shengdu, Suiyuan - Chahar border
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